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Ninth Edition

CHAPTER VECTOR MECHANICS FOR ENGINEERS:

11 STATICS
DYNAMICS
Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
Kinematics of Particles
Lecture Notes:
J. Walt Oler
Texas Tech University

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Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: DYNAMICS
05 Sept 2014 Statics 2

Kinematics Kinetics
 Particle  Particle
 Rectilinear motion  Newton’s 2nd law
 Curvilinear motion  Work and Energy
 Relative motion
 Impulse and Momentum
 Dependent motion

 Rigid body  Rigid body


o Planar kinetics
o Rectilinear motion • Force and acceleration
o Rotational motion • Work and Energy
o General plane motion •Impulse and Momentum
o Three-dimensional kinetics
o Spatial motion

Mass moment and Product of Inertia


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Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Contents
Introduction Sample Problem 11.5
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-
Velocity & Acceleration Motion Problems
Determination of the Motion of a Other Graphical Methods
Particle
Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity
Sample Problem 11.2 & Acceleration
Sample Problem 11.3
Derivatives of Vector Functions
Uniform Rectilinear-Motion
Rectangular Components of Velocity
Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear- and Acceleration
Motion
Motion Relative to a Frame in
Motion of Several Particles: Translation
Relative Motion
Tangential and Normal Components
Sample Problem 11.4
Radial and Transverse Components
Motion of Several Particles:
Dependent Motion Sample Problem 11.10
Sample Problem 11.12
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Introduction
• Dynamics includes:
- Kinematics: study of the geometry of motion. Kinematics is used to
relate displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time without reference to
the cause of motion.
- Kinetics: study of the relations existing between the forces acting on a
body, the mass of the body, and the motion of the body. Kinetics is used
to predict the motion caused by given forces or to determine the forces
required to produce a given motion.

• Rectilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as it


moves along a straight line.

• Curvilinear motion: position, velocity, and acceleration of a particle as it


moves along a curved line in two or three dimensions.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Possible coordinate systems
• The motion of particle P can be described by specifying its coordinates.

• These coordinates can be measured from fixed reference axes (absolute-


motion analysis) or from moving reference axes (relative-motion analysis)
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
• Particle moving along a straight line is said
to be in rectilinear motion.
• Position coordinate of a particle is defined
by positive or negative distance of particle
from a fixed origin on the line.
• The motion of a particle is known if the
position coordinate for particle is known for
every value of time t. Motion of the particle
may be expressed in the form of a function,
e.g.,
x  6t 2  t 3
or in the form of a graph x vs. t.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
• Consider particle which occupies position P
at time t and P’ at t+Dt,
Dx
Average velocity 
Dt
Dx
Instantaneous velocity  v  lim
Dt 0 Dt

• Instantaneous velocity may be positive or


negative. Magnitude of velocity is referred
to as particle speed.
• From the definition of a derivative,
Dx dx
v  lim 
Dt 0 Dt dt
e.g., x  6t 2  t 3
dx
v  12t  3t 2
dt
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
• Consider particle with velocity v at time t and
v’ at t+Dt,
Dv
Instantaneous acceleration  a  lim
Dt 0 Dt

• Instantaneous acceleration may be:


- positive: increasing positive velocity
or decreasing negative velocity
- negative: decreasing positive velocity
or increasing negative velocity.
• From the definition of a derivative,
Dv dv d 2 x
a  lim   2
Dt 0 Dt dt dt
e.g. v  12t  3t 2
dv
a  12  6t
*If the particle is slowing down: decelerating dt
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
• Consider particle with motion given by
x  6t 2  t 3
dx
v  12t  3t 2
dt
dv d 2 x
a   12  6t
dt dt 2

• at t = 0, x = 0, v = 0, a = 12 m/s2

• at t = 2 s, x = 16 m, v = vmax = 12 m/s, a = 0

• at t = 4 s, x = xmax = 32 m, v = 0, a = -12 m/s2

• at t = 6 s, x = 0, v = -36 m/s, a = 24 m/s2

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Determination of the Motion of a Particle
• Recall, motion of a particle is known if position is known for all time t.
• Typically, conditions of motion are specified by the type of acceleration
experienced by the particle. Determination of velocity and position requires
two successive integrations.
• Three classes of motion may be defined for:
- acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t)
- acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x)
- acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v)

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Edition
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
Determination of the Motion of a Particle
• Acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t):
v t  t t
dv
 a  f t  dv  f t  dt  dv   f t  dt vt   v0   f t  dt
dt v 0 0
0
x t  t t
dx
 vt  dx  vt  dt  dx   vt  dt xt   x0   vt  dt
dt x0 0 0

• Acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x):

dx dx dv dv
v or dt  a or a  v  f  x 
dt v dt dx
v x  x x
v dv  f  x dx  v dv   f  x dx 1 v x 2
2
 12 v02   f  x dx
v0 x0 x0

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Determination of the Motion of a Particle
• Acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v):
v t  t
dv dv dv
 a  f v   dt    dt
dt f v  v0 f v  0
v t 
dv
 t
v0 f v 
x t  v t 
dv v dv v dv
v  a  f v  dx   dx  
dx f v  x0 v0 f v 
v t 
v dv
xt   x0  
v0 f v 

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Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.2
SOLUTION:
• Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).

• Solve for t at which velocity equals


zero (time for maximum elevation)
and evaluate corresponding altitude.

• Solve for t at which altitude equals


Ball tossed with 10 m/s vertical velocity zero (time for ground impact) and
from window 20 m above ground. evaluate corresponding velocity.
Determine:
• velocity and elevation above ground at
time t,
• highest elevation reached by ball and
corresponding time, and
• time when ball will hit the ground and
corresponding velocity.
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.2
SOLUTION:
• Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).
dv
 a  9.81m s 2
dt
v t  t
 dv    9.81dt vt   v0  9.81t
v0 0

m  m
vt   10   9.81 2  t
s  s 
dy
 v  10  9.81t
dt
y t  t
 dy   10  9.81t dt y t   y0  10t  12 9.81t 2
y0 0

 m  m
yt   20 m  10 t   4.905 2 t 2
 s  s 
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Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.2
• Solve for t at which velocity equals zero and evaluate
corresponding altitude.
m  m
vt   10   9.81 2  t  0
s  s 
t  1.019s

• Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and evaluate


corresponding velocity.

 m  m
y t   20 m  10 t   4.905 2 t 2
 s  s 
 m  m
y  20 m  10 1.019 s    4.905 2 1.019 s 2
 s  s 
y  25.1m

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Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.2
• Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and
evaluate corresponding velocity.
 m  m
yt   20 m  10 t   4.905 2 t 2  0
 s  s 
t  1.243s meaningless 
t  3.28 s

m  m
vt   10   9.81 2  t
s  s 
m  m
v3.28 s   10   9.81 2  3.28 s 
s  s 

m
v  22.2
s

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.3
SOLUTION:

a  kv • Integrate a = dv/dt = -kv to find v(t).


• Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).
• Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find
v(x).
Brake mechanism used to reduce gun
recoil consists of piston attached to barrel
moving in fixed cylinder filled with oil.
As barrel recoils with initial velocity v0,
piston moves and oil is forced through
orifices in piston, causing piston and
cylinder to decelerate at rate proportional
to their velocity.
Determine v(t), x(t), and v(x).

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Edition
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.3
SOLUTION:
• Integrate a = dv/dt = -kv to find v(t).
v t 
dv dv t
vt 
a  kv    k  dt ln  kt
dt v v 0 v0
0

vt   v0 e kt

• Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).


dx
vt    v0 e  kt
dt
x t  t t
 1 
 kt
 dx  v0  e dt xt   v0  e  kt 
0 0  k 0

xt  
v0
k

1  e  kt 
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.3
• Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find v(x).
v x
dv
a  v  kv dv  k dx  dv  k  dx
dx v0 0
v  v0  kx
v  v0  kx

• Alternatively,

with xt  
v0
k

1  e  kt 
vt 
and vt   v0 e kt or e kt 
v0
v  vt  
then xt   0 1  
k  v0 
v  v0  kx

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Uniform Rectilinear Motion
For particle in uniform rectilinear motion, the acceleration is zero and
the velocity is constant.

dx
 v  constant
dt
x t
 dx  v  dt
x0 0
x  x0  vt
x  x0  vt

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion
For particle in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, the acceleration of
the particle is constant.
v t
dv
 a  constant  dv  a  dt v  v0  at
dt v0 0
v  v0  at

x t
dx
dt
 v0  at  dx   v0  at dt x  x0  v0t  12 at 2
x0 0

x  x0  v0t  12 at 2

v 2  v02   ax  x0 
v x
dv
v  a  constant  v dv  a  dx 1
2
dx v0 x0

v 2  v02  2a x  x0 
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Motion of Several Particles: Relative Motion
• For particles moving along the same line, time
should be recorded from the same starting
instant and displacements should be measured
from the same origin in the same direction.

xB A  xB  x A  relative position of B
with respect to A
xB  x A  xB A

vB A  vB  v A  relative velocity of B
with respect to A
vB  v A  vB A

a B A  a B  a A  relative acceleration of B
with respect to A
aB  a A  aB A
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Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.4
SOLUTION:
• Substitute initial position and velocity
and constant acceleration of ball into
general equations for uniformly
accelerated rectilinear motion.

• Substitute initial position and constant


velocity of elevator into equation for
uniform rectilinear motion.
Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level
in elevator shaft with initial velocity of • Write equation for relative position of
18 m/s. At same instant, open-platform ball with respect to elevator and solve
elevator passes 5 m level moving for zero relative position, i.e., impact.
upward at 2 m/s.
• Substitute impact time into equation
Determine (a) when and where ball hits for position of elevator and relative
elevator and (b) relative velocity of ball velocity of ball with respect to
and elevator at contact. elevator.
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Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.4
SOLUTION:
• Substitute initial position and velocity and constant
acceleration of ball into general equations for
uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.
m  m
v B  v0  at  18   9.81 2 t
s  s 
 m  m
y B  y0  v0t  12 at 2  12 m  18 t   4.905 2 t 2
 s  s 

• Substitute initial position and constant velocity of


elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion.
m
vE  2
s
 m
y E  y0  v E t  5 m   2 t
 s

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Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.4
• Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to
elevator and solve for zero relative position, i.e., impact.

yB E  
 12  18t  4.905t 2  5  2t   0
t  0.39 s meaningless 
t  3.65 s

• Substitute impact time into equations for position of elevator


and relative velocity of ball with respect to elevator.
y E  5  23.65
y E  12.3 m

v B E  18  9.81t   2
 16  9.813.65
m
vB E  19.81
s
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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Motion of Several Particles: Dependent Motion
• Position of a particle may depend on position of one
or more other particles.
• Position of block B depends on position of block A.
Since rope is of constant length, it follows that sum of
lengths of segments must be constant.
x A  2 x B  constant (one degree of freedom)
• Positions of three blocks are dependent.
2 x A  2 xB  xC  constant (two degrees of freedom)

• For linearly related positions, similar relations hold


between velocities and accelerations.
dx A dx dx
2  2 B  C  0 or 2v A  2v B  vC  0
dt dt dt
dv dv dv
2 A  2 B  C  0 or 2a A  2a B  aC  0
dt dt dt
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Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.5
SOLUTION:
• Define origin at upper horizontal surface
with positive displacement downward.
• Collar A has uniformly accelerated
rectilinear motion. Solve for acceleration
and time t to reach L.
• Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion.
Pulley D is attached to a collar which Calculate change of position at time t.
is pulled down at a constant velocity
of 3 in./s. At t = 0, collar A starts • Block B motion is dependent on motions
moving down from K with constant of collar A and pulley D. Write motion
acceleration and zero initial velocity. relationship and solve for change of block
Knowing that velocity of collar A is B position at time t.
12 in./s as it passes L, determine the • Differentiate motion relation twice to
change in elevation, velocity, and develop equations for velocity and
acceleration of block B when block A acceleration of block B.
is at L.
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Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.5
SOLUTION:
• Define origin at upper horizontal surface with
positive displacement downward.

• Collar A has uniformly accelerated rectilinear


motion. Solve for acceleration and time t to reach L.

v 2A  v A 02  2a A x A   x A 0 
2
 in.  in.
12   2a A 8 in. aA  9
 s  s2

v A  v A 0  a At
in. in.
12 9 2t t  1.333 s
s s

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Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.5
• Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion. Calculate
change of position at time t.
x D   x D 0  v D t
 in. 
x D   x D 0   3 1.333s   4 in.
 s 
• Block B motion is dependent on motions of collar
A and pulley D. Write motion relationship and
solve for change of block B position at time t.
Total length of cable remains constant,
x A  2 x D  x B   x A 0  2 x D 0   x B 0

x A   x A 0  2xD   xD 0  xB   xB 0   0
8 in.  24 in.  x B   x B 0   0
x B   x B 0  16 in.
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Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.5
• Differentiate motion relation twice to develop
equations for velocity and acceleration of block B.
x A  2 x D  x B  constant

v A  2v D  v B  0

 in.   in.  in.


12   2 3   v B  0 v B  18
 s   s  s
a A  2a D  a B  0
 in.  in.
a B  9 2
 9 2   aB  0
 s  s

v A  v A 0   2vD  vD 0   vB  vB 0   0


vB2  vB 0  2aB xB  xB 0 
(12  0)  2(0)  [18  vB 0 ]  0
2

 182  vB 02  2(9)(16) or vB 0   6


in.

 vB 0   6
in. in.
or 6  s
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Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems

• Given the x-t curve, the v-t curve is equal to


the x-t curve slope.

• Given the v-t curve, the a-t curve is equal to


the v-t curve slope.

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Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems

• Given the a-t curve, the change in velocity between t1 and t2 is


equal to the area under the a-t curve between t1 and t2.

• Given the v-t curve, the change in position between t1 and t2 is


equal to the area under the v-t curve between t1 and t2.

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Other Graphical Methods
• Moment-area method to determine particle position at
time t directly from the a-t curve:
x1  x0  area under v  t curve
v1
 v0t1   t1  t dv
v0

using dv = a dt ,
v1
x1  x0  v0t1   t1  t  a dt
v0
v1
 t1  t  a dt  first moment of area under a-t curve
v0 with respect to t = t1 line.

x1  x0  v0t1  area under a-t curvet1  t 


t  abscissa of centroid C

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 33


Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Other Graphical Methods

• Method to determine particle acceleration


from v-x curve:
dv
av
dx
 AB tan
 BC  subnormal to v-x curve

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 34


Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration
• Particle moving along a curve other than a straight line
is in curvilinear motion.

• Position vector of a particle at time t is defined by a


vector between origin O of a fixed reference frame and
the position occupied by particle.

• Consider particle which occupies position P defined


 
by r at time t and P’ defined by r  at t + Dt,
 
 Dr dr
v  lim 
Dt 0 Dt dt
 instantaneous velocity (vector)
Ds ds
v  lim 
Dt 0 Dt dt
 instantaneous speed (scalar)

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 35


Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

• Consider velocity v of particle at time t and velocity

v  at t + Dt,
 
 Dv dv
a  lim 
Dt 0 Dt dt
 instantaneous acceleration (vector)

• In general, acceleration vector is not tangent to


particle path and velocity vector.

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 36


Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Derivatives of Vector Functions

• Let Pu  be a vector function of scalar variable u,
   
dP DP Pu  Du   Pu 
 lim  lim
du Du 0 Du Du 0 Du
• Derivative of vector sum,
   
d P  Q  dP dQ
 
du du du
• Derivative of product of scalar and vector functions,
 
d  f P  df  dP
 P f
du du du
• Derivative of scalar product and vector product,
   
d P  Q  dP   dQ
 Q  P
du du du
   
d P  Q  dP   dQ
 Q  P
du du du
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 37
Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration
• When position vector of particle P is given by its
rectangular components,
   
r  xi  y j  zk

• Velocity vector,
 dx  dy  dz    
v  i  j  k  xi  y j  zk
dt dt dt
  
 vx i  v y j  vz k

• Acceleration vector,
 d 2 x d 2 y  d 2 z    
a  2 i  2 j  2 k  xi  y j  zk
dt dt dt
  
 ax i  a y j  az k

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 38


Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration
• Rectangular components particularly effective
when component accelerations can be integrated
independently, e.g., motion of a projectile,
a x  x  0 a y  y   g a z  z  0
with initial conditions,
x0  y 0  z 0  0 v x 0 , v y  , v z 0  0
0

Integrating twice yields


v x  v x 0 v y  v y   gt vz  0
0
x  v x 0 t y  v y  y  12 gt 2 z0
0

• Motion in horizontal direction is uniform.


• Motion in vertical direction is uniformly accelerated.

• Motion of projectile could be replaced by two


independent rectilinear motions.
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 39
Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation
• Designate one frame as the fixed frame of reference.
All other frames not rigidly attached to the fixed
reference frame are moving frames of reference.
• Position vectors for particles A and B with respect to
 
the fixed frame of reference Oxyz are rA and rB .

• Vector B A joining A and B defines the position of
r
B with respect to the moving frame Ax’y’z’ and
  
rB  rA  rB A
• Differentiating twice,
   
vB  v A  vB A vB A  velocity of B relative to A.
   
a B  a A  a B A a B A  acceleration of B relative
to A.
• Absolute motion of B can be obtained by combining
motion of A with relative motion of B with respect to
moving reference frame attached to A.
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 40
Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Tangential and Normal Components
• Velocity vector of particle is tangent to path of
particle. In general, acceleration vector is not.
Wish to express acceleration vector in terms of
tangential and normal components.
 
• et and et are tangential unit vectors for the
particle path at P and P’. When drawn with
  
respect to the same origin, Det  et  et and
D is the angle between them.

Det  2 sin D 2 



Det sin D 2   
lim  lim en  en
D 0 D D 0 D 2
  
 det det  en d
en   
d  det det d  
et    e
d dt
n
dt
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 41
Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Tangential and Normal Components
 
• With the velocity vector expressed as v  vet
the particle acceleration may be written as

 dv    
a  v et  v e  v et  v en
dt
but
v  

After substituting,
  v2  dv v2
a  v et  en at   v an 
 dt 
• Tangential component of acceleration reflects
change of speed and normal component reflects
change of direction.
• Tangential component may be positive or
negative. Normal component always points
toward center of path curvature.
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 42
Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Circular Motion:
 
• With the velocity vector expressed as v  vet
the particle acceleration may be written as

Using
v  r

After substituting,
  v2 
a  v et  en

v2
where at  v  r  an   r  2  v
r

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 43


Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Tangential and Normal Components
• Relations for tangential and normal acceleration
also apply for particle moving along space curve.
 dv  v 2  dv v2
a  et  en at  an 
dt  dt 

• Plane containing tangential and normal unit


vectors is called the osculating plane.
• Normal to the osculating plane is found from
  
eb  et  en

en  principalnormal

eb  binormal

• Acceleration has no component along binormal.

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 44


Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Radial and Transverse Components
• When particle position is given in polar coordinates,
it is convenient to express velocity and acceleration
with components parallel and perpendicular to OP.

• The particle velocity vector is



 d  dr  der dr  d 
v  rer   er  r  er  r e
dt dt dt dt dt
 
 r er  r e
 
r  re r
  • Similarly, the particle acceleration vector is
der  de 
 e   er  d  dr  d  
d d a   er  r e 
dt  dt dt 
   
der der d  d d 2 r  dr der dr d  d 2  d de
  e  2 er   e  r 2 e  r
dt d dt dt dt dt dt dt dt dt dt dt
 
 
de de d  d  r  r 2 er  r  2r e
 
   er
dt d dt dt
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 45
Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Radial and Transverse Components
• When particle position is given in cylindrical
coordinates, it is convenient to express the
velocity and acceleration
 vectors using the unit
 
vectors eR , e , and k .

• Position vector,
  
r  R e R z k

• Velocity vector,
 
 dr   
v  R eR  R e  z k

dt

• Acceleration vector,

 dv
a
dt
 R   2
  

  R eR  R  2 R  e  z k
 

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 46


Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.10
SOLUTION:
• Calculate tangential and normal
components of acceleration.

• Determine acceleration magnitude and


direction with respect to tangent to
curve.
A motorist is traveling on curved
section of highway at 60 mph. The
motorist applies brakes causing a
constant deceleration rate.
Knowing that after 8 s the speed has
been reduced to 45 mph, determine
the acceleration of the automobile
immediately after the brakes are
applied.
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 47
Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.10
SOLUTION:
• Calculate tangential and normal components of
acceleration.
Dv 66  88 ft s ft
at    2.75 2
Dt 8s s
v2 88 ft s 2 ft
an    3.10 2
 2500 ft s
60 mph  88 ft/s
• Determine acceleration magnitude and direction
45 mph  66 ft/s with respect to tangent to curve.
ft
a  at  an   2.75  3.10
2 2 2 2 a  4 . 14
s2

1 an 1 3.10
  tan  tan   48.4
at 2.75

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 48


Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.12
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate time t for  = 30o.
• Evaluate radial and angular positions,
and first and second derivatives at
time t.
Rotation of the arm about O is defined • Calculate velocity and acceleration in
by  = 0.15t2 where  is in radians and t cylindrical coordinates.
in seconds. Collar B slides along the
arm such that r = 0.9 - 0.12t2 where r is • Evaluate acceleration with respect to
in meters. arm.

After the arm has rotated through 30o,


determine (a) the total velocity of the
collar, (b) the total acceleration of the
collar, and (c) the relative acceleration
of the collar with respect to the arm.
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 49
Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.12
SOLUTION:
• Evaluate time t for  = 30o.
  0.15t 2
 30  0.524 rad t  1.869 s

• Evaluate radial and angular positions, and first


and second derivatives at time t.
r  0.9  0.12 t 2  0.481 m
r  0.24 t  0.449 m s
r  0.24 m s 2

  0.15 t 2  0.524 rad


  0.30 t  0.561rad s
  0.30 rad s 2

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 50


Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.12
• Calculate velocity and acceleration.
vr  r  0.449 m s
v  r  0.481m 0.561rad s   0.270 m s
v
v  vr2  v2   tan 1 
vr
v  0.524 m s   31.0
ar  r  r 2
 0.240 m s 2  0.481m 0.561rad s 2
 0.391m s 2
a  r  2r
 
 0.481m  0.3 rad s 2  2 0.449 m s 0.561rad s 
 0.359 m s 2
a
a  ar2  a2   tan 1 
ar
a  0.531m s   42.6
© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 51
Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics
DYNAMICS
Sample Problem 11.12
• Evaluate acceleration with respect to arm.
Motion of collar with respect to arm is rectilinear
and defined by coordinate r.

a B OA  r  0.240 m s 2

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 52


Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 53


Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 54


Edition
Ninth
Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2 - 55