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IMPACT OF JETS

 Force = Rate of change of momentum or F=

dp/dt =m x dv/dt =m/dt x dv
m/dt= mass of fluid per unit time =m
 m =ρ x Q ; ρ- mass density (kg/m3) & Q-
quantity of water striking (m3/sec)
 ρ= (w/g) ; ρ = 1000 kg/m3 (for water at 40C)
 w =sp. Weight = 9810 N/m3 for water
IMPACT ON FIXED FLAT PLATE

 dv = change in velocity. Since

after striking the plate the jet V
deflects by 90 degrees, so the
V
component of the velocity of
the jet leaving the plate in the
V
original direction of striking
jet will be zero.
 F = m (V-0) = m V = ρAV2
IMPACT ON INCLINED FIXED PLATE

 Component of the velocity

normal to the plate = V sinθ
 Jet leaves the plate V sinθ
tangentially after impact,
velocity normal to plate V Fx
after impact = 0 θ 90-θ

 Fn = ρAV(V sinθ – 0) or Fn
Fn = ρAV2 sinθ
 Fx = Fn sinθ ; Fy = Fn cosθ Fy
IMPACT ON MOVING FLAT PLATE

 Velocity with which the jet

strikes the plate = (V-u) V u

 F=ρA(V-u)[(V-u)-0] or F
= ρA(V-u)2
V
 Work done by the jet on the
plate /sec = F x d/t =F x u
 Work done = ρA(V-u)2 u or
wa/g(V-u)2u
V
IMPACT ON MOVING INCLINED PLATE

 Fn =ρA(V-u)[(V-u)sinθ – 0]
u
 Fx = Fn sinθ ; Fy = Fn cosθ
 Work done by the jet on the (V-u) sinθ

plate/sec = Fx. u or
 W= ρA(V-u)2 sin2θ u V Fx
θ 90-θ

Fn

Fy
IMPACT ON STATIONARY CURVED VANE

 Jet after striking the vane gets

deflected through an angle
(180-θ)
 Component of the velocity 180-θ
V
θ
leaving the jet in the direction of θ
the incoming jet = V cos (180-θ)
or –V cosθ
 Fx= ρAV[V-(-Vcosθ)] or
 Fx = ρAV2(1+cosθ)
TANGENTIAL IMPACT ON CURVED VANE

V V sinφ
Jet after striking gets deflected
φ
through an angle 180- (θ+ φ) V cosφ
Component of the velocity at
inlet in x direction = V cosθ 180- (θ+ φ)
+ve X
Component of the velocity at φ
θ
outlet in x direction = -V cosφ
Fx= ρAV[V cosθ – (-V cosφ)] or
Fx= ρAV2[cos θ + cos φ)] V cosθ
θ
Fy= ρAV [sin θ – sin φ)]
2

V
V sinθ
IMPACT ON UNSYMMETRICAL CURVED VANE

 Relative velocity of jet at inlet u Vw2

Vr1 = V1 – u φ β
V2 OUTLET VEL. TRIANGLE
Vr2
 Relative velocity of jet at outlet
Vr2 = V2 – u
 Absolute velocity of the jet V1
is resolved into two φ
u
θ
components Vw1 & Vf1
 If the vane is smooth V1=V2 ,
hence Vr1= Vr2
 Fx = m * change in velocity in
V1
x –direction Vf1
Vr1
or m * [Vw1 (+-) Vw2] INLET VEL. TRIANGLE
α θ
 Work Done = Fx * u u
Vw1
IMPACT ON RADIAL VANES

 Tangential velocity of the blade tip at

inlet u1 =ω R1
 Tangential velocity of the blade tip at R1
outlet u2 =ω R2 where ω = 2πN/60 ; OUTLET VEL. TRIANGLE
R2
Vw2
N – speed of wheel in rpm u2
φ β
 Mass of water striking per sec Vr2 V2
Vf2
m = ρAV1
 Tangential momentum imparted at
inlet =m * Vw1
 Tangential momentum at outlet
= - m * Vw2
 Angular Momentum at inlet =
m * Vw1 * R1
V1
 Angular Momentum at outlet = Vf1
- m * Vw2 * R2 Vr1
α θ
u1 INLET VEL. TRIANGLE
Vw1
EULER’S EQUATION

 Torque produced in the wheel τ = change of angular momentum =

[m*Vw1R1 – (-mVw2R2)]
 Work Done on the wheel per second W = τ * ω =
[m*Vw1R1 + mVw2R2] * ω
 If β> 90 , then Vw2 is +ve
 W=m*[Vw1u1 (+-) Vw2u2]
 For unit inflow of mass E = [Vw1u1 (+-) Vw2u2]
 In turbomachines work is either done by the system (pumps) or the work
is done on the system (turbines)
 If Vw1u1 > Vw2u2, work is done on the system (energy transfer +ve)
 If Vw1u1 < Vw2u2, work is done by the system (energy transfer -ve)
 E=[Vw1u1 - Vw2u2] FOR TURBINE & E= -[Vw1u1 - Vw2u2] or
E=[Vw2u2 – Vw1u1] FOR PUMP
EULER’S EQUATION

 From inlet velocity Δ : Vf12 + Vw12 = V12 or Vf12 = V12 - Vw12

 Also Vf12 + (Vw1-u1)2 = Vr12 or Vf12 = Vr12 - (Vw1-u1)2
CHANGE OF STATIC HEAD
 V12 - Vw12 = Vr12 - (Vw1-u1)2 or Vw1u1 =1/2 * (V12+u12-Vf12)
 Similarly from outlet Δ : Vw2u2 =1/2 * (Vr22 – V22 –u22)
 Since E=[Vw1u1 - Vw2u2] ROTATION OF FLUID MASS: CENTRIFUGAL EFFECT

 Therefore E = 1/2 * [ (V12-V22) + (u12-u22) + (Vr22 – Vr12)]

CHANGE OF RELATIVE VEL. W.R.T WHEEL (ACCEL OR RETARDATION)