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References: Nicholls s Concise Guide Modern Chart Work Bridge procedures guide STCW Convention
5) The ship master s business companion
Log Book Navigation planning for all conditions (passage planning). 3. Chart work exercise 4. Terrestrial and coastal navigation. 5. Great-circle sailing Great6. Tides a) Apply tide and current data from nautical publications and charts. b) Apply the relevant weather conditions to tidal calculations. 7. Routing in accordance with the general principles on ship s routing.
1. Log Book
1. Ability to keep a proper Log:
1.1 considering national / international laws such as STCW, MARPOL, SOLAS, COLREG, ISM Code, PSC, FSC, Vetting Inspection, Surveys, etc. 1.2 general rules including required entries whether routine or additional 1.3 different log books including official log books, Deck & Engine Log, GMDSS Log, Oil Record Book, Garbage Record book, etc. 2. Importance of Log Books: 2.1 to the Interest of Owners 2.2 Legal Proceedings and professional privilege 2.3 Supplementary documents to Log books as an evidence required by different parties in case of any claims against Owner. 2.4 Amending or Canceling entries
Depending on the log book or record book to be filled, relevant rules/regulations and any national requirements shall be considered while entries going to be made. In doing so it shall be noted that entries must prove the compliance with relevant rules/regulations of the convention and or of the national legislations.
- All entries should made neatly, carefully, faithfully, precisely and to the fact. Routine entries Any additional entries required beyond above No exaggeration of the entries such as weather conditions to be made. Entries for extra ordinary happenings and all matters affecting owners interests shall be made. Fair copies of the log books and other supporting documents. Handing over the log books Signing and witnessing entries
Passage planning or voyage planning is a procedure to develop a complete description of a vessel's voyage from start to finish. finish. The plan includes leaving the dock and harbour area, the en-route enportion of a voyage, approaching the mooring, destination, and mooring, the industry term for this is 'berth to berth'. According to international law, a vessel's captain berth'. is legally responsible for passage planning,The duty of passage planning is usually delegated to the ship's navigation officer, typically the second officer on merchant ships. ships.
) . practice of voyage planning has evolved from penciling lines on nautical charts to a risk process of management. The accident.Passage planning (cont Studies show that human error is a factor in 80 percent of navigational accidents and that in many cases the human making the error had access to information that could have prevented the accident. management.
some of which are only applicable in certain situations.Passage planning (cont ) Passage planning consists of four stages: appraisal. . which are. execution. and monitoring. monitoring. reflected in the local laws of IMO signatory countries. The Guidelines specify fifty elements of passage planning.893(21). planning. Guidelines For Voyage Planning. These stages are specified in International Maritime Organization Resolution A. in turn.
. voyage planning is necessary for all types of vessels on all types of voyages. the monitoring of progress. and the plan includes the execution and pilotage." including when under pilotage. and the plan's scope should be based on all information available. safety and efficiency of navigation and protection of the marine environment.Passage planning (cont ) The Guidelines specify three key items as objectives to consider in the practice of voyage planning: having and using a voyage plan is "of essential importance for safety of life at sea. should be "berth to berth.
nautical publications and performing a number of technical tasks such as weather forecasting. and checks of local regulations and warnings. . each voyage begins. charts. These publications could include Sailing Directions and Coast Pilots or similar texts produced by other authorities. Before stage. Nautical publications are a valuable guide to local conditions and regulations.Passage planning (cont ) Voyage planning starts with the appraisal stage. the navigator should develop a detailed mental model of how the entire voyage will proceed. The appraisal stage consists of gathering and contemplating all information relevant to the voyage. but they must be updated and actually read to be of any use. Much of this appraisal is done by consulting nautical charts. prediction of tides and currents.
Up to date charts and publications Any additional up to date information such as: weather info. Any special characteristics of the cargo. volume of the traffic. available port info. equipments. distribution and etc. Provision of a competent and well rested persons. VTS. - . its stowage.Passage planning (cont ) Following points to be taken into account: Condition and state of the vessel. etc. its stability. area of pilotage. An overall appraisal of the intended voyage or passage should be made and shall provide a clear indication of all danger areas. routing and reporting system of the vessel. any operational limitations.
and course changes expected during the voyage. This mental model becomes the standard by which the navigator measures progress toward the goal of a safe and efficient voyage. and it is manifested in a passage plan. The process involves projecting various future events including landfalls. On the basis of the fullest stage. narrow passages. the navigator can begin the process of actually laying out the voyage.Passage planning (cont ) The next stage of the process is known as the planning stage. information is possible/gathered and considered after appraisal. .
and in line with all applicable laws and regulations. The navigator will draw and redraw the track line until it is safe. . This track is judged with respect to at least nine separate criteria given in the Guidelines including under-keel underclearance. When the track is finished.. a chartplotter. it is becoming common practice to also enter it into electronic navigation tools such as a Electronic Chart Display and Information System. the use of routing and reporting services. unit. an ARPA system. course alterations points.Passage planning (cont ) A good passage plan will include a track line laid out upon the bestbestscale charts available. safe speed. efficient. contingency plans for alternative action to place the vessel in deep water or proceed to a port of refuge. and the availability of contingencies in case of emergency. or a GPS System. the passage plan should be communicated to the navigation team in a pre-voyage conference in preorder to ensure that all members of the team share the same mental model of the entire trip. chartplotter. When working in a team environment. frequency of position fixing. positions where a change in machinery status is required.
It also reiterates the captain's responsibility to treat the plan as a "living document" and to review or change it in case of any special circumstances that should arise.Passage planning (cont ) The third stage of passage planning is the execution stage which is the time of departure and time of arrival is known. . This underscores the fact that the Guidelines list a number of tasks that are to executed during the course of the voyage. The IMO was careful to include execution as part of the process of passage planning.
Meteorological conditions. Estimated times of arrival at critical points for tide heights and flow. piracy zones.Passage planning (cont ) Factors which shall be taken into account are: Reliability and condition of the vessel s navigation equipment. Daytime versus night time passing of danger points. etc. Traffic density Any special circumstances which shall be considered such as restricted visibility. . unacceptable hazards to the safe navigation.
This requires that the ship's position be determined. pilotage. navigation. methods including dead reckoning. Once the voyage has begun the progress of the vessel along its planned route must be monitored.Passage planning (cont ) The fourth and final stage of voyage stage. celestial navigation. . pilotage. using standard reckoning. planning is the monitoring stage. electronic navigation. and navigation.
the passage plan should always be available to the officer on watch on the bridge. water. celestial navigational calculators.Passage planning (cont ) According to the Guidelines. Passage planning software may include functions such as waypoint management. and stores. consumables estimators for fuel. Computer software can greatly simplify the passage planning process and ensure that nothing important is overlooked. tide and tidal current predictors. and other useful applications. . distance calculators. oil. The Guidelines also specify that deviations from the plan should be clearly recorded and be consistent with other provisions of the Guidelines.
The bridge team. . Prevention of fatigue.Passage planning (cont ) Bridge organization for monitoring of positions: . New personnel and familiarization.Composition of the Navigational watch and watch keeping arrangements. Master s standing orders. Navigational policy and company procedures. Monitoring the progress of the ship Plotting positions by different methods.
) Navigation in coastal or restricted waters: Margins of safety can be critical Manoeuvring characteristics Route selected Speed to be followed considering squat Coastal weather bulletines Visual and radar monitoring techniques Most suitable charts to be used Relevant publications to be consulted Plotting positions in frequent short intervals Reporting system Familiarity of all bridge team of area of navigation Whether pilot onboard Considering COLREG Any navigational warnings .Passage planning (cont .
Using equipments .Position fixing .Reporting procedures .Proper and extra look out .Steering controls .Use of engines and proceeding on safe speed .Manoeuvring data .Passage planning (cont .Pollution prevention .Proper use of RADAR / ARPA as per COLREG .) Navigation in restricted visibility in coastal waters or areas of heavy traffic in addition to what : .etc .
) Plan navigation in ice: - Type of ice Ice limits Information available Visibility Ice detection by RADAR Coastlines Look outs Readiness of engine and proceeding at safe speed Traffic density etc .Passage planning (cont .
) Navigation in traffic separation scheme: .Passage planning (cont .
The practice of navigation is complicated by the presence of tidal effects and ocean currents. which can affect almost every part of your sailing. These effects. tend to deflect the vessel from its charted course unfavorable. When related to wind direction. can dictate where and when you get afloat.) Navigation in area of extensive tidal effects: The most important difference between inland and coastal sailing is the tide. . It tide. and reduce or increase its speed. which may be favorable or unfavorable. it can even dictate how rough or uncomfortable the passage will be.Passage planning (cont . where you can go and how long it will take you to get there. sailing. A comparison of dead-reckoning deadpositions and fixes reveals the extent of such effects and often helps the navigator to predict and adjust for future influences.
) Ocean passage planning: Use of charts. etc. shortest route and etc. Owner s preferences Weather (met route) Equipments and navigational aids . pubs. Type of route planning Purpose of planning considering economical points.Passage planning (cont .
changing over the watch.Passage planning (cont .g. navigation in various areas e. etc. heavy weather. . pilot onboard. departure.) Using different checklists as per requirements of conventions for safety of navigation from berth to berth such as arrival. anchoring.
Compass course: is the angle at the observer course: between the direction of the compass north and that of being measured.CHART WORK EXERCISE True course: is the angle at the observer course: between the direction of the true north and that of being measured. . Magnetic course: is the angle at the observer course: between the direction of the magnetic north and that of being measured.
Its value changes with every new direction given to the ship s head and caused by magnetic condition of the ship. . If possible it should have been obtained by direct observation than extracting from deviation card. It is named East or west depending upon the direction of the disturbance of the north end of the compass needle from the true meridian. such as taking transit bearings. Compass error: Is the combined effect of variation and error: deviation. her equipment and cargo. Deviation: Deviation: is the angular deflection of the compass needle to one side of the magnetic meridian. This is because the magnetic north is not in line with the true north. amplitude).CHART WORK EXERCISE Variation: Variation: at any place is the angle between the true and magnetic meridian. bearing of a distant object and or bearing of an astronomical body (eg. it is the angle between magnetic meridian and the compass needle. is the angle between the True meridian and the compass needle.
Is East when compass North is deflected to the right of the Magnetic North. . and Called West when deflected to the left.CHART WORK EXERCISE C (W) T M C (E) T bearing Error east compass least Error west compass best Dev.
CHART WORK EXERCISE position fixing methods Transit Bearings Bearing of distant object Positions by cross bearings Positions by bearing & distance off Position circle by Radar distance off a charted objects Position line by bearing Direction of course made good by 3 bearings using one object only Position line by horizontal angle Position line by vertical angle Doubling angle on the Bow Beam distance off Transferring position lines Running fix Co. to steer allowing for leeway . & Distance made good with tidal stream or current Co. to steer allowing for tidal stream or current Actual set and rate of current between two positions Leeway due to wind Co.
error of observation. A position line on the chart may be drawn by drawing the line through the two observed objects. if not then their intersection will produce an triangle or other known as COCKED HAT which is resulted from combination of ship s speed. Most suitable method of passing through a channel. The most danger point which is the intersection close by land shall be considered. Good angle of cut will minimize the errors. Small angle of cut say less than 30 will affect accuracy more so more error than angle of cuts close to 90 which have least error and is more accurate. time intervals between bearings taken. Cross bearings: point of intersection of position lines is the vessel s position which is bearings: referred as observed position. If 3 or more position lines intersect at one point. Two P/Ls always cross at one point but three and more may not. So 2 P/Ls will not ensure the accuracy of the fixed position. Distant object: Compass bearing of a distant object can be observed and relative object: error in compare with its true bearing using chart could be find.Position fixing methods Transit bearings: it is the easiest method of finding compass error using two charted bearings: objects in transit and comparing with their true bearing from the chart. means accurate fix has been obtained. compass error. . It will be more accurate if position of the vessel is known or can be fixed independently of the compass error such as using by horizontal angles method. Triangle may be small and or larger depending on the factors mentioned.
Leeway: deviation of the vessel from her track by the effect of the wind force on one side. Rate of Tide: Speed of tidal stream. The leeway angle may be observed as an angle between a vessel s wake and the fore and aft line. Always calculate Beam Bearings from the course steered. Water track: this is the track through the water due to effect of wind and so sometimes referred as course made good through the water. Ground Track (Course Made Good): Track drawn relative to the sea bed considering tidal set and drift. Drift of Tide: Total distance moved by the tidal stream in a given time.Allowance for wind and tide Dead Reckoning (DR) position: position established by applying course and speed only. & speed as well as tidal set and drift since a previous known position. . Estimated Position (EP): position established applying co. Beam Bearing: Is that bearing which lies at right angles to the course (intended heading) of the vessel.
say.Knowledge of the ground track is very helpful when finding position using.Current or tidal stream is constant throughout . line of soundings.Only one object is available . This method involves three bearings from a single object taken by vessel.Course and speed is constant throughout . .3 bearings problem It is a method to find the vessel s ground track but not her position. Accuracy of this method depends on: .Either Speed is not known and or current set and rate is not known . It is used when: .The ratio of time intervals between bearings or the ratio of distances between bearings are accurately known.
On a ship if the horizontal angle between two fixed points is measured from a ship. the point of intersection of which is the observed position of the vessel. The advantage is that position line is obtained independently of the compass error. her position must lie somewhere on the arc of a circle which passes through the two objects and which contains horizontal angle observed. This angle may be taken as difference between the two compass bearings of the objects. and after fixing the position the compass error may be obtained by taking the true bearings from chart. Using two objects a position circle will be obtained. all angles subtended by a chord are equal. If 3 objects then two horizontal angles obtained at the same time.Position Line by Horizontal angle: Position circle may be obtained by observation of the horizontal angle subtended by two charted objects. . In the same segment of a circle. two position circles are obtained.
. This can be helpful in case of Radar failure.Position Line by vertical angle: A vertical sextant angle of a well charted object can provide navigator with a very accurate distance off range.
Verify compliance with planned arrangements 2. Effectiveness .WHY DO WE DO INTERNAL AUDITS? To achieve certification to the ISM code the company must establish and operate a management system for internal safety audit to: 1.
6.WHY DO WE DO INTERNAL AUDITS? 3. finding deficiencies & reporting those to take corrective action. obligation to do that 5. feed back & revision of the system 4. . controlling the improvement of the system.
ESSENTIAL FEATURES of AUDIT Verify the management system complies with applicable codes. management system Verify effective control of processes or operations. standards or regulations. Verify effective implementation of the company safety. .
The methods are: 1.AUDITS METHODS All types of audit may be carried out according to established methods which depends on the purpose of audit. System Audit: has a management system complying with the provisions of required codes/standards is implemented and is the system capable of providing assurance of effectiveness? 2. Process audit: .
Major Non-conformity NonA deviation that poses a serious threat to personnel or ship safety. Nonrequirement. action. and requires immediate corrective action. Code. evidence.TERMINOLOGY NonNon-conformity Non-fulfilment of a specified requirement. . The lack of effective and systematic implementation of a requirement of the ISM Code. Observation means a statement of fact made during a safety management audit and substantiated by objective evidence. or a serious risk to the environment.
on assuming such responsibility.2) .. has agreed to take over all the duties and responsibility imposed by the code.. . The owner of the ship or any other organization or person such as the manager.TERMINOLOGY Company (clause 1. code.1. who has assumed responsibility for operation of the ship from the ship owner and who.
hazardous . Corrective action. audits.THE IMPACT OF THE CODE The code requires: requires: Management and masters reviews of the system. non-conformities. Inspections. self-regulation. accidents. action. Inspections. system. Internal audits. It is a system of self-regulation. Reporting and analysis of occurrences and non-conformities.
Much of that time will be spent researching about auditee s key processes and activities that directly affect safety and pollution prevention. This involves obtaining and carefully reviewing a range of documentation which may include: .Review Documents: The planning and preparation phase is usually the most time consuming of all phases during audit.
SMS manuals Agreements Procedures Organization diagrams Defect reports Reports of AIDO Standards & regulations Instruction to masters Previous audit reports NC reports Inspection reports .A well conducted review of documentation will provide the auditor with valuable information re SMS.
It is an invaluable friend which can define the scope and depth of the audit and will: Clearly identify the elements to be investigated. 3. 4. 5. 2. Requirements to be met Set appropriate time-scales and help to maintain the timepace of the audit Provide available reference When completed.Preparing Check lists The next step is to prepare a check list. provide a record of facts and observations gathered 1. .
Relevant to objectives and scope of audit .SAMPLING There is never enough time to examine everything and so it is necessary to select sample based on following considerations: . .Impact on safety on environment .Size of sample which is adequate .Representative of the activity to be examined.
will also permit notes to be made of the observations on each point. . A good checklist as well as serving as an aid to memory to focus on significant points.RECORDING Facts should be gathered and recorded as the investigation proceeds.
REPORTING The audit report should provide an accurate and balanced account of what was discovered when the audit was performed. .
CORRECTIVE ACTION It is the timely action taken to eliminate the cause of an existing NC. defect or other undesirable situation in order to prevent recurrence. It is one of the most powerful mechanisms for ensuring effective control of NCs or defects. The implementation of a C/A program begins with detection of a problem and immediate action(s) taken to restore or mitigate the consequences of the problem encountered. .
Longer term actions would be to investigate the matter, analysis the problem and to determine the root cause and put in place measures to prevent recurrence. The measures introduced should be appropriate to the magnitude of the problem and commensurate with risks encountered. C/A is the integral element of SMS & will apply both ashore and afloat.
How C/A Works:
Determine Apply extent immediate C/A Detect NC , defect
Identify Root Cause
If effective Close out
Apply Appropriate C/A (P/A)
Maintaining Verify C/A Improvement
Management personnel responsible for area involved and should take timely C/A on NCs/Deficeincies found. The NCs found in one area or department may be due to shortcoming or failure of process in another area. For example , obsolete documents found onboard may be due to failure of the shore side office to control and distribute the documents.
An obsolete document has been found.Determining extent of problem: In many cases the audit will only have produced limited evidence of a NC. pollution prevention been left out? . Eg: 1. An item of pollution prevention equipment had not been included in the equipments maintenance system. are there more obsolete documents onboard? Are there more in other ships? 2. Have other types of equipment or devices that can affect safety of operation.
There are usually several root causes of a problem.Establishing the root cause: The defect/NC to be investigated and root causes to be identified & analyzed properly. In some cases these will be obvious but in some are not. Do not confuse the symptoms of a problem with the root cause. identifying the actual root cause may not be easy in some cases but it is essential if the problem is to be eliminated. .
However C/A to address root causes should always be possible. . Clearly the efforts and resources applied to C/A should be appropriate to the risks or consequences involved.Applying C/A: Sometimes immediate C/A is not possible.
. This is termed as verification and followfollow-up. When effectiveness of the C/A taken been verified then NC should be closed out.Verification & follow-up: followIt is necessary to check that C/A taken is effective. In all cases records of C/A must be maintained in order to provide objective evidence of control. When closed out then the factual evidence supporting this decision to be recorded.
Giving managers a measure of their success in achieving company policies and objectives. 4. Reducing failure of probability of failure. 3. Improving processes that impact on safe ship operation and protecting the environment. Direct benefits: Providing a visible sign of management commitment to safety & protection of the environment. . 2.Benefits of Audit: 1.
Providing unbiased. Indicating the effectiveness of new or modified procedures. .Benefits of Audit: 5. 6. factual information & the performance of SMS to top management.
3. injuries. Reducing risk of: incidents. Improving training by identifying the need for 2. liability claims Increasing safety awareness throughout the organization Stimulating contributions to safety improvement Enhancing financial performance . legal action. lost time. 4.Indirect benefits: 1. 5. time off charter. accidents. training and measuring its effectiveness.
Causes of Accidents External to the ship Technical circumstances Human Element (60 to 80%) Fatigue element .
Safety Issues What is Safety? .
(Mil-Std 882b) (MilA measure of degree of freedom from risk in any environment A state where the level of RISK has been reduced to a baseline of as low as reasonably practicable (ALARP) . occupational illness. damage or loss to equipment.Safety Definition Freedom from those conditions that can cause death. injury.
property. and the environment. engineering. .Safety Definition A perceived quality which determines to what extent the management. and operation of a system is free from danger to life.
How safe are we? Lets have a look at our behaviour: .
First some ??? Picis: .
lets look at other modes of transport Newer technology doesn¶t eliminate error .Now.
Safety .Risk .Implementation of Hazard .
An event that results in unintended harm or damage Incident -.Functional Vocabulary Loss -.An assessment of the probability and severity of results if a hazard should result in loss Hazard -.Control of accidental loss Accident -.Chance of loss Risk Evaluation -.Avoidable waste of any resource Risk -.An event which could or does result in unintended harm or damage .A condition or practice with the potential for accidental loss Safety -.
Functional Vocabulary Anything done to reduce loss from the risks of business. such as: The prevention of loss exposures The reduction of loss when loss producing events occur The termination or avoidance of risk Loss Control -- .
Functional Vocabulary Management System -. an organizational strategy for the use of information Loss Control Management -of professional management control of loss The application skills to the .The leadership and structure that ensure work is done in a consistent manner over time. time.
Loss Causation Model and Analysis Lack of Managemen t Control Unclear Policy Inadequate Management Systems Sub. Standard Requirements Unsatisfactory Improvement Process Personal Factors Substandard Acts Basic Causes Immediate Causes Accident/ Incident/ Hazardous Situation Loss/ Waste People Undesired event that could/does lead to a Loss Property Job Factors Substandard Ship Conditions Environment Ship/Cargo .
Commend and / or Correct) . Evaluate.A Risk Management System IDENTIFY all loss exposures EVALUATE the risk in each exposure DEVELOP a plan Terminate Treat Tolerate Acceptable and/ or Level of Risk Transfer Insurance Noninsurance Avoid or and/ OH&S and and/ Eliminate or Loss or the Loss Control Exposure Activities IMPLEMENT the plan MONITOR (Measure.
Acceptable level of severity.Develop a Plan Terminate Eliminate the risk or loss exposure Treat Tolerate Transfer Insurance and / or noninsurance methods Reduce the frequency. & risk probability .
Risk Criteria and Tolerance High Risk Intolerable ³Significant´ Tolerable if ALARP (As Low as Reasonably Practicable). possibly ³Significant´ Negligible Moderate Risk Low Risk .
P E M E Relationships Personnel Environment Material Material Equipmen t .
Perception vs Reality .
The phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid. it deosn't mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are.Can you read the following: I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef. . but the wrod as a wlohe. Aoccdrnig to a rscheearch taem at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm.
athlhuog it lokos raehtr odd. You can raed tihs eevn wehn it lkoos srtange. bceasue the barin deos not raed the wohle wrod at the smae tmie. . It is cllaed typoglycemia (haha). utnil you take a colsoer look. so it semes as thguoh the wdors are selpled croreclty.Msot ploepe can raed tihs.
Factors influencing safety .
route. Port. waterway. International) Human Integration into System Automation. National. and manning levels . ship type and size Navigational Aids Operational Instructions & influence Regulation (local.Factors influencing safety Design (Ship. etc) Education and Training Voyage frequency.
Fatigue Issues .
co-ordination.DEFINITION (1) (1 Reduction in physical and/or mental capability as result of physical. decision comaking or balance . mental or emotional exertion which may impair nearly all physical abilities including strength. reaction time. speed.
the result of fatigue is impaired performance and diminished alertness .DEFINITION (2) A state of feeling tired. or loss of sleep. or sleepy that results from prolonged mental or physical work. weary. extended periods exposure to harsh environments.
Impact/effect on seafarers loss of alertness and extended reaction times loss of concentration and diminished decision-making decisionpowers impaired coordination of control skills tiredness. irritability poor sleep quality and disrupted sleep patterns . depression.
tobacco. alcohol loss of appetite. gastrogastrointestinal problems increased risk of infection higher incidence of cardiovascular disease increased accident and mortality rates .Impact/effect on seafarers increased dependence upon drugs.
5 hours sleep in the preceding 33 hours .000 damage to a berth when it was hit by a ship under the control of an officer who had spent 18 hours on watch in fog and during a river passage .Impact/effect on maritime safety Cargo ship collided with an oil tanker after the watchkeeping officer .fell asleep $40.who had obtained only 2.
Negative interpersonal relations Symptoms of diabetes Prone to obesity Hypertension and memory impairment .
Sleep Hygiene Avoid drinks with caffeine Avoid napping during the day Comfortable room and bed Avoid mental stimulation and emotional stress Warm milky drink. light reading NO ALCOHOL .
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