1. Electric Field
2. Electric Field Intensity or Electric Field Strength
3. Electric Field Intensity due to a Point Charge
4. Superposition Principle
5. Electric Lines of Force
i) Due to a Point Charge
ii) Due to a Dipole
iii) Due to a Equal and Like Charges
iv) Due to a Uniform Field
6. Properties of Electric Lines of Force
7. Electric Dipole
8. Electric Field Intensity due to an Electric Dipole
9. Torque on an Electric Dipole
10. Work Done on an Electric Dipole
F F
1 q
Lt F F or E= r
E= or E= r2
∆q → 0 ∆q q0 4πε0
1 q
E (r) = ( xi + y j + z k )
4πε0 ( x2 + y2 + z2 ) 3/2
F14
Superposition Principle:
The electrostatic force experienced by a  q5
charge due to other charges is the vector + q1
+ q2
sum of electrostatic forces due to these F15
other charges as if they are existing
individually.
F12
F13
F1 = F12 + F13 + F14 + F15 + q4  q3
N
1 ra  rb
Fa (ra) = ∑ qa qb F12
4πε0 F1
b=1 │ ra  rb │3
b≠a
F15
In the present example, a = 1 and b = 2 to 5. F13
If the force is to be found on 2nd charge, F14
then a = 2 and b = 1 and 3 to 5.
Note:
The interactions must be on the charge which is to be studied due to other
charges.
The charge on which the influence due to other charges is to be found is
assumed to be floating charge and others are rigidly fixed.
For eg. 1st charge (floating) is repelled away by q2 and q4 and attracted towards
q3 and q5.
The interactions between the other charges (among themselves) must be
ignored. i.e. F23, F24, F25, F34, F35 and F45 are ignored.
Superposition principle holds good for electric field also.
E
Electric Lines of Force
1. Electric Lines of Force due to a Point Charge:
a) Representation
of electric field
in terms of
field vectors:
The size of the
arrow
represents the
strength of
electric field.
q>0 q<0
b) Representation
of electric field
in terms of
field lines
(Easy way of
drawing)
2. Electric Lines of Force due to a 3. Electric Lines of Force due to a
pair of Equal and Unlike Charges: pair of Equal and Like Charges:
(Dipole)
+q P +q
E
.N
+q
q
E E
+ 
+  
+ Solid or hollow + 
 +
+ conductor  (Electrostatic Shielding)
 +
+  No Field 
+ 
+
+ 
Note:
An ideal dipole is the dipole in which the charge becomes larger and larger
and the separation becomes smaller and smaller.
Electric Field Intensity due to an Electric Dipole:
i) At a point on the axial line:
EP = EB  EA
Resultant electric field intensity
at the point P is A B EA EB
EP = EA + EB
q O +q P
p
The vectors EA and EB are
collinear and opposite. l l
x
│EP │ = │EB│  │EA│
1 2px
1 q │EP │ =
EA = i 4πε0 (x2 – l2)2
4πε0 (x + l)2
q 1 2px
1 EP = i
EB = i 4πε0
4πε0 (x  l)2 (x2 – l2)2
1 q q 2p
│EP │ =
4πε0
[ (x  l) 2

(x + l)2
] If l << x, then
EP ≈
4πε0 x3
The direction of electric field intensity
1 2 (q . 2l) x at a point on the axial line due to a
│EP │ = dipole is always along the direction of
4πε0 (x2 – l2)2
the dipole moment.
ii) At a point on the equatorial line:
Resultant electric field intensity EB
at the point Q is
EB EB sin θ
EQ = EA + EB θ
EQ Q EB cos θ θ
The vectors EA and EB are θ Q
EQ
acting at an angle 2θ. EA EA cos θ θ
q y EA sin θ
1 EA
EA = i
4πε0 ( x2 + l2 ) A θ θ B
q O +q
1 q p
EB = i
4πε0 ( x2 + l2 )
l l
The vectors EA sin θ and EB sin θ q
are opposite to each other and 2 l
EQ =
hence cancel out. 4πε0 ( x2 + l2 ) ( x2 + l2 )½
The vectors EA cos θ and EB cos θ 1 q . 2l
are acting along the same direction EQ =
4πε0 ( x2 + l2 )3/2
and hence add up.
1 p
EQ = EA cos θ + EB cos θ EQ =
4πε0 ( x2 + l2 )3/2
1 p
EQ = ( i )
4πε0 ( x2 + l2 )3/2
If l << y, then
p
EQ ≈
4πε0 y3
The direction of electric field intensity at a point on the equatorial line due to a
dipole is parallel and opposite to the direction of the dipole moment.
If the observation point is far away or when the dipole is very short, then the
electric field intensity at a point on the axial line is double the electric field
intensity at a point on the equatorial line.
Note: Potential Energy can be taken zero arbitrarily at any position of the
dipole.
Case i: If θ = 0°, then U =  pE (Stable Equilibrium)
Case ii: If θ = 90°, then U = 0
Case iii: If θ = 180°, then U = pE (Unstable Equilibrium)
END