You are on page 1of 61

 

  

   
|  
  
Contents
‡ „ 
‡ 
  
‡ 
    
‡ 
 
‡ 
         
‡            
‡ 
„  
‡     

   
‡       
   
‡     
|  
  
 olution of Cellular
communication standards
‡ Analog standards
± Advanced Mobile Phone Service (AMPS)
‡ US, 800 MHz band
± Total Access Communication System (TACS)
‡ UK, based on AMPS in 900 MHz band
± Nordic Mobile Telephone System(NMT)
‡ Scandinavian, Both in 450 MHz and 900 MHz band

|  
  
 olution of Cellular
communication standards ...
‡ Digital Standards
± Dual mode AMPS (D-AMPS)
‡ US, Analog signaling and Digital voice coding
± IS-95
‡ US, CDMA based
± Global Systems for mobile communications
(GSM)
‡ European standard, 890 MHz - 960 MHz band

|  
  
m   
‡ There were so many systems available need to
consolidate ,Limitations of Analogue
system,Incompatibility between systems.Moving
towards PCN(Personal Communications Network)

‡ Mobility was the keyword in developing a new


system to reach people on move between countries
yet stay connected.

|  
  
m at are t e tes in
  Network

‡ GSM-900 (Channels 125 operating band


900Mhz carrier spacing 200khz spacing
45Mhz)

‡ GSM -1800 (Channels 374 spacing 95Mhz)

|  
  
  in comarison wit ot er
tandards
‡ GSM gives mobility without any loss in Audio quality
‡ Encryption techniques used gives high security in the
air Interface and also use of SIM.
‡ Bit Interleaving for high efficiency in Transmission.
‡ Variable Power (Power budgeting- extend battery life)
‡ Minimum Interference.(Eq DTX )
‡ Features-CCS7 Signaling
± SMS (Short Message Services)
± Emergency Calls
± CELL Broadcast
|  
  
  Concets - Cellular
tructure

‡ Cellular
2 ± Networking
2 7 technology that breaks
7 3 1 geographic area into
1 6 cells shaped like honey
6 4 5 comb
5 ‡ Cell
± Area of coverage
provided by one or
more Radio terminals
|  
  
Cell Planning
‡ Traffic and Coverage Analysis
‡Collection of data
‡Traffic calculation
‡Nominal Cell Plan
‡Coverage and Interference Prediction
‡Site Survey and Signal strength Measurement
‡Evaluation, final Cell Plan
‡Installation
‡Optimization

|  
  
‰ransmission Direction

‡ Uplink Transmission
± Transmission from Mobile to Radio Terminal

‡ Down Link Transmission


± Transmission from Radio Terminal to Mobile
± Uplink and Downlink channels separated by 45
MHz

|  
  
TDM

Power

8 8

0 0

f1 f2 FDM
|  
  
Gccess ‰ec niques

‡ Uplink 890 MHz to 915 MHz


‡ Down Link 935 MHz to 960 MHz
‡ 25 MHz divided into 125 channels of 200
KHz bandwidth

-  -  -  - 

!"#     - 

|  
  
Gccess ‰ec niques
‡ Time Division Multiple Access
± Each carrier frequency subdivided in time
domain into 8 time slots
± Each mobile transmits data in a frequency, in its
particular time slot - Burst period = 0.577 milli
secs.
± 8 time slots called a TDMA frame. Period is
.577 * 8 = 4.616 milli secs




      

 
|  
  
  stem secifications
Frequency band
Uplink 890 MHz-915 MHz
Downlink 935 MHz-960MHz
Duplex distance 45MHz
Carrier separation 200KHz
Modulation GMSK
Air transmission rate 270Kbps
Access method FDMA/TDMA
Speech Coder RPE-LTP-LPC
(Regular pulse excitation
-Long Term predictive
| 
-linear predictive Coder)

  


  - Network tructure


$% &' ('

$





$% 


„


$ %

$%
&'
"
) 

|  
  
  Network
SS
Switching
AUC System
External
PSTN & VLR HLR EIR
PDN N/W OMC
MS Mobile Station MSC
BTS Base transceiver System
BSC Base Station Controller
MSC Mobile Switching Center
HLR Home Location Register BSS BSC Base Station
VLR Visitor Location Register
BTS
System
EIR Equipment Identity Register
AUC Authentication Center
|  
  
OMC Operation And Maintenance Center MS
obile tation ( 

‡Hand portable unit


‡Frequency and Time Synchronization
‡Voice encoding and transmission
‡Voice encryption/decryption functions
‡Power measurements of adjacent cells
‡Display of short messages
‡International Mobile Equipment Identifier (IMEI)
|  
  
ubscriber Identit odule ( I
‡Portable Smart Card with memory (ROM-6KB to 16KB-A3/A8
algorithm, RAM- 128KB TO 256KB, EEPROM- 3KB to 8KB )
‡  „ 
±International Mobile Subscriber Identity(IMSI) (MCC + MNC+MSIN
±Personal Identification Number (PIN)
±Authentication Key (Ki)
‡!  „ 
±Temporary Mobile Subscriber Identity(TMSI)
±Location Area Identity (LAI)
±Phone memories, billing information
±Ability to store Short Messages received
|  
  
Îase ‰ranscei er tation
(Ή 

‡Consists of one or more radio terminals for


transmission and reception
‡Each Radio terminal represents an RF Channel
‡TRX and MS communicates over Um interface
‡Received data transcoding
‡Voice encryption/decryption
‡Signal processing functions of the radio interface
‡Uplink Radio channel power measurements
|  
  
Îase tation Controller (Î C
‡External Interfaces
±µAbis¶ interface towards the BTS
±µA¶ interface towards the MSC
‡Monitors and controls several BTSs
‡Management of channels on the radio interface
‡Alarm Handling from the external interfaces
‡Performs inter-cell Handover
‡Switching from µAbis¶ link to the µA¶ link
‡Interface to OMC for BSS Management
|  
  
atewa obile er ices
witc ing Center ( C

‡Interface of the cellular network to PSTN


‡Routes calls between PLMN and PSTN
‡Queries HLR when calls come from PSTN to
mobile user
‡Inter-BSC Handover
‡Performs call switching
‡Paging
‡Billing
|  
  
[ome Location Register
([LR

‡Stores user data of all Subscribers related to the GMSC


±International Mobile Subscriber Identity(IMSI)
±Users telephone number (MS ISDN)
±Subscription information and services
±VLR address
±Reference to Authentication center for key (Ki)
‡Referred when call comes from public land network
|  
  
Misitor Location Register
(MLR

‡Identity of Mobile Subscriber


‡Copy of subscriber data from HLR
‡Generates and allocates a Temporary Mobile
Subscriber Identity(TMSI)
‡Location Area Code
‡Provides necessary data when mobile originates
call

|  
  
Gut entication Center (GuC

‡Stores Subscriber authentication data called Ki, a


copy of which is also stored in in the SIM card
‡Generates security related parameters to authorize a
subscriber (SRES-Signed RESponse)
‡Generates unique data pattern called Cipher key (Kc)
for user data encryption
‡Provides triplets - RAND, SRES & Kc, to the HLR
on request.
|  
  
IR (quiment Identit
Register
EIR is a database that contains a list of all valid
mobile station equipment within the network,
where each mobile station is identified by its
International Mobile Equipment Identity(IMEI).
EIR has three databases.,
White list - For all known,good IMEI¶s
Black list - For all bad or stolen handsets
Grey list - For handsets/IMEI¶s that are
uncertain
|  
  
  ntities and ignaling
Grc itecture

|  
  
Interfaces and Protocols
!
 
 
  
  ‰ 


    $ "%




! 

|  
  
uunctional Plane of   «RR

Radio Resource Management (RR)


‡ Establish and Release stable connections between
MS and MSC
‡ Manage Limited Radio and Terrestrial resources
‡ Handover process is the sole responsibility of the
RR Layer
‡ Functions of RR layer are performed by MS and
BSC and partly by MSC
|  
  
C annel concet
Physical channel:
One timeslot of a TDMA-frame on one carrier
is referred to as a physical channel.
There are 8 physical channels per carrier in
GSM,channel 0-7(timeslot 0-7)
Logical channel:
A great variety of information must be
transmitted between BTS and the MS,for e.g.
user data and control signaling.Depending
on the kind of information transmitted we
refer to different logical channels.These logical
channels
| 
are mapped on physical channel.

  
Logical c annels
Logical channels

Control channels Traffic channels

Half Full
CCCH DCCH
BCH rate rate

FCCH SCH BCCH PCH AGCH RACH SDCCH SACCH FACCH


|  
  
Control c annels Îroadcast
c annels ÎC[
Frequency correction channel-FCCH
This serves two purposes
To make sure this is the BCCH carrier.
To allow the MS to synchronize to the frequency.

Synchronization Channel-SCH
This is used by the MS to synchronize to the
TDMA frame structure within the particular cell.
Listening to the SCH the MS receives the TDMA
frame number and also the BSIC.
|  
  
Control c annels Îroadcast
c annels ÎC[

Broadcast Control Channel-BCCH


The last information the MS must receive in
order to receive calls or make calls is some
information concerning the cell. This is BCCH.
This include the information of Max power
allowed in the cell,BCCH carriers for the
neighboring cells,Location Area Identity etc.
This is transmitted Downlink point to multipoint.

|  
  
Control c annels Common
Control C annels,CCC[
Paging Channel-PCH
The information on this channel is a paging message including
the MS¶s identity(IMSI).This is transmitted on Downlink.

Random access channel-RACH:


When the mobile realizes it is paged it answers by requesting a
signaling channel on RACH. RACH is also used by the MS if
it wants to originate a call.It is transmitted in Uplink point
to point.

|  
  
Control c annels Common
Control C annels,CCC[

Access Grant Channel-AGCH


On request for a signaling channel by MS the network
assigns a signaling channel(SDCCH) on AGCH. AGCH is
transmitted on the downlink point to point.

|  
  
Control c annels Dedicated
Control C annels-DCC[
Stand alone dedicated control channel(SDCCH)

AGCH assigns SDCCH as signaling channel on request by


MS.The MS is informed about which frequency & timeslot to
use for traffic.

This is transmitted both sides up and Downlink


point-point.

|  
  
Control c annels Dedicated
Control C annels-DCC[
Slow associated control channel-SACCH
Average signal strengths and quality of service of the serving
base station and of the neighboring cells is sent on
SACCH.Mobile receives information like what TX power
it has to transmit and the timing advance.

Fast associated control channel-FACCH


This channel is used for handover. Whenever a call is to be
transferred from one cell to another cell this channel is used.
|  
  
‰raffic C annels-‰C[

Full rate traffic channel occupies one physical


channel(one TS on a carrier)

Two half rate TCHs can share one physical


channel.

|  
  
Logical to P sical C annel
aing
%!
  

      
    

%    ( * $ ( * (
%   ! ( *  (

% 
 % (

|  
  
Îurst

The information format transmitted during


one timeslot in the TDMA frame is called
a burst.
    !  "#!!
Ë Normal Burst
Ë Random Access Burst
Ë Frequency Correction Burst
Ë Synchronization Burst
|  
  
Normal Îurst

T Coded Data S T. Seq. S Coded Data T GP


3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25

Tail Bit(T) :Used as Guard Time


Coded Data :It is the Data part associated with the burst
Stealing Flag :This indicates whether the burst is carrying
Signaling data.
Training Seq. :This is a fixed bit sequence known both to
the BTS & the MS.This takes care of the
signal deterioration.
|  
  
T Training Sequence Coded Data T GP
8 41 36 3 68.25

Random Access Burst


T Fixed Bit Sequence T GP
3 142 3 8.25

Freq. Correc. Burst

T Coded Data Training Sequence Coded T GP


3 39 64 Data 39 3 8.25

Synchronization Burst

|  
  
[ando er
‡ Means to continue a call even a mobile crosses the
border of one cell to another
‡ Procedure which made the mobile station really
roam
‡ Handover causes
± RxLev (Signal strength , uplink or downlink)
± RxQual (BER on data)
± O & M intervention
± Timing Advance
± Traffic or Load balancing
|  
  
[ando er ‰es

± „    ( )  +„ $ ,
Within same base station - intra cell
Between different base stations - inter cell

± -   ( )  +„  $ ,


Within same MSC -intra MSC
Between different MSCs - inter-MSC

|  
  
[ando er rocess
CELL 1

BSC

( )   

'  .
 

    

    
'
'  * ( )   '' 

    

    
 .

CELL 2

|  
  
  Identifiers- ubscriber
Identities - I DN
The MSISDN is a GSM directory number which
uniquely identifies a mobile subscription in the
Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN).
Calls will be routed from the PSTN and other
networks based on the Mobile Subscribers¶
MSISDN number.
MSISDN= CC + NDC + SN
CC= Country Code (91)
NDC= National Destination Code(98370)
SN= Subscriber Number (12345)
|  
  
International obile ubscriber
Identit [I I]
A subscriber is always identified within the GSM
network by the IMSI This is used for all signaling in the
PLMN. It is stored in the Subscriber Identity Module(SIM),
in the HLR and in the VLR. The IMSI consists of three
different parts.
IMSI= MCC + MNC + MSIN
(Maximum of 15 digits)=(3 digits)+(1-2 digits)+(maximum 11
digits)
MCC = Mobile Country Code
MNC = Mobile Network Code
MSIN
| 
= Mobile Station
 
Identification Number 
‰emorar obile ubscriber
Identit [‰ I]
The TMSI is used for the subscriber¶s confidentiality.
It should be combined with the LAI to uniquely
identify a MS.
Since the TMSI has only local significance (that is, within
the MSC/VLR area), the structure may be chosen by
each administration.
The TMSI should not consist of more than four
octets.
|  
  
obile tation Roaming
Number[ RN]
HLR knows in what Service area the subscriber
is located. In order to provide a temporary number
to be used for routing, the HLR requests the current
MSC/VLR to allocate a Mobile Station Roaming
Number(MSRN) to the called subscriber and to
return it. At reception of the MSRN, HLR sends it
to the MSC, which now can route the call to the
VLR where the called subscriber is currently
registered.
|  
  
International obile qumt.
Identit [II]
The IMEI is used for equipment identification. An IMEI
uniquely identifies a mobile station as a piece or assembly of
equipment.
IMEI = TAC + FAC + SNR + sp
TAC= Type Approval Code (6 digits),determined by GSM body
FAC= Final Assembly Code (2 digits), identifies the
manufacturer
SNR= Serial Number (6 digits), uniquely identifying all
equipment within each TAC and FAC
sp = Spare
| 
for future use (1 digit)

  
Location Grea Identit
LAI identifies a location area which is a group of cells..
It is transmitted in the BCCH.
When the MS moves into another LA (detected by monitoring
LAI transmitted on the BCCH) it must perform a LU.

LAI = MCC + MNC + LAC


MCC= Mobile Country Code(3 digits), identifies the country
MNC= Mobile Network Code(1-2 digits), identifies the GSM-
PLMN
LAC= Location Area Code, identifies a location area within a GSM
PLMN network. The maximum length of LAC is 16 bits,
enabling 65536 different location areas to be defined in
|  one GSM PLMN. 
  
uunctional Plane - obilit
anagement
Mobility Management (MM)
‡ Location updating
‡ Paging
‡ Security Management
± Preventing unauthorized users
± Maintaining Privacy of users
‡ Providing roaming facility
‡ MM functionality mainly handled by MS,
HLR, MSC/VLR.
|  
  
Location Udate
(1)Location
IMSI MGT (2) update request
IMSI
MSC/VLR
BSC BTS
(ID=2)
(6)Location
(3)Subscriber Update
Information (4)Subscriber acknowledge
Request Information
LAI=2
IMSI MSC/VLR
HLR (ID=1) LAI=1
(ID=2)

(5)Location
Cancellation
MSC/VLR VLR
BSC BTS
(ID=1)
|  
  
ecurit - Gut entication


/ !
± Authentication center
provides RAND to Mobile

± AuC generates SRES using
 Ki of subscriber and RAND

$% 
± Mobile generates SRES
using Ki and RAND
± Mobile transmits SRES to
! BTS

± BTS compares received
 SRES with one generated by
   AuC
|  
  
ecurit - Ci ering


/ !

- ± Data sent on air


interface ciphered
/ for security
   

  ± A5 and A8
/ / algorithms used to
!    !
cipher data
 
!
± Ciphering Key is
never transmitted
on air
|  
  
uunctional Plane
Communication anagement
(C

‡ Setup of calls between users on request


‡ Routing function i.e. Choice of transmission
segments linking users
‡ Point to Point Short message services

|  
  
 registration in network

‡ MS scans complete GSM frequency band for


highest power
‡ Tunes to highest powered frequency and looks for
FCCH. Synchronizes in frequency domain
‡ Get training sequence from SCH which follows
FCCH. Synchronizes in time domain.
‡ Accesses BCCH for network id, location area and
frequencies of the neighboring cells
|  
  
 registration in network
MS BTS BSC (G)MSC VLR HLR Action

   .  + (,
     + (,

'   .  + ! (,
   .  + ! (,

     + ! (,

    

  '   %


„ + ! (,

  '   %
„ + ! (,

           
&'   ('

     + ! (,

|  
  
MS
obile Originated Call
BTS HLR

BSC VLR

MS AuC
BTS GMSC
    
+ ! (,    
 
  
-  
  EIR
  
 
  % (
 

+ (, +% (,    
 
 
  

MSC -  
   

 
  

   % (
 .     
     
 

  
 
  
 . 
 
  BSC
  . 
    
-
+ (,
+% (,    
   + (,
+ (,
+ ! (, PSTN
+% (,
BTS

|  
  
MS
obile ‰erminated Call
  HLR
BTS
  BSC VLR

0  
&'  
MS AuC
BTS 0  &' GMSC  
 '  
  %
„
  
EIR



MSC
BSC
PSTN
BTS

'  

 

|  
  
à    
‡ Wireless and Personal Communication Systems.
Vijay.K.Garg and Wilkes.
‡ Overview of the GSM System and Protocol Architecture,
I Comm. magazine Moe
Rahnema.
‡ The GSM System for Mobile Communications
± Michel Mouly & Marie-Bernadette Pautet
Overview of the GSM Comm.
± John Scourias.
|  
  
|