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1652 ARRIVAL OF DUTCH COLONISTS → AFRIKAANS

1795 FIRST BRITISH EXPEDITION


1806 BRITISH CONTROL of part of the Cape
1820 SETTLEMENT OF 5,000 BRITISH PEOPLE IN THE
EASTERN CAPE
1822 ENGLISH IS MADE one of the OFFICIAL
LANGUAGES. ENGLISH IS USED AS THE
LANGUAGE FOR EDUCATION, GOVERNMENT,
LAW AND PUBLIC LIFE
1840s FURTHER BRITISH SETTLEMENTS
1870s EXPLOITATION OF GOLD AND DIAMOND
INDUSTRIES
• An African variety of English emerged, although it has
remained a minority language. AFRIKAANS was the first
language of the majority of black and white population,
although English is increasingly used by the black
population (70%).

• AFRIKAANS became a symbol of identity for people of


Afrikaner background.

• AFRIKAANS → language of authority and repression


• ENGLISH → language of protest and self-determination
• 1993 Constitution: Eleven official languages including
Afrikaans and English.

• The use of English continues to grow among blacks and


whites, although it remains predominant in the political,
legal and business scene as an international language.
WEST AFRICA (former colonies)
End C15th The English began exploring the west coast of Africa

Beg. Many small English colonies scattered along the coast


C19th
ENGLISH WAS THE LINGUA FRANCA between the
different coastal areas.
BLACK POPULATION – PIDGIN
WHITE POPULATION (colonial officials, missionaries,
soldiers and traders) - ENGLISH

By 1914 The whole of Africa (apart from Liberia and Ethiopia) was
divided into colonial territories (Britain, France,
Germany, Portugal, Italy and Belgium)
1960s Independence of the different African countries
1914 AFRICAN COLONIALISM
AFRICAN NATIONAL AND ETHNIC
BORDERS 2015
WEST AFRICA (former colonies)
ENGLISH has remained an official language in five west
African countries: Sierra Leone, Ghana, Gambia, Nigeria
and Cameroon.

It is the language of government, law, public life and


higher education.

Although it is an official language, it remains spoken


mainly in urban areas, in PIDGIN form and as a second
language.

LIBERIA – LINK WITH THE US


EAST AFRICA – FORMER COLONIES

1850s Expeditions to East Africa – Richard


Burton and David Livingston.
1888 Imperial British East Africa Company was
established. From thereon, colonial
protectorates in the area.
Presence of Germany, France and Italy.
British English remains an official language in many
countries (used in government, law, education, public
life, etc.): Botswana, Kenya, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia,
Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia and Zimbabwe.
SOUTH ASIA
South Asian English – India, Bangladesh,
Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan

INDIA 1/3 of the people can speak the


language
SOUTH ASIA – INDIA
1600 Foundation of the British East India
Company. A group of British traders who
gained trading monopoly in the area
1765- Rule and government of the area by the
1857 company
1858- The Raj (“rule” in Hindi). Period of British
1947 rule. English became the language of
government, administration and
education.
ASIA - INDIA
1857 Universities of Bombay, Calcutta and
Madras – in English
English “associate official language”
now Hindi is the official language
Throughout South Asia English is used
and recognised as the medium of
international communication,
education, trade and tourism
SOUTH EAST ASIA AND THE SOUTH
PACIFIC – US influence
1898 SPANISH – AMERICAN WAR
The USA received the island of Guam, Puerto
Rico in the Caribbean and sovereignty over
the Philippines
1940s During and after the 2nd World War, many
islands were invaded by the US army and
then remained under their control and
responsibility

1946 The Philippines became independent but


American English remains strong, with 80
million English speakers in 2002
SOUTH EAST ASIA AND THE SOUTH
PACIFIC – British influence
1770s Journeys of Captain Cook

Early C19th London Missionary Society establishes


bases on the islands
Late C18th British East India Company establishes
Beg. C19th centres in main strategic areas on the
islands:
1786 – Penang
1819 – Singapore
1824 – Malacca
1867 FEDERATED MALAY STATES as Crown
Colony
SOUTH EAST ASIA AND THE SOUTH
PACIFIC – British influence
Since the independence of British protectorates, English has remained the
language for law and education.
SINGAPORE 1950s – Introduction of Bilingual Educational System. So the
use of English has been increasing among the general
population, including family settings
MALAYSIA 1957 – INDEPENDENCE. Bahasa Malaysia became the
national language of government, life and education. The use of
English was greatly restricted and learnt as a second language
in schools.
HONG KONG The use of English has always been very restricted. Chinese
(Cantonese) is the mother tongue of more than 98% of the
population.
English and Cantonese have joint official status, but English is
not really used outside business settings.
PAPUA NEW British and German annexed areas in 1884. The areas were
GUINEA transferred to Australia in the early C20th and then became
independent in 1975.
WORDS FROM OTHER LANGUAGES
ANGST VOODOO CHIMPANZEE KOALA
HURRICANE COMMANDO YOGA CHOCOLATE
KITSCH TREK CLICHÉ KETCHUP
TEA ZOMBIE POLTERGEIST CHIC
BAMBOO SHAMPOO MOCCASIN BOOMERANG
GURU RÉSUMÉ APARTHEID KANGAROO
GERMAN AFRIKAANS NATIVE AFRICAN FRENCH

NATIVE AMERICAN MALAY HINDI, etc. AUSTRALIAN


ABORIGINAL
THE SPREAD OF ENGLISH