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11 STATICS

DYNAMICS

Ferdinand P. Beer

E. Russell Johnston, Jr.

Kinematics of Particles

Lecture Notes:

J. Walt Oler

Texas Tech University

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: DYNAMICS

05 Sept 2014 Statics 2

Kinematics Kinetics

Particle Particle

Rectilinear motion Newton’s 2nd law

Curvilinear motion Work and Energy

Relative motion

Impulse and Momentum

Dependent motion

o Planar kinetics

o Rectilinear motion • Force and acceleration

o Rotational motion • Work and Energy

o General plane motion •Impulse and Momentum

o Three-dimensional kinetics

o Spatial motion

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Contents

Introduction Sample Problem 11.5

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-

Velocity & Acceleration Motion Problems

Determination of the Motion of a Other Graphical Methods

Particle

Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity

Sample Problem 11.2 & Acceleration

Sample Problem 11.3

Derivatives of Vector Functions

Uniform Rectilinear-Motion

Rectangular Components of Velocity

Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear- and Acceleration

Motion

Motion Relative to a Frame in

Motion of Several Particles: Translation

Relative Motion

Tangential and Normal Components

Sample Problem 11.4

Radial and Transverse Components

Motion of Several Particles:

Dependent Motion Sample Problem 11.10

Sample Problem 11.12

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 3

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Introduction

• Dynamics includes:

- Kinematics: study of the geometry of motion. Kinematics is used to

relate displacement, velocity, acceleration, and time without reference to

the cause of motion.

- Kinetics: study of the relations existing between the forces acting on a

body, the mass of the body, and the motion of the body. Kinetics is used

to predict the motion caused by given forces or to determine the forces

required to produce a given motion.

moves along a straight line.

moves along a curved line in two or three dimensions.

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Possible coordinate systems

• The motion of particle P can be described by specifying its coordinates.

motion analysis) or from moving reference axes (relative-motion analysis)

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 2-5

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

• Particle moving along a straight line is said

to be in rectilinear motion.

• Position coordinate of a particle is defined

by positive or negative distance of particle

from a fixed origin on the line.

• The motion of a particle is known if the

position coordinate for particle is known for

every value of time t. Motion of the particle

may be expressed in the form of a function,

e.g.,

x 6t 2 t 3

or in the form of a graph x vs. t.

Edition

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

• Consider particle which occupies position P

at time t and P’ at t+Dt,

Dx

Average velocity

Dt

Dx

Instantaneous velocity v lim

Dt 0 Dt

negative. Magnitude of velocity is referred

to as particle speed.

• From the definition of a derivative,

Dx dx

v lim

Dt 0 Dt dt

e.g., x 6t 2 t 3

dx

v 12t 3t 2

dt

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 7

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

• Consider particle with velocity v at time t and

v’ at t+Dt,

Dv

Instantaneous acceleration a lim

Dt 0 Dt

- positive: increasing positive velocity

or decreasing negative velocity

- negative: decreasing positive velocity

or increasing negative velocity.

• From the definition of a derivative,

Dv dv d 2 x

a lim 2

Dt 0 Dt dt dt

e.g. v 12t 3t 2

dv

a 12 6t

*If the particle is slowing down: decelerating dt

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 8

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Rectilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

• Consider particle with motion given by

x 6t 2 t 3

dx

v 12t 3t 2

dt

dv d 2 x

a 12 6t

dt dt 2

• at t = 0, x = 0, v = 0, a = 12 m/s2

• at t = 2 s, x = 16 m, v = vmax = 12 m/s, a = 0

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Determination of the Motion of a Particle

• Recall, motion of a particle is known if position is known for all time t.

• Typically, conditions of motion are specified by the type of acceleration

experienced by the particle. Determination of velocity and position requires

two successive integrations.

• Three classes of motion may be defined for:

- acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t)

- acceleration given as a function of position, a = f(x)

- acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v)

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Determination of the Motion of a Particle

• Acceleration given as a function of time, a = f(t):

v t t t

dv

a f t dv f t dt dv f t dt vt v0 f t dt

dt v 0 0

0

x t t t

dx

vt dx vt dt dx vt dt xt x0 vt dt

dt x0 0 0

dx dx dv dv

v or dt a or a v f x

dt v dt dx

v x x x

v dv f x dx v dv f x dx 1 v x 2

2

12 v02 f x dx

v0 x0 x0

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Determination of the Motion of a Particle

• Acceleration given as a function of velocity, a = f(v):

v t t

dv dv dv

a f v dt dt

dt f v v0 f v 0

v t

dv

t

v0 f v

x t v t

dv v dv v dv

v a f v dx dx

dx f v x0 v0 f v

v t

v dv

xt x0

v0 f v

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.2

SOLUTION:

• Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).

zero (time for maximum elevation)

and evaluate corresponding altitude.

Ball tossed with 10 m/s vertical velocity zero (time for ground impact) and

from window 20 m above ground. evaluate corresponding velocity.

Determine:

• velocity and elevation above ground at

time t,

• highest elevation reached by ball and

corresponding time, and

• time when ball will hit the ground and

corresponding velocity.

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 13

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.2

SOLUTION:

• Integrate twice to find v(t) and y(t).

dv

a 9.81m s 2

dt

v t t

dv 9.81dt vt v0 9.81t

v0 0

m m

vt 10 9.81 2 t

s s

dy

v 10 9.81t

dt

y t t

dy 10 9.81t dt y t y0 10t 12 9.81t 2

y0 0

m m

yt 20 m 10 t 4.905 2 t 2

s s

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 14

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.2

• Solve for t at which velocity equals zero and evaluate

corresponding altitude.

m m

vt 10 9.81 2 t 0

s s

t 1.019s

corresponding velocity.

m m

y t 20 m 10 t 4.905 2 t 2

s s

m m

y 20 m 10 1.019 s 4.905 2 1.019 s 2

s s

y 25.1m

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.2

• Solve for t at which altitude equals zero and

evaluate corresponding velocity.

m m

yt 20 m 10 t 4.905 2 t 2 0

s s

t 1.243s meaningless

t 3.28 s

m m

vt 10 9.81 2 t

s s

m m

v3.28 s 10 9.81 2 3.28 s

s s

m

v 22.2

s

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.3

SOLUTION:

• Integrate v(t) = dx/dt to find x(t).

• Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find

v(x).

Brake mechanism used to reduce gun

recoil consists of piston attached to barrel

moving in fixed cylinder filled with oil.

As barrel recoils with initial velocity v0,

piston moves and oil is forced through

orifices in piston, causing piston and

cylinder to decelerate at rate proportional

to their velocity.

Determine v(t), x(t), and v(x).

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.3

SOLUTION:

• Integrate a = dv/dt = -kv to find v(t).

v t

dv dv t

vt

a kv k dt ln kt

dt v v 0 v0

0

vt v0 e kt

dx

vt v0 e kt

dt

x t t t

1

kt

dx v0 e dt xt v0 e kt

0 0 k 0

xt

v0

k

1 e kt

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 18

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.3

• Integrate a = v dv/dx = -kv to find v(x).

v x

dv

a v kv dv k dx dv k dx

dx v0 0

v v0 kx

v v0 kx

• Alternatively,

with xt

v0

k

1 e kt

vt

and vt v0 e kt or e kt

v0

v vt

then xt 0 1

k v0

v v0 kx

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Uniform Rectilinear Motion

For particle in uniform rectilinear motion, the acceleration is zero and

the velocity is constant.

dx

v constant

dt

x t

dx v dt

x0 0

x x0 vt

x x0 vt

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Uniformly Accelerated Rectilinear Motion

For particle in uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion, the acceleration of

the particle is constant.

v t

dv

a constant dv a dt v v0 at

dt v0 0

v v0 at

x t

dx

dt

v0 at dx v0 at dt x x0 v0t 12 at 2

x0 0

x x0 v0t 12 at 2

v 2 v02 ax x0

v x

dv

v a constant v dv a dx 1

2

dx v0 x0

v 2 v02 2a x x0

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 21

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Motion of Several Particles: Relative Motion

• For particles moving along the same line, time

should be recorded from the same starting

instant and displacements should be measured

from the same origin in the same direction.

xB A xB x A relative position of B

with respect to A

xB x A xB A

vB A vB v A relative velocity of B

with respect to A

vB v A vB A

a B A a B a A relative acceleration of B

with respect to A

aB a A aB A

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 22

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.4

SOLUTION:

• Substitute initial position and velocity

and constant acceleration of ball into

general equations for uniformly

accelerated rectilinear motion.

velocity of elevator into equation for

uniform rectilinear motion.

Ball thrown vertically from 12 m level

in elevator shaft with initial velocity of • Write equation for relative position of

18 m/s. At same instant, open-platform ball with respect to elevator and solve

elevator passes 5 m level moving for zero relative position, i.e., impact.

upward at 2 m/s.

• Substitute impact time into equation

Determine (a) when and where ball hits for position of elevator and relative

elevator and (b) relative velocity of ball velocity of ball with respect to

and elevator at contact. elevator.

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 23

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.4

SOLUTION:

• Substitute initial position and velocity and constant

acceleration of ball into general equations for

uniformly accelerated rectilinear motion.

m m

v B v0 at 18 9.81 2 t

s s

m m

y B y0 v0t 12 at 2 12 m 18 t 4.905 2 t 2

s s

elevator into equation for uniform rectilinear motion.

m

vE 2

s

m

y E y0 v E t 5 m 2 t

s

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.4

• Write equation for relative position of ball with respect to

elevator and solve for zero relative position, i.e., impact.

yB E

12 18t 4.905t 2 5 2t 0

t 0.39 s meaningless

t 3.65 s

and relative velocity of ball with respect to elevator.

y E 5 23.65

y E 12.3 m

v B E 18 9.81t 2

16 9.813.65

m

vB E 19.81

s

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 25

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Motion of Several Particles: Dependent Motion

• Position of a particle may depend on position of one

or more other particles.

• Position of block B depends on position of block A.

Since rope is of constant length, it follows that sum of

lengths of segments must be constant.

x A 2 x B constant (one degree of freedom)

• Positions of three blocks are dependent.

2 x A 2 xB xC constant (two degrees of freedom)

between velocities and accelerations.

dx A dx dx

2 2 B C 0 or 2v A 2v B vC 0

dt dt dt

dv dv dv

2 A 2 B C 0 or 2a A 2a B aC 0

dt dt dt

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 26

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.5

SOLUTION:

• Define origin at upper horizontal surface

with positive displacement downward.

• Collar A has uniformly accelerated

rectilinear motion. Solve for acceleration

and time t to reach L.

• Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion.

Pulley D is attached to a collar which Calculate change of position at time t.

is pulled down at a constant velocity

of 3 in./s. At t = 0, collar A starts • Block B motion is dependent on motions

moving down from K with constant of collar A and pulley D. Write motion

acceleration and zero initial velocity. relationship and solve for change of block

Knowing that velocity of collar A is B position at time t.

12 in./s as it passes L, determine the • Differentiate motion relation twice to

change in elevation, velocity, and develop equations for velocity and

acceleration of block B when block A acceleration of block B.

is at L.

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 27

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.5

SOLUTION:

• Define origin at upper horizontal surface with

positive displacement downward.

motion. Solve for acceleration and time t to reach L.

v 2A v A 02 2a A x A x A 0

2

in. in.

12 2a A 8 in. aA 9

s s2

v A v A 0 a At

in. in.

12 9 2t t 1.333 s

s s

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.5

• Pulley D has uniform rectilinear motion. Calculate

change of position at time t.

x D x D 0 v D t

in.

x D x D 0 3 1.333s 4 in.

s

• Block B motion is dependent on motions of collar

A and pulley D. Write motion relationship and

solve for change of block B position at time t.

Total length of cable remains constant,

x A 2 x D x B x A 0 2 x D 0 x B 0

x A x A 0 2xD xD 0 xB xB 0 0

8 in. 24 in. x B x B 0 0

x B x B 0 16 in.

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 29

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.5

• Differentiate motion relation twice to develop

equations for velocity and acceleration of block B.

x A 2 x D x B constant

v A 2v D v B 0

12 2 3 v B 0 v B 18

s s s

a A 2a D a B 0

in. in.

a B 9 2

9 2 aB 0

s s

vB2 vB 0 2aB xB xB 0

(12 0) 2(0) [18 vB 0 ] 0

2

in.

vB 0 6

in. in.

or 6 s

© 2010 The McGraw-HillsCompanies, Inc.sAll rights reserved. 11 - 30

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems

the x-t curve slope.

the v-t curve slope.

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Graphical Solution of Rectilinear-Motion Problems

equal to the area under the a-t curve between t1 and t2.

equal to the area under the v-t curve between t1 and t2.

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Other Graphical Methods

• Moment-area method to determine particle position at

time t directly from the a-t curve:

x1 x0 area under v t curve

v1

v0t1 t1 t dv

v0

using dv = a dt ,

v1

x1 x0 v0t1 t1 t a dt

v0

v1

t1 t a dt first moment of area under a-t curve

v0 with respect to t = t1 line.

t abscissa of centroid C

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Other Graphical Methods

from v-x curve:

dv

av

dx

AB tan

BC subnormal to v-x curve

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

• Particle moving along a curve other than a straight line

is in curvilinear motion.

vector between origin O of a fixed reference frame and

the position occupied by particle.

by r at time t and P’ defined by r at t + Dt,

Dr dr

v lim

Dt 0 Dt dt

instantaneous velocity (vector)

Ds ds

v lim

Dt 0 Dt dt

instantaneous speed (scalar)

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Curvilinear Motion: Position, Velocity & Acceleration

• Consider velocity v of particle at time t and velocity

v at t + Dt,

Dv dv

a lim

Dt 0 Dt dt

instantaneous acceleration (vector)

particle path and velocity vector.

Edition

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Derivatives of Vector Functions

• Let Pu be a vector function of scalar variable u,

dP DP Pu Du Pu

lim lim

du Du 0 Du Du 0 Du

• Derivative of vector sum,

d P Q dP dQ

du du du

• Derivative of product of scalar and vector functions,

d f P df dP

P f

du du du

• Derivative of scalar product and vector product,

d P Q dP dQ

Q P

du du du

d P Q dP dQ

Q P

du du du

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 37

Edition

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration

• When position vector of particle P is given by its

rectangular components,

r xi y j zk

• Velocity vector,

dx dy dz

v i j k xi y j zk

dt dt dt

vx i v y j vz k

• Acceleration vector,

d 2 x d 2 y d 2 z

a 2 i 2 j 2 k xi y j zk

dt dt dt

ax i a y j az k

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Rectangular Components of Velocity & Acceleration

• Rectangular components particularly effective

when component accelerations can be integrated

independently, e.g., motion of a projectile,

a x x 0 a y y g a z z 0

with initial conditions,

x0 y 0 z 0 0 v x 0 , v y , v z 0 0

0

v x v x 0 v y v y gt vz 0

0

x v x 0 t y v y y 12 gt 2 z0

0

• Motion in vertical direction is uniformly accelerated.

independent rectilinear motions.

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 39

Edition

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Motion Relative to a Frame in Translation

• Designate one frame as the fixed frame of reference.

All other frames not rigidly attached to the fixed

reference frame are moving frames of reference.

• Position vectors for particles A and B with respect to

the fixed frame of reference Oxyz are rA and rB .

• Vector B A joining A and B defines the position of

r

B with respect to the moving frame Ax’y’z’ and

rB rA rB A

• Differentiating twice,

vB v A vB A vB A velocity of B relative to A.

a B a A a B A a B A acceleration of B relative

to A.

• Absolute motion of B can be obtained by combining

motion of A with relative motion of B with respect to

moving reference frame attached to A.

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 40

Edition

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Tangential and Normal Components

• Velocity vector of particle is tangent to path of

particle. In general, acceleration vector is not.

Wish to express acceleration vector in terms of

tangential and normal components.

• et and et are tangential unit vectors for the

particle path at P and P’. When drawn with

respect to the same origin, Det et et and

D is the angle between them.

Det sin D 2

lim lim en en

D 0 D D 0 D 2

det det en d

en

d det det d

et e

d dt

n

dt

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 41

Edition

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Tangential and Normal Components

• With the velocity vector expressed as v vet

the particle acceleration may be written as

dv

a v et v e v et v en

dt

but

v

After substituting,

v2 dv v2

a v et en at v an

dt

• Tangential component of acceleration reflects

change of speed and normal component reflects

change of direction.

• Tangential component may be positive or

negative. Normal component always points

toward center of path curvature.

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 42

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Circular Motion:

• With the velocity vector expressed as v vet

the particle acceleration may be written as

Using

v r

After substituting,

v2

a v et en

v2

where at v r an r 2 v

r

Edition

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Tangential and Normal Components

• Relations for tangential and normal acceleration

also apply for particle moving along space curve.

dv v 2 dv v2

a et en at an

dt dt

vectors is called the osculating plane.

• Normal to the osculating plane is found from

eb et en

en principalnormal

eb binormal

Edition

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Radial and Transverse Components

• When particle position is given in polar coordinates,

it is convenient to express velocity and acceleration

with components parallel and perpendicular to OP.

d dr der dr d

v rer er r er r e

dt dt dt dt dt

r er r e

r re r

• Similarly, the particle acceleration vector is

der de

e er d dr d

d d a er r e

dt dt dt

der der d d d 2 r dr der dr d d 2 d de

e 2 er e r 2 e r

dt d dt dt dt dt dt dt dt dt dt dt

de de d d r r 2 er r 2r e

er

dt d dt dt

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 45

Edition

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Radial and Transverse Components

• When particle position is given in cylindrical

coordinates, it is convenient to express the

velocity and acceleration

vectors using the unit

vectors eR , e , and k .

• Position vector,

r R e R z k

• Velocity vector,

dr

v R eR R e z k

dt

• Acceleration vector,

dv

a

dt

R 2

R eR R 2 R e z k

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.10

SOLUTION:

• Calculate tangential and normal

components of acceleration.

direction with respect to tangent to

curve.

A motorist is traveling on curved

section of highway at 60 mph. The

motorist applies brakes causing a

constant deceleration rate.

Knowing that after 8 s the speed has

been reduced to 45 mph, determine

the acceleration of the automobile

immediately after the brakes are

applied.

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 47

Edition

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.10

SOLUTION:

• Calculate tangential and normal components of

acceleration.

Dv 66 88 ft s ft

at 2.75 2

Dt 8s s

v2 88 ft s 2 ft

an 3.10 2

2500 ft s

60 mph 88 ft/s

• Determine acceleration magnitude and direction

45 mph 66 ft/s with respect to tangent to curve.

ft

a at an 2.75 3.10

2 2 2 2 a 4 . 14

s2

1 an 1 3.10

tan tan 48.4

at 2.75

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.12

SOLUTION:

• Evaluate time t for = 30o.

• Evaluate radial and angular positions,

and first and second derivatives at

time t.

Rotation of the arm about O is defined • Calculate velocity and acceleration in

by = 0.15t2 where is in radians and t cylindrical coordinates.

in seconds. Collar B slides along the

arm such that r = 0.9 - 0.12t2 where r is • Evaluate acceleration with respect to

in meters. arm.

determine (a) the total velocity of the

collar, (b) the total acceleration of the

collar, and (c) the relative acceleration

of the collar with respect to the arm.

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 49

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.12

SOLUTION:

• Evaluate time t for = 30o.

0.15t 2

30 0.524 rad t 1.869 s

and second derivatives at time t.

r 0.9 0.12 t 2 0.481 m

r 0.24 t 0.449 m s

r 0.24 m s 2

0.30 t 0.561rad s

0.30 rad s 2

Edition

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Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.12

• Calculate velocity and acceleration.

vr r 0.449 m s

v r 0.481m 0.561rad s 0.270 m s

v

v vr2 v2 tan 1

vr

v 0.524 m s 31.0

ar r r 2

0.240 m s 2 0.481m 0.561rad s 2

0.391m s 2

a r 2r

0.481m 0.3 rad s 2 2 0.449 m s 0.561rad s

0.359 m s 2

a

a ar2 a2 tan 1

ar

a 0.531m s 42.6

© 2010 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. 11 - 51

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

DYNAMICS

Sample Problem 11.12

• Evaluate acceleration with respect to arm.

Motion of collar with respect to arm is rectilinear

and defined by coordinate r.

a B OA r 0.240 m s 2

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

Edition

Ninth

Vector Mechanics for Engineers: Statics

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