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Prepositional Phrases

How can I identify prepositions and their function in a sentence?


A word that shows a relationship
between a noun or pronoun and
some other word in the sentence.

The baseball player in the white shirt


hit a homerun.
Common Prepositions
Here is a list of the most common prepositions:

but
aboard along behind from off past until
(except)

about amid below by in on since up

above among beneath down inside onto through upon

across around beside during into out to with

after at between except near outside toward within

against before beyond for of over under without


A word that shows a relationship between
a noun or pronoun and some other word
in the sentence. (Add prepositions below.)
______ her boat ______noon
______ a house ______ class
______ the goat ______ a goon
______ a mouse _______ a pass
Always begins with a
preposition and ends with a
noun or pronoun.
Write sentences for these prepositional phrases:

under the doors


on the Lake Michigan shore
near excellent schools
OBJECT OF THE
PREPOSITION
The OP is the noun or pronoun
that ends a prepositional phrase.

The baseball player in the white shirt


hit a homerun.
OBJECT OF THE
PREPOSITION
The noun or pronoun that ends a prepositional
phrase.
on her boat before noon
in a house during class
near the goat about a goon
under a mouse without a pass
A preposition is a part of speech that
shows a relationship between two things

• Prepositions show relationship by:


• Location (on, under, in)
• Timing (before, after, during)
• Direction (from, toward, to)
Location

The mouse is under the table.


• Two things: mouse + table
• Relationship: one is under the other

• Under is a preposition!
Location

Prepositions show
the location or
movement of an
object in many
different ways!
Timing

Kate ate breakfast before her


brother.
• Two things: Kate + Kate’s brother
• Relationship: one is before the other

• Before is a preposition!
Timing

Prepositions
show the
relationship of a
noun or
pronoun to
time.
Direction or Movement

The couple sailed across the


vast lake.
• Two things: couple + lake
• Relationship: one is crossing the other

• Across is a preposition!
Direction or
Movement

Prepositions
show the
relationship of a
noun or
pronoun in a
direction or
movement to
another object.
Prepositional Phrases as Adjectives and
Adverbs

Prepositional Phrases can function as


• Adjectives known as an adjective phrase
• Adverbs known as an adverb phrase
What do adjectives and adverbs modify?

Adjective phrases modify


Nouns and
Pronouns

Adverbs phrases modify


Verbs
Adjectives and
Other Adverbs
Modifies a noun or pronoun
It answers the same questions an adjective would:

Which one? What kind? How many?

The puppy in the shop window


jumped up.
Preposition as an adjective

If it functions as an adjective it is called an


adjective phrase.

The fabrics from the Orient were quite beautiful.


What is your prepositional phrase?
From the Orient
What does it describe?
Fabrics (the subject of the sentence)
Preposition as an adjective

These ancient hangings are tapestries from other lands.


What is your prepositional phrase?
From other lands
What does it describe?
Tapestries (the noun in the predicate)
Modifies a verb, adjective, or adverb
It answers the same questions an adverb
would:

Where? When? How?


The puppy jumped to the food.
Preposition as an adverb

If it functions as an adverb, it is called an adverb phrase.

The women are weaving on looms.


What is your prepositional phrase?
On looms
What does it describe?
Are weaving (on loom describes the verb)
Preposition as an adverb

That fabric looks great on you.


What is your prepositional phrase?
On you
What does it modify?
Great (it describes an adjective)
You MUST memorize
the prepositions!
If there is no object of the preposition
(if the preposition is not part of a
phrase), then it is not a preposition—it
is an adverb.
RULE: Subjects and verbs will never be
found in a prepositional phrase.
The gecko climbed up the wall.
In this example “up the wall” is a prepositional phrase.

The gecko climbed up.


In this example “up” is an adverb.

The gecko climbed up on the wall.


In this example “up” is an adverb and “on the wall” is the
prepositional phrase. Is it functioning as an adjective or adverb?
Identify the prepositional phrases and the objects of the
preposition in each sentence below. Tell whether each
phrase is functioning as an adjective or adverb.

1.The paper with the blue border


is floating through the air.
2. Jordan’s eyes sparkle like a
sunny day.
3. With great ease, Michael
jumped up on the table.
1.The paper with the blue border
is floating through the air.
2. Jordan’s eyes sparkle like a
sunny day.
3. With great ease, Michael
jumped on the table.

Prepositional phrase Object as as Object as as


an adverb an adjective
1.The tadpoles are below the
water’s surface.
2. I jumped up, and Amy jumped
down.
3. Is Taylor near?
4. Erin looked at the purple-
haired boy.