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GEARS AND GEAR TRAIN

Law of toothed gearing - Involutes and cycloidal tooth

profiles - spur gear terminology and definition - Gear

tooth action - contact ratio - Interference and

undercutting. Helical, Bevel, Worm, Rack and Pinion

gears (Basics only).Gear trains-Speed ratio, train value-

Parallel axis gear trains - Epicyclic gear trains.

Gears

The discs with teeth are known as gears or Toothed wheels

**Gears are used to transmit motion from one shaft to
**

another or between a shaft. This is accomplished by

successively engaging teeth.

Gears use no intermediate link or connector and

transmit the motion by direct contact.

**In this method, the surfaces of two bodies make a
**

tangential contact. The two bodies have either a rolling

or a sliding motion along the tangent at the point of

contact.

**No motion is possible along the common normal as
**

that will either break the contact or one body will tend

to penetrate into the other

The axes of the two shafts between which the motion is to be transmitted. (iv) Double helical and Herringbone Gears . According to the position of axes of the shafts. may be (a) Parallel. (b) Intersecting.Classification of Toothed Wheels: The gears or toothed wheels may be classified as follows : 1. (a) Parallel (i)Spur Gear (ii) Spur Rack and pinion (iii)Helical Gears . and (c) Non-intersecting and non-parallel.

.

2. Intersecting Shafts Straight Bevel Gears Spiral Bevel Gears Zero Bevel Gears .

3. Skew Shafts (Non-Parallel and Non-Intersecting) Hyperboloid Crossed helical gears: .

.

GEAR TERMINOLOGY: Various terms used in the study of gears have been explained below: .

It is the diameter of the pitch circle. 6. Pitch circle. It is the surface of the rolling discs which the meshing gears have replaced at the pitch circle. The size of the gear is usually specified by the pitch circle diameter. . It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the top of the tooth . 5. It is usually denoted by ϕ. Addendum. It is also known as pitch diameter. 4. Pressure angle or angle of obliquity. Pitch point. 3. The standard pressure angles are 14 ½ and 20°. It is the angle between the common normal to two gear teeth at the point of contact and the common tangent at the pitch point. It is a common point of contact between two pitch circles. It is the radial distance of a tooth from the pitch circle to the bottom of the tooth. 7. would give the same motion as the actual gear. 2. Dedendum. Pitch surface.1. Pitch circle diameter. It is an imaginary circle which by pure rolling action.

It is also called root circle. Mathematically. It is the circle drawn through the top of the teeth and is concentric with the pitch circle. and D = Pitch circle diameter. 9. p d T D Pc Where T = Number of teeth. Diametral pitch. where ϕ is the pressure angle. Circular pitch. It is denoted by pd . Circular pitch. Dedendum circle. 10. It is the distance measured on the circumference of the pitch circle from a point of one tooth to the corresponding point on the next tooth. It is usually denoted by pc. Diametral pitch. It is the circle drawn through the bottom of the teeth. pc = πD/T 11. It is the ratio of number of teeth to the pitch circle diameter in millimetres.8. . Note: Root circle diameter =Pitch circle diameter × cos ϕ. Addendum circle. Mathematically.

A circle passing through the top of the meshing gear is known as clearance circle. Tooth thickness. Total depth.12. It is the radial distance between the addendum and the Dedendum circles of a gear. 14. Module. It is equal to the sum of the addendum of the two meshing gears. It is the radial distance from the addendum circle to the clearance circle. It is the width of space between the two adjacent teeth measured along the pitch circle . It is equal to the sum of the addendum and dedendum. It is the width of the tooth measured along the pitch circle. It is the ratio of the pitch circle diameter in millimetres to the number of teeth. 17. Mathematically. Tooth space. 16. Clearance. 15. D m T 13. It is the radial distance from the top of the tooth to the bottom of the tooth. Working depth. in a meshing gear. It is usually denoted by m.

18. Face width. It is the surface of the top of the tooth. the backlash should be zero. Theoretically. Face of tooth. Flank of tooth. 21. Backlash. 19. It is the surface of the gear tooth below the pitch surface. 23. It is the width of the gear tooth measured parallel to its axis. It is the surface of the gear tooth above the pitch surface. 22. Top land. It is the curve formed by the face and flank of the tooth . It is the difference between the tooth space and the tooth thickness. Profile. but in actual practice some backlash must be allowed to prevent jamming of the teeth due to tooth errors and thermal expansion. 20. as measured along the pitch circle.

27. 25.24. Length of the path of contact. number of pairs of teeth in contact. 26. i.e. It is the path traced by the point of contact of two teeth from the beginning to the end of engagement.e. It is the portion of the path of contact from the pitch point to the end of the engagement of a pair of teeth. Arc of contact. It is the radius that connects the root circle to the profile of the tooth. (a) Arc of approach. It is the portion of the path of contact from the beginning of the engagement to the pitch point. Note: The ratio of the length of arc of contact to the circular pitch is known as contact ratio i. It is the length of the common normal cut-off by the addendum circles of the wheel and pinion. Path of contact. Fillet radius. It is the path traced by a point on the pitch circle from the beginning to the end of engagement of a given pair of teeth. (b) Arc of recess. The arc of contact consists of two parts. .

The cast iron gears with cut teeth may be employed. The steel gears are usually heat treated in order to combine properly the toughness and tooth hardness. excellent machinability and ease of producing complicated shapes by casting method. where smooth action is not important. • The steel is used for high strength gears and steel may be plain carbon steel or alloy steel. • The phosphor bronze is widely used for worm gears in order to reduce wear of the worms which will be excessive with cast iron or steel .Gear Materials: • The cast iron is widely used for the manufacture of gears due to its good wearing properties.

Law of Gearing •The common normal at the point of contact between a pair of teeth must always pass through the pitch point. •This is the fundamental condition which must be satisfied while designing the profiles for the teeth of gear wheels. It is also known as law of gearing .

When the pinion rotates in clockwise direction. The point L is the intersection of the addendum circle of pinion and common tangent . the contact between a pair of involute teeth begins at K and ends at L . MN is the common normal at the point of contacts and the common tangent to the base circles.Length of Path of Contact Consider a pinion driving the wheel as shown in Fig. The point K is the intersection of the addendum circle of wheel and the common tangent.

**Thus the length of path of contact is KL which is the
**

sum of the parts of the path of contacts KP and PL.

**The part of the path of contact KP is known as path
**

of approach and

**The part of the path of contact PL is known as path of
**

recess.

**rA = O1L = Radius of addendum circle of pinion,
**

RA = O2K = Radius of addendum circle of wheel,

r = O1P = Radius of pitch circle of pinion, and

R = O2P = Radius of pitch circle of wheel.

From Figure,

**Radius of the base circle of pinion,
**

O1M = O1P cosϕ = r cos ϕ

**and radius of the base circle of wheel,
**

O2N = O2P cos ϕ = R cos ϕ

**Now from right angled triangle O2KN,
**

KN O K

2

2

O2 N R A R 2 cos 2

2 2

PN O2 P sin R sin

Length of the part of the path of contact, or the

path of approach,

**KP KN PN R A R 2 cos 2 - Rsin
**

2

Similarly from right angled triangle O1ML,

ML (O1 L) 2 (O1 M ) 2 rA2 r 2 cos2

Length of the path of contact,

MP = O1Psinϕ = r sinϕ

**Length of the part of the path of contact, or PL ML MP r 2 r 2 cos2 r sin
**

A

path of recess,

KL KP PL R A2 R 2 cos2 rA2 r 2 cos2 R r sin

Rsin 2 Length of the part of the path of contact. or the path of approach.Condition for Constant Velocity Ratio of Toothed Wheels–Law of Gearing 1 O 2 N O 2 P 2 O1 M O1 P 1 O 2 P D 2 T2 2 O 1 P D1 T1 Velocity of Sliding of Teeth: Velocity of sliding during engagement vs ω1 ω2 KP Velocity of sliding during disengagem ent v s ω1 ω2 PL Length of the part of the path of contact. or path of recess PL rA2 r 2 cos2 r sin Length of the path of contact. KP RA R 2 cos 2 . KL KP PL R A2 R 2 cos2 rA2 r 2 cos2 R r sin .

Length of arc of ontact Contact ratio or number of pairs of teeth in contact pc Where pc=Circular pitch = πm. and m = Module.Length of Arc of Contact Length of path of approach KP Length of arc of approach cos cos Length of path of recess PL Length of arc of recess cos cos Length of path of ontact KP PL Length of arc of contact cosφ cos Contact Ratio (or Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact) The contact ratio or the number of pairs of teeth in contact is defined as the ratio of the length of the arc of contact to the circular pitch. Mathematically. D Module m T T Diameteral pitch pd D Pc T Gear ratio G t .

Angle turned through by pinion for one pair of teeth mesh Length of arc of ontact 360 Circumference of pinion Angle turned through by wheel for one pair of teeth mesh Length of arc of ontact 360 Circumfere nce of wheel .

Rsin φ 2 Length of path of recessPL rA2 r 2 cos 2 φ rsin φ KL KP PL R A2 R 2 cos2 rA2 r 2 cos2 R r sin Pitch circle radius of pinion. Given: t = 30. The profile of the gears is involute with 20° pressure angle. T = 80.1. Addendum A = 10 mm Solution: Length of path of contact KL KP PL Length of path of approach KP R A R 2cos 2φ . arc of contact and the contact ratio. m = 12 mm. r mt 12 30 180mm 2 2 Pitch circle radius of gear mT 12 80 R 480 mm 2 2 . A pinion having 30 teeth drives a gear having 80 teeth. 12 mm module and 10 mm addendum. φ = 20°. Find the length of path of contact.

66 = 86.6 = 25mm 1.3 + 25 = 52.7 mm Length of the path of recess PL rA2 r 2 cos2 r sin Length of arc of ontact Contact ratio pc 190 2 180 2 cos2 20 .5 – 164. Length of path of contact. pc = π.3mm circular pitch.480sin 20 Contact ratio =191. 52.66mm KP R A R 2 cos 2 . KL = KP + PL = 27.3 mm rA = r + Addendum = 180 + 10 = 190 mm and radius of addendum circle of gear.m = π× 12 = 37.3 55. Length of arc of contact RA = R + Addendum = 480 + 10 = 490 mm Length of path of ontact cos Length of the path of approach.180sin 20 55.7 .6 – 61.5 say 2 37.Rsin 2 cos20 490 2 480 2 cos2 20 .2 =27. Radius of addendum circle of pinion.

find: 1. If the pitch expressed in module is 5 mm and the pitch line speed is 1. Angle turned through by pinion when one pair of teeth is in mesh pitch circle radius of pinion.2 m/s. The number of teeth on pinion is 20 and the gear ratio is 2. G = T/t = 2. The maximum velocity of sliding. Two involute gears of 20° pressure angle are in mesh. mGt 2 20 5 R 100 mm 2 2 . m = 5 mm .2 m/s . v = 1. Given: ϕ = 20° . assuming addendum as standard and equal to one module.2. Addendum = 1 module = 5 mm Solution: 1. and 2. mt 5 20 r 50mm 2 2 and pitch circle radius of wheel. t = 20. The angle turned through by pinion when one pair of teeth is in mesh.

2 12.1 11.85 34. rA = r + Addendum = 50 + 5 = 55 mm KL = KP + PL = 12.450 2 50 PL rA2 r 2 cos2 r sin 55 2 50 2 cos2 20 50 sin 20 28. the path of contact when disengagement occurs).Rsin 2 cos20 105 2 100 2 cos2 20 . Length of the path of contact. RA = R + Addendum = 100 + 5 = 105 mm Length of the arc of contact Length of path of ontact Length of the path of approach (i. the cos path of contact when engagement occurs) 24.5 = 24.5mm .15 mm and radius of addendum circle of wheel.6 17.e.7mm KP RA R 2 cos 2 .e.65mm Circumference of pinion Length of path of recess (i.Radius of addendum circle of pinion.65 + 11. 25.100sin 20 Angle turned through by pinion Length of arc of ontact 360 46.7 360 29.15 25.

Maximum velocity of sliding ω1 = Angular speed of pinion. Pitch line speed..r = ω2. v = ω1.4 mm/s . (KP > PL) = (24 + 12) 12.R ω1 = v/r = 120/5 = 24 rad/s ω2 = v/R = 120/10 = 12 rad/s Maximum velocity of sliding vs 1 2 KP .65 = 455.. and ω2 = Angular speed of wheel.

of teeth on gear T = 57 No.Two involute gears in a mesh have a module of 8 mm and a pressure angle of 20°. If the addenda on pinion and gear wheels are equal to one module. R2004/2007) Given: Module m= 8mm Pressure angle ϕ = 200 No. The larger gear has 57 while the pinion has 23 teeth. of teeth on pinion t =23 Addendum A = module m = 8mm To find: (i) Contact ratio (ii) Angle of action of the pinion and gear wheel. (b) Pitch point and (c) End of contact. (5) (ii) Angle of action of the pinion and gear wheel. pitch point and end of contact. . Find the (i) Contact ratio. (6) (Nov/Dec 2013. (iii) Ratio of sliding to rolling velocity at (a) Beginning of contact. (5) (iii) Ratio of sliding to rolling velocity at the beginning of contact.

79 mm Length of path of contact (KL) KL = KP + PL = 20.97 + 18.79 = 39.76mm .Rsin φ 2 rA = r +Addendum (A) PL rA2 r 2cos2φ rsinφ rA=92+ 8 =100 mm PL 100 2 922 cos2 20 92sin20 PL 18.(i) Contact Ratio Length of path of approach (KP) (or Number of Pairs of Teeth in Contact) mT 8 57 R 228 mm 2 2 Length of arc of contact Contact ratio RA = R +Addendum (A) pc Length of path of ontact RA= 228 + 8 =236 mm Length of arc of contact cosφ KP 2362 2282 cos2 20 .228sin20 Length of Length of + Length of KP 20.97 mm path of = path of path of contact approach recess (PL) Length of path of recess (PL) (KL) (KP) mt 8 23 r 92 mm 2 2 KP R A R 2cos 2φ .

68 25.630 Length of arc of ontact (iii)(a) Ratio of sliding to rolling velocity Contact ratio at beginning of contact pc 42.31 Rolling Velocity 1.13mm = 10.31 360 cos20 2 228 Circular pitch pc = π m = π × 8 =25.30 vr ω1r ω2 R . Length of path of contact Length of arc of contact 360 Length of arc of contact Angle of action of gear cosφ Circumfere nce of gear 39.31 360 2 92 Ratio of Velocity of vs to vr v s ω1 ω 2 KP ω1 ω2 KP = 26.31 mm 42 .13 v r v p ω1r ω2 R r (ii) Angle of action of the pinion and gear wheel: ω 2 1 R Length of arc of contact 360 Velocity of sliding beginning of contact Angle of action of pinion Circumfere nce of pinion vs ω1 ω2 KP 42.76 Length of arc of contact 42.

(iii)(b) Ratio of sliding to rolling ω1r 1 ω PL v s ω1 ω 2 KP velocity at pitch point vs R vr ω1r vr ω1r Velocity of sliding at pitch r point vs = 0 r ω1 1 KP ω1 1 PL R R Therefore ω1r ω1r vs 0 r vr 1 1 KP r 1 PL R (iii)(c) Ratio of sliding to rolling R 1r velocity at End of contact r Rolling velocity r 92 1 KP 1 18 .79 v r v p ω1r ω2 R 228 R r r 92 ω 2 1 R 92 1 20 .32 vr v s ω1 ω 2 PL vr ω1r .287 92 of contact vr vs ω1 ω2 PL vs Ratio of Velocity of vs to vr 0.97 vs 228 Velocity of sliding beginning 0.

Number of teeth on pinion = 17. Addenda on pinion and gear wheel = 1 module. addendum length is 5 mm and the module is 5 mm. The number of pairs of teeth in contact. 2. Assume that the gear teeth are 20° involute form. Find: 1. having 40 and 20 teeth respectively.3. and at the point of disengagement if the smaller gear is the driver.p. The angle turned through by the pinion and the gear wheel when one pair of teeth is in contact. at the pitch point. are rotating in mesh. and 3. . and (iii) is at the pitch point. A pair of gears.m. The following data relate to a pair of 20° involute gears in mesh: Module = 6 mm. Also find the angle through which the pinion turns while any pairs of teeth are in contact. Number of teeth on gear = 49. (ii) is just leaving contact with its mating tooth. Determine the velocity of sliding between the gear teeth faces at the point of engagement. The ratio of sliding to rolling motion when the tip of a tooth on the larger wheel (i) is just making contact. 4. the speed of the smaller being 2000 r.

if the addendum circles of the two mating gears cut the common tangent to the base circles between the points of tangency. .Interference in Involute Gears: Interference may only be prevented.

Minimum Number of Teeth on the Pinion in Order to Avoid Interference 2 Ap t T T 2 1 2 sin 1 t t 2 Ap t 1 GG 2 sin 1 2 mt T T 2 mt Ap m 1 2 sin 2 t t 2 Minimum Number of Teeth on the Wheel in Order to Avoid Interference 2 Aw 2 Aw T t t 2 11 2 1 2 sin 1 1 2 sin 1 T T w G G mT t t mT Aw m 1 2 sin 2 2 T T 2 .

The number of teeth on pinion is 16 and its rotational speed is 240 r.p. m = 6 mm .p. N1 = 240 r.m. the maximum velocity of sliding of teeth on either side of the pitch point.75 or T = G. and 3.75.A pair of involute spur gears with 16° pressure angle and pitch of module 6 mm is in mesh. 1. the addenda on pinion and gear wheel . 1. Addenda on pinion and gear wheel We know that addendum on pinion mt T T 2 1 t t 2 sin 1 2 .75 × 16 = 28 Solution. When the gear ratio is 1. 2.m. find in order that the interference is just avoided .t = 1. the length of path of contact . or ω1 = 2π× 240/60= 25. t = 16 .136 rad/s . Given : ϕ= 16° . G = T / t = 1.

1) = 4.45mm .T/ 2=6×28/2=84 mm Addendum circle radius of wheel 6 28 16 16 2 RA = R +Addendum of wheel 1 2 sin 16 1 2 28 28 = 84+10.76 mm KP R A R 2 cos 2 .56mm 94.15 26. 2. 1 16 16 2 sin 16 1 2 KL =KP+PL Length of path of approach = 48(1. Length of path of contact: 6 16 28 28 2 Length of the path of contact.Rsin 2 = 84(1. 2 T T R = m.Rsin 2 Addendum of the wheel Length of the path of recess PL rA2 r 2 cos2 r sin mT t t 2 1 2 sin 1 Pitch circle radius of wheel.76 2 84 2 cos2 16 .1) =10.6 23.76 mm KP R A R 2 cos 2 .76 =94.054 .84sin16 49.224 .

at point K 25.56 2 48 2 cos 2 16 48 sin 16 Maximum velocity of sliding of teeth on the left side of pitch point i.45 Length of the path of contact.Angular speed of gear wheel Addendum circle radius of pinion.23 11.39 mm .45+11.94 = 38. =1043 mm/s KL =KP+PL =26.56 mm 2 t ω1 25.Pitch circle radius of pinion 3.t/ 2=6×16/ 2=48 mm side of pitch point ω2.136 PL rA2 r 2 cos2 r sin ω2 14.28) 26.28rad/s 1. Maximum velocity of sliding of teeth on either r = m.56 = 52. rA = r + Addendum of pinion 1 T 1.e.75 52 .94mm =(ω1+ω2) KP =(25.136+14.17 13.75 1.75 = 48 + 4.

then 1 Path of approach KP MP 2 r sin R A R 2 cos2 .Maximum length of path of approach. MP = r sin ϕ Maximum length of path of recess. PN = R sin ϕ Maximum length of path of contact. MN = MP + PN = r sin ϕ+ R sin ϕ= (r + R) sin ϕ r R sin r R tan Maximum length of arc of contact cos Addendum on pinion and wheel is such that the path of approach and path of recess are half of their maximum possible values.rsin 2 or 2 1 1 (r R) sin Length of the path of contact KP PL MP PN 2 2 2 .Rsin 2 or 2 1 Path of recess PL PN 2 R sin rA r 2 cos2 .

Given: t = 20. T = 40 . m = 10 mm . ϕ= 20° Solution: Addendum height for each gear wheel Pitch circle radius of the smaller gear wheel. arc of contact and contact ratio.t / 2 = 10 × 20 / 2 = 100 mm Pitch circle radius of the larger gear wheel. R = m. The addendum on each wheel is to be made of such a length that the line of contact on each side of the pitch point has half the maximum possible length. r = m. length of the path of contact.5. Two mating gears have 20 and 40 involute teeth of module 10 mm and 20° pressure angle. Determine the addendum height for each gear wheel.T / 2 = 10 × 40 / 2 = 200 mm .

Addendum on each wheel is to be made a Now path of recess.4 R A 35320 50 sin 20 200 sin 20 2 Squaring on both sides R A 35320 250 0.4 2 2 Squaring on both sides rA 13510 2 R A 7310 35320 42630 2 rA 116.100sin 20 2 200 sin 20 100 sin 20 2 2 r sin R A R 2 cos2 .200sin 20 50 sin 20 2 2 rA 2 100 2 cos2 20 200 0.5 mm = 6.2mm RA 206 . length that the line of contact on each side of 1 PL PN the pitch point has half the maximum possible 2 length.200 =116.2 – 100 = 6.342 68 .R = rA – r = 206.342 2 rA 8830 68.rsin 2 2 1 Path of approach KP MP rA 100 2 cos2 20 .5mm Addendum height for smaller gear wheel Addendum height for larger gear wheel = RA.Rsin 2 2 rA 2 100 2 cos2 20 100 sin 20 100 sin 20 100 sin 20 R A 200 2 cos2 20 . therefore R sin rA r 2 cos2 .5.2 mm .

3 54.42 mm Length of the path of contact 54. pc = π m = π × 10 = 31.74 say 2 pc 31.6 Contact ratio 1.42 .Length of the path of contact 1 1 (r R)sin KP PL MP PN 2 2 2 (100 200)sin20 51.3mm 2 Length of the arc of contact Length of the path of contact 51.6mm cosφ cos20 Contact ratio Circular pitch.

Such a combination is called gear train or train of toothed wheels. bevel or spiral gears. Types of Gear Trains Following are the different types of gear trains. 2. In the first three types of gear trains. . But in case of epicyclic gear trains. The nature of the train used depends upon the velocity ratio required and the relative position of the axes of shafts. Epicyclic gear train. depending upon the arrangement of wheels: 1. Simple gear train. Reverted gear train. A gear train may consist of spur.Gear Train: Two or more gears are made to mesh with each other to transmit power from one shaft to another. the axes of the shafts over which the gears are mounted are fixed relative to each other. and 4. Compound gear train. 3. the axes of the shafts on which the gears are mounted may move relative to a fixed axis.

When the distance between the two shafts is small. Since the gear 1 drives the gear 2. therefore gear 1 is called the driver and the gear 2 is called the driven or follower. It may be noted that the motion of the driven gear is opposite to the motion of driving gear. The gears are represented by their pitch circles.Simple Gear Train When there is only one gear on each shaft. it is known as simple gear train. as shown in Figure. . the two gears 1 and 2 are made to mesh with each other to transmit motion from one shaft to the other. as shown in Figure.

of teeth on driven Speed ratio Speed of driven No. Speed of driven No. Speed of driver No.of teeth on driven N 2 T1 Train valu e N1 T2 .of teeth on driver Train valu e Speed of driver No.of teeth on driver N1 T2 Speed ratio N 2 T1 Train value: Ratio of the speed of the driven or follower to the speed of the driver is known as train value of the gear train.Speed ratio (velocity ratio): Speed ratio (or velocity ratio) of gear train is the ratio of the speed of the driver to the speed of the driven or follower and ratio of speeds of any pair of gears in mesh is the inverse of their number of teeth.

of teeth on driver N1 T3 Speed ratio N 3 T1 Speed of driven No. Speed of driver No.of teeth on driver Train valu e Speed of driver No.of teeth on driven Speed ratio Speed of driven No.of teeth on driven N 3 T1 Train valu e N1 T3 .

some of the intermediate shafts. then N 2 N 4 N 6 T1 T3 T5 Train valu e N1 N 3 N 5 T2 T4 T6 N 6 T1 T3 T5 Train valu e Speed of driven Product of number of teeth on driving gears N1 T2 T4 T6 Speed of driver Product of number of teeth on driven gears .COMPOUND GEAR TRAIN: When a series of gears are connected in such a way that two or more gears rotate about an axis with the same angular velocity. other than the input and the output shafts carry more than one gear as shown in Figure Product of Speed of driven Product of number of teeth on driving gears Train valu e Product of Speed of driver Product of number of teeth on driven gears If gear 1 is the driver. In this type. it is known as compound gear train.e. i.

TF = 65 .p. What is the speed of gear F? The numbers of teeth on each gear are as given below: Gear A B C D E F No. The gearing of a machine tool is shown in Figure.m. D and E are fixed to parallel shafts rotating together. TD = 75. The gear wheels B.of teeth 20 50 25 75 26 65 Given: NA = 975 r.p. The final gear F is fixed on the output shaft.m. C. TE = 26. The motor shaft is connected to gear A and rotates at 975 r. TA = 20. TC = 25. TB = 50.

75 . last driven or follower.of teeth on drivers N A TB TD TF N F TA TC TE 50 75 65 20 25 26 18. Speed of driver Product of no. i.Solution: NF = Speed of gear F.75 18.e.75 NA 975 NF 52 rpm 18.of teeth on drivens Speed ratio Speed of driven Product of no.

Gear 1 -Driver Referring to Figure Train value: N 4 Product of number of teeth on driving gears N1 Product of number of teeth on driven gears N 4 T1 T3 N1 T2 T4 Also. Such an arrangement is used in clocks and in simple lathes where back gear is used to give a slow speed to the chuck. if r is the pitch circle radius of a gear r1+r2 =r3+r4 .Reverted gear train: If the axes of the first and the last wheels of a compound gear coincide. it is called a reverted gear train.

TB.C and D respectively TA.125 mm . mA = mB = 3.C and D respectively rA.5 mm Solution: NA. Calculate the suitable numbers of teeth for the gears.C and D respectively Speed ratio between the gears A and B and between the gears C and D are same N A NC Speed ratio 12 3. No gear is to have less than 24 teeth Given: Speed ratio. TC .B. NB.The speed ratio of the reverted gear train. NA/ND = 12.B. ND = Speed of gears A. The module pitch of gears A and B is 3. TD = Number of teeth on gears A.464 NB ND . rD = Pitch circle radii of gears A.125 mm and of gears C and D is 2. NC . rB.5 mm. rC .B. as shown in Figure. is to be 12. mC = mD = 2.

(i) TA TC The distance between the shafts x R A R B R C R D 200mm mT mATA mBTB mCTC mDTD R 2 2 2 2 200 2 3.125 128 --------------------(ii) TC TD 400 / 2.5 160 ---------------------(iii) . N A NC 12 3..464 NB ND Also the speed ratio of any pair of gears in mesh is the inverse of their number of teeth. therefore TB TD 3.125 TA TB 2.464 …………….5TC TD 400 (mA = mB and mC=mD) TA TB 400 / 3.

464 TC 160 TC 160/4.From equation (i).464 28.36 124 . Substituting this value of TB in equation (ii).464 35. TC 3.464 TC.84 say 36 TD 160 .464 TA 128 TA 128/4.67 say 29 TB 128 . TD = 3. TB = 3. Substituting this value of TD in equation (iii).464 TA. TA 3.29 99 Again from equation (i).

the axes of the shafts. • A simple epicyclic gear train is shown in Figure. Such a motion is called epicyclic .e.Epicyclic Gear Train •In an epicyclic gear train. then the gear B is forced to rotate upon and around gear A. where a gear A and the arm C have a common axis at O1 about which they can rotate. •The gear B meshes with gear A and has its axis on the arm at O2. may move relative to a fixed axis. O1). over which the gears are mounted. about which the gear B can rotate. • If the arm is fixed. . but if gear A is fixed and the arm is rotated about the axis of gear A (i. • The gear trains arranged in such a manner that one or more of their members’ moves upon and around another member are known as epicyclic gear trains (epi.versa. means upon and cyclic means around). the gear train is simple and gear A can drive gear B or vice.

and 2. 1. Tabular method. Algebraic method .Velocity Ratio of Epicyclic Gear Train The following two methods may be used for finding out the velocity ratio of an epicyclic gear train.

1 rev.e. anti-clockwise TB 3 Add +y revolutions to all elements +y +y +y 4 Total motion +y x+y TA yx TB .Tabular method Step Conditions of motion Revolution of elements No Arm C Gear A Gear B 1 Arm fixed-gear A rotates through +1 0 +1 TA revolution i.e. 1 rev. anti-clockwise TB 2 Arm fixed-gear A rotates through +x 0 +x TA x revolution i.

p. Find the speed and direction of gear C when gear B is fixed and the arm A makes 100 r. C and D are 75. TC = 30. The number of teeth on gears B.m.m. In a reverted epicyclic gear train.E. The gear B meshes with gear E and the gear C meshes with gear D. TD = 90 . clockwise.p. dB + dE = dC + dD TB + TE = TC + TD TE = TC + TD – TB = 30 + 90 – 75 = 45 . NA = 100 r. the arm A carries two gears B and C and a compound gear D . Given: TB = 75.14. (clockwise) Solution: From the geometry of the figure. 30 and 90 respectively.

e 1 rev.Table of motions: Step Conditions of motion Revolutions of elements No Arm A Compound Gear B Gear C gear D-E 1. anticlockwise) 2. Arm fixed-compound gear 0 +1 TD D-E rotated through +1 T E TB TC revolution (i. Arm fixed compound gear 0 +x TE TD x x D-E rotated through +x TB TC revolutions 3 Add +y revolutions to all +y +y +y +y elements 4 Total motions +y x+y TE TD yx yx TB TC .

6 x = – 166.67 . the fourth row of the table.(ii) Substituting y = – 100 in equation (i).67 400 rpm 30 45 y x 0 (or) 75 = 400 rpm (anticlockwise) y 0. speed of gear C. TD TE Nc y x yx 0 TC TB 90 100 166.Since the gear B is fixed.6x 0 --------.(i) Also the arm A makes 100 rpm. therefore y = – 100 ------------.6 x = 0 or x = – 100 / 0. we get – 100 – 0. clockwise. therefore from From the fourth row of the table.

Compound Epicyclic Gear Train—Sun and Planet Gear .

Arm fixed gear D rotates 0 +x TD TD TB x x through +x revolutions TC TC TA 3 Add +y revolutions to all +y +y +y +y elements 4 Total motions +y x+y TD TD TB yx yx TC TC TA . Arm fixed-gear D rotates 0 +1 TD TD TB through +1 revolution TC TC TA 2.Table of motion: Step Conditions of motion Revolutions of elements No Arm A Gear D Compound Gear A gear B-C 1.

15. determine the speed of gears B and C Given: TA = 72. Speed of arm EF = 18 r. The gear A has 72 internal teeth and gear C has 32 external teeth.m .p. B and C as shown in Figure. TC = 32 .m. If the gear A is fixed.p. The gear B meshes with both A and C and is carried on an arm EF which rotates about the centre of A at 18 r. An epicyclic gear consists of three gears A.

Solution: Relative motion of rotation of gear train as shown in table below Step Conditions of motion Revolutions of elements No Arm Gear C Gear B Gear A EF 1. Arm fixed-gear C rotates 0 +1 TC TC TB T C through +1 revolution TB TB TA TA 2. Arm fixed gear C rotates 0 +x TC TC x x through +x revolutions TB TA 3 Add +y revolutions to all +y +y +y +y elements 4 Total motions +y x+y TC TC yx yx TB TA .

therefore Therefore. dB and dC be the pitch circle diameters of gears A. therefore 2 TB + 32 = 72 or TC TB = 20 yx 0 TA Speed of gear B 32 18 x 0 TC 72 yx TB x = 40.5 r. B and C respectively. 2 TB + TC = TA or and the gear A is fixed. y = 18 r.p.m.m = 46.8 rpm 20 = 40.5 46. from the geometry of Figure dC d A dB 2 2 2d B d C d A . in the direction of arm Speed of gear B dA.Speed of gear C The numbers of teeth are proportional to Speed of the arm is 18 r. their pitch circle diameters.5 r.p.p.5 + 18 = + 58.m.m.8 rpm in the direction of arm Gear C rotates 58. Therefore.5 32 Speed of gear C = x + y 18 40.p.

to which the pinions B and C are attached. Given: TA = 40. TD = 90 Solution: dA.16. therefore. An epicyclic train of gears is arranged as shown in Figure. TA 2TB TD 40 2TB 90 TB 25 TC 25 (TB=TC) . make : (i) When A makes one revolution clockwise and D makes half a revolution anticlockwise. . Therefore from the geometry of the figure dA+dB+dC=dD or dA+2dB=dD (2dB=dC) Numbers of teeth are proportional to their pitch circle diameters. and (ii)When A makes one revolution clockwise and D is stationary? The number of teeth on the gears A and D are 40 and 90 respectively. B. dC and dD be the pitch circle diameters of gears A. How many revolutions does the arm. dB. C and D respectively.

Add -y revolutions to all -y -y -y -y elements 4.The table of motions is given below Step Conditions of motion Revolutions of elements No Arm Gear A Compound Gear D EF gear B-C 1.x-y TA TA x y x y TB TD . Arm fixed-gear 0 -1 TA TA TB T A a rotates through -1 TB TB TD TD revolution 2. Arm fixed gear A rotates 0 -x TA TA x x through -x revolutions TB TD 3. Total motions -y .

04 and y = – 0.04 Speed of arm = – y = 0. Since the gear A makes 1 revolution therefore from the fourth row of the table...(iv) From equations (i) and (ii).25 y = 1. the gear D makes half revolution TA anticlockwise. Speed of arm when A makes 1 revolution 2. – x – y = –1 or x + y = 1 .04 x = 0.125 . therefore Also.1. (i) – x – y = – 1 or x + y = 1 .308 revolution clockwise . therefore x y0 TD TA 1 x y TD 2 (or) 40 x 40 y 1 x y0 90 2 90 40 x – 90 y = 0 40 x – 90 y = 45 or x – 2. Speed of arm when A makes 1 revolution clockwise and D makes half revolution clockwise and D is stationary anticlockwise Since the gear A makes 1 revolution clockwise. From equations (iii) and (iv).04) = + 0.. (iii) Also the gear D is stationary.308 = 0.(ii) x – 2.692 and y = 0.. therefore from the fourth row of the table. x = 1....308 Speed of arm = – y = – (– 0.04 revolution anticlockwise = – 0.25 y = 0 .. clockwise.

Given: dD = 224 mm . which carries three planet wheels C of equal size. In an epicyclic gear of the ‘sun and planet’ type shown in Figure. m = 4 mm .17. the pitch circle diameter of the internally toothed ring is to be 224 mm and the module 4 mm. the spider A. NA = NB / 5 . When the ring D is stationary. is to make one revolution in the same sense as the sun wheel B for every five revolutions of the driving spindle carrying the sun wheel B. Determine suitable numbers of teeth for all the wheels.

Add -y revolutions to all +y +y +y +y elements 4. The table of motions is given below Step Conditions of motion Revolutions of elements No Spider Sunwheel Planet gears Gear D Arm B C 1. sun wheel B 0 +1 TB TB TC T B rotates through +1 TC TC TD TD revolution 2. planet wheels C and the internally toothed ring D. TC and TD be the number of teeth on the sun wheel B. Spider A fixed. Total motions +y x+y TB TB yx yx TC TD .Solution: Let TB . Arm fixed gear A rotates 0 +x TB TB x x through -x revolutions TC TD 3.

Therefore TD = dD / m from the fourth row of the table. = 224 / 4 = 56 y = + 1 . We know that the spider A makes + 1 revolution. dC and dD be the pitch circle diameters of Since the internally toothed ring D is stationary...When the sun wheel B makes + 5 revolutions. sun wheel B. planet wheels C and internally therefore from the fourth row of the table. and x+y=+5 TB = TD / 4 x=5–y = 56 / 4 = 14 . TB yx 0 Assuming the pitch of all the gears to be TD same. therefore TD 4 TB + 2 TC = TD or 14 + 2 TC = 56 TD 4TB -------------.(i) TC = 21 . toothed ring D respectively. therefore from the geometry of Figure TB dB + 2 dC = dD 1 4 0 TD Since the number of teeth are proportional to TB 1 their pitch circle diameters.[From equation (i)] =5–1 =4 dB.

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