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Melakukan kajian kebutuhan

masyarakat

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Needs are the gap between what a
situation is and what it should be.

Resources are those things that can be


used to improve the quality of
community life.

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Why should you identify local needs
and resources?
• To understand the environment.
• To understand public opinion.
• To make decisions about priorities.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Who benefits from identifying needs
and resources?
• Those experiencing the problem.
• Service providers.
• Community leaders.
• And you as a health worker!

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You should identify needs and assets
when:

• You are planning to start a program.


• You are implementing an initiative.
• Efforts are being reviewed.

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Communities have problems, just like
people
• Communities, like people, try to solve their
problems.
• Analyzing these problems helps in their solution.

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Examples of Community Problems
• Noise
• Child abuse • Overwork
• Crime • Poverty
• Transportation • Sexism
• Drugs • Teenage pregnancy
• Elder care • Domestic violence
• Racism • Vandalism
• Ethnic conflict • Graffiti
• Health • Safety
• Housing • Emergency services
• Hunger • Schools
• Inequality
• Jobs

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Criteria for defining a community
problem:
• Frequency
• Duration
• Scope or range
• Severity
• Legality
• Perception

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Why analyze a community problem?
• To identify the problem or issue.
• To understand what’s at the heart of a
problem.
• To determine barriers and resources
associated with addressing the problem.
• To develop the best action steps for
addressing the problem.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


When should you analyze a community
problem?
• When the problem isn’t defined very clearly.
• When little is know about the problem or its
possible consequences.
• When you want to find the causes that may improve
the chance of successfully addressing the problem.
• When people are jumping to “solutions” much too
soon.
• When you need to identify actions to address the
problem, and learn what persons or groups could
best collaborate in taking action.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Metoda yang biasa digunakan
• Menggunakan data yang sudah ada
• Forum komunikasi dg masyarakat
• Wawancara dan focus group
• Obervasi partisipasi langsung
• Survei
• Pemetaan aset

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Metoda untuk kajian kebutuhan
masyarakat
• Kuantitatif:
• Survei dengan mengisi kuesioner
• Survei dengan wawancara
• Kualitatif:
• Focus group discussion
• Wawancara
• Obervasi
• Observasi partisipasi

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Melaksanakan survei

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What are surveys?
Mengumpulkan informasi yang diharapkan
merepresentasikan pandangan keseluruhan kelompok
yang menjadi perhatian kita

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Tiga metoda utama:
• Case study surveys
• Sampled surveys
• Census surveys

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Mengapa melakukan survey?
• Mempelajari perilaku, kebutuhan, dan pendapat
• Mengenal sikap dan reaksi
• Mengukur kepuasan
• Menambah kredibilitas suatu penelitian
• .

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Kapan dilakukan?

• Jika kita membutuhkan informasi dengan


cepat dan efisien
• Ketika kita membutuhkan informasi yang
valid secara statistik pada kelompok orang
yang cukup banyak
• Jika kita tidak dapat memperoleh informasi
yang kita butuhkan dengan cara lain

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Preparing a survey
• Decide on the purpose of the survey.
• Decide whom you will survey.
• Sampling
• Decide what method you will use to collect your
survey data.
• Written or oral
• Write your questions.
• Open-ended
• Closed-ended
• Multiple choice
• Likert scale

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Distributing a survey
• Direct mail
• Interviews & phone surveys
• Drop boxes
• Media distribution
• Convenience sampling
• Group administration

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Collecting the surveys
• Gather incoming surveys
• Review returned surveys
• Secure a larger return, if necessary

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Analyzing the results
• Add up results and display in a table.
• Try to find patterns.
• Look at the overall survey to see how percentages
compare.
• Summarize results in a one page report.
• Share with staff & get their feedback.
• Decide what to do with results.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Survei kajian kebutuhan:
• Siapkan daftar pertanyaan
• Hitung besar sampel
• Pertimbangkan bagaimana memperoleh data:
interview, telpon, tertulis
• Lakukan tabulasi, penyimpulan, distribusikan,
diskusikan, dan gunakan

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Mengapa melakukan survei?
• Mempelajari kebutuhan masyarakat
• Memperoleh deskripsi yang jelas dan objektif dari apa yang
dibutuhkan oleh masyarakat
• Mengidentifikasi kebutuhan yang mungkin belum kita
ketahui
• Memastikan apa yang kita lakukan memang yang
dibutuhkan
• Memperoleh dukungan dari masyarakat
• Sebagai upaya untuk memberdayakan masyarakat

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Kapan survei kebutuhan tidak boleh
dilakukan?
• Ketika kita pasit bahwa yang kita lakukan sudah
sesuai dengan kebutuhan
• Jika suatu kegiatan urgen untuk segera dilakukan
• Jika kajian kebutuhan sudah dilakukan
sebelumnya
• Jika masyarakat menganggap kajian yang kita
lakukan sudah berulang kali dilakukan dan
percuma saja

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Bagaimana pelaksanaannya?

1. Memastikan alasan melakukan survei


2. Tetapkan tujuan survei
3. Tetapkan waktu yang dibutuhkan
4. Pastikan siapa yang akan ditanya
5. dan berapa besar sampel yang akan diambil
6. Susun pertanyaan-pertanyaan yang akan disampaikan
7. Pastikan siapa yang akan melakukan

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Bagaimana melaksanakan ?
8. Susun draft kuesioner
9. Lakukan uji coba
10. Lakukan eprbaikan sesudah uji coba
11. Laksanakan survei
12. Tabulasi
13. Interpertasi
14. Rencana tindak lanjut
15. Interpret your results.
16. Laksanakan tindak lanjut
17. Lakukan kajian kembali

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Conducting Focus Groups

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What is a focus group?

•Diskusi kelompok kecil difasilitati oleh fasilitator


yang terlatih, digunakan untuk mempelajari lebih
dalam pendapat terhadap suatu topik tertentu dan
tindaklanjutnya di masa mendatang

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How are focus groups different from
regular “groups”?
• They are focused on a specific topic.
• They have a trained facilitator.
• Members of the group are encouraged to talk
openly about their opinions and respond to
other members.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Kapan dilakukan FGD
• Ketika mempertimbangkan untuk
mengenalkan program baru
• Ketika kita ingin menggali lebih dalam
pendapat/opini suatu kelompok
• Jika apa yang ingin kita tanyakan tidak dapat
dengan mudah dijawab melalui kuesioner
survei.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Melaksanakan FGD:
Sebelum pertemuan:
• Periksa kembali tujuan
• Pertimbangkan juga metoda lain
• Pastikan orang yang tepat untuk memimpin
• Pastikan ada yang mencata
• Pastikan siapa saja yang diundang
• Pertimbangkan memberi penghargaan
• Perhatikan hal-hal penting yang perlu dibahas
• Siapkan daftar pertanyaan
• Pastikan siapa yang membantu dalam proses FGD
• Lakukan review pengaturannya

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Melaksanakan FGD:
Pada saat pertemuan:
• Ucapkan terimakasih atas kedatangan peserta.
• Sampaikan tujuan pertemuan
• Jelaskan bagaimana proses pertemuan, dan bagaimana setiap
peseerta berkontribusi
• Persiapkan dengan pertanyaan pembuka dan pastikan bahwa
semua pendapat didengarkan
• Tanyakan pertanyaan-pertanyaan lanjutan
• Jika seluruh pertanyaan sudah ditanyakan, mintalah komentar
dari peserta
• Jelaskan dan bahas tentang tahapan berikut yang akan dilakukan,
dan apa yang diharapkan untuk dilakukan
• Ucapkan terimakasih pada saat menutup diskusi

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Sesudah pertemuan:
• Buat transkrip dan kesimpulan dari pertemuan
• Periksa pola data, tema, pertanyaan-pertanyaan
yang baru, dan kesimpulan
• Lakukan sharing dengan kelompok
• Gunakan hasil FGD

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Identifying Community Assets

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Mengenal aset yang dimiliki
masyarakat?
• Besar masyarakat ?
• Apa saja aset/sumber daya yang dimiliki?
• Orang/tenaga kerja, waktu, sumber daya
alam, sarana kesehatan, usaha yang ada,
mata pencaharian, dsb?

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Melakukan wawancara

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Apa yang dimaksud dengan
wawancara?
Pembicaraan dengan tujuan
tertentu.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Interviews jangan dilakukan jika:
• Skala besar.
• Membutuhkan data numerik
• Banyak rintangan untuk dilakukan
• Ada maksud-maksud tersembunyi
dari yang akan diwawancara

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Jenis wawancara
• Face-to-face
• Telephone
• Focus groups

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Melakukan wawancara

• Latih diri • Keep your goals in


mind
• Small-talk
• Don't take "yes/no"
• Be natural
• Look sharp • Respect
• Listen

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Problems with questions:
• Intimidating questions
• Two-in-one question
• Complex questions
• Question order

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Summary:
• Determine what you want
• Discuss possible questions
• Draft questions
• Decide on interviewee
• Train your interviewers
• Contact interviewees
• Make appointments
• Analyze the data

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Tips melakukan wawancara
• Awali dengan small talk.
• Jelaskan tujuan.
• Pastikan responden/informan.
• Pastikan semua informasi tentang topik dan area
yang digali dapat diperoleh
• Pastikan siapa lagi yang akan diwawancara
• Biarkan yang kita wawancara yang mengakhiri
wawancara
• Sampaikan ucapan terimakasih

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Metoda kualitatif untuk kajian
kebutuhan masyarakat

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Apa yang dimaksud dengan metoda
kualitatif?
Kajian yang hasilnya tidak dapat disampaikan dalam
bentuk angka

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Apa saja yang masuk dalam metoda
kualitatif :
• Individual and group interviews.
• Observation.
• Focus groups.
• Community meetings.
• Interpretation of records, transcripts,
and other quantitative data.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Mengupayakan hasil yang reliabel dan
valid:
• Laporkan secara lengkap dan akurat
• Susun pertanyaan yang tepat pada orang yang tepat
• Gunakan metoda kualitatif ketika kita tidak dapat
memperoleh informasi dengan metoda kuantitatif
• Buang perasaan dan pendapat pribadi ketika melakukan
kajian dengan metoda kualitatif

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Mengapa menggunakan metoda
kualitatif?
• Untuk mendapat informasi yang tidak bisa diperoleh
dengan metoda kuantitatif
• Untuk mendapat informasi pada realitas keadaan yang
ada di masyarakat
• Untuk melibatkan masyarakat dalam melakukan kajian
permasalahan yang ada di masyarakat
• Memberi peluang untuk pemahaman yang lebih luas
dengan permasalahan yang ada
• Menggali lebih dalam tentang fakto manusia

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• Ketika kita membutuhkan deskripsi kualitatif dari suatu
permasalahan
• Ketika kita berupaya memahami alasan dan motivasi yang
melatar belakangi suatu perilaku
• Ketika kita ingin melibatkan masyarakat dalam kajian
kebutuhan sedekat mungkin dengan masyarakat
• Ketika kita ingin menganalisis lebih lanjut hasil kuantitatif
(community-based participatory research)

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Bagaiman menggunakan metoda
kualitatif?
• Putuskan apa yang ingin kita ketahui
• Pilih metoda yang tepat untuk memperoleh
informasi
• Pilih siapa yang akan mengumpulkan informasi
• Latih mereka
• Pastikan informan yang dibutuhkan
• Kumpulkan informasi

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Interview:
• Sepakati tempat.
• Pakaian yang nyaman bagi kita dan yang
diwawancara.
• Minta ijin jika merekam, memfoto, dan mengambil
video
• Catat waktu, tempat, dan keseluruhan hasil
wawancara.
• Pahami dan rangkaikan pertanyaan secara hati-hati

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Interviews:
• Tanyakan pertanyaan terbuka
• Gali lebih dalam
• Jangan memotong jawaban
• Lakukan konfirmasi dengan informan yang lain
(triangulasi)
• Jika melakukan wawancara kelompok, dorong tiap
orang untuk berpartisipasi, cegah orang yang
mendominasi, upayakan fokus pada permasalahan
yang dibahas

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Observasi:
• Pastikaninformasi apa yang akan diperoleh melalui
obsertasi
• Pastikan apa yang akan diobservasi
• Siapa yang melakukan observsi
• Berapa lama observasi akan berlangsung.
• Catat dan rekam
• Analisis
• Susun rencana tindak lanjut dan laksanakan

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Leading a Community Dialogue on
Building a Healthy Community

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What is a “dialogue”?
A "dialogue" is a community conversation that can
take many forms.

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Why should your community host a dialogue?

• Expand the base of constituencies and voices.


• Reach common ground.
• Surface common issues and the resources to address
them.
• Sustain ongoing community discussion.
• Build the capacity to act on ideas.
• Launch new initiatives.
• Focus corporate and organizational investment
towards community benefit.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Why should your community host a
dialogue? (cont.)
• Break through community "turf wars" and
connect fragmented resources.
• Stimulate action and track progress for
accountability.
• Generate local media attention.
• Help leaders to see their roles in building
healthy, sustainable communities.
• Be a part of the nationwide healthy
communities movement.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


What makes a logic model effective?
• Logically links activities and effects.
• Is visually engaging (simple, parsimonious)
yet contains the appropriate degree of
detail for the purpose (not too simple or
too confusing).
• Provokes thought, triggers questions.
• Includes forces known to influence the
desired outcomes.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Who can participate in or host the
dialogue?
• Neighborhood leaders
• Youth
• Business people
• Public health and medical care professionals
• Faith leaders
• Seniors
• Homemakers
• Educators
• Community organizers
Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas
What makes healthy people and a
healthy community?
• Engaged citizenry • Adequate and affordable
• Diversity housing
• Ethical behavior • Accessible transportation
• Courage • Openness to change
• Quality education systems • Responsiveness
• Childhood development • Innovation
• Vibrant economy • Patience
• Support networks • Governance
• Livable wages • Dynamic faith
• Voluntarism • Recreation

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


What makes healthy people and a
healthy community? (cont.)
• Communities
• Culture
• Clean air
• Safe Water
• Continuous improvement
• Strong families
• Safe neighborhoods

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How do you host a dialogue?
• Access resources
• Prepare for your dialogue
• Invite participants
• Plan to record your dialogue
• Conducting the dialogue
• Concluding the dialogue and next steps

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


How do you make your dialogue
count?
Record your findings and use them locally, while
advancing local action by getting the results out to
participants and relevant organizations within ten
days of the dialogue.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Windshield and Walking Surveys

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


What are windshield and walking
surveys?
• Windshield surveys are systematic observations
made from a moving vehicle.
• Walking surveys are systematic observations made
on foot.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Why would you conduct windshield
or walking surveys?
• Windshield or walking surveys give an objective view of the
community.
• They can be adapted to community-based participatory action
research, inviting community participation.
• They may allow you to see assets that community members take
for granted or don’t see.
• They can be the easiest and quickest way to get an overview of the
entire community.
• They allow clear comparisons among different neighborhoods in a
city, villages in a rural area, etc.
• They can be very useful in understanding specific aspects of a
community.
• They give you a “feel” for the community.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


When should you conduct
windshield or walking surveys?
• When you conduct a survey depends on your purpose in
doing so:
• If the information you’re gathering is geographic or physical –
where things are located, what housing is like – then the survey
can be conducted anytime.
• If you want to understand how people use the community, you
have to conduct your survey at times – perhaps a number of
different times – when they’re likely to be engaged in the
activities you’re interested in.
• You may have to do a number of surveys at different times of the
day, week, and/or year to find out what you want to know.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Who should conduct windshield or
walking surveys?
• A small urban neighborhood or rural village might be adequately
surveyed in a day by a single person.
• A large city might require several days by several teams of observers.
• If you’re engaged in participatory research, you might organize
observers in teams, each of which has representatives of several
different stakeholder groups – different ages, cultures, ethnicities,
income levels, community sectors (business, government, health
and community services), etc.
• If the survey is to be done within your organization, you might
consider using teams composed of folks from different parts of the
organization (line staff, administrators, support staff, etc.) or from
different locations.
• Consider safety when assigning particular people to particular
neighborhoods, and when deciding whether individuals or teams
should conduct the survey.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


How do you conduct windshield or walking
surveys?
General guidelines for both windshield and walking surveys
• Determine who will conduct the survey.
• Decide on the questions you want your survey to answer.
• Decide on the areas you’ll include in your survey.
• Decide when you’ll conduct your survey.
Train the people who are going to conduct the survey in the following strategies:
• Get well acquainted with your questions, the purpose of the survey, and what you’re
looking for.
• Make and use a checklist to ensure that you address all your questions, and observe all
the areas you want to.
• Try to be unobtrusive.
• Carry identification.
• Take notes as you go along.
• If you’re working in teams, assign roles.
• Discuss your findings as you go.
• Pay attention to safety.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Guidelines for a windshield survey
• Use a map.

• If you can, try to use a team of at least two.

• Drive at a moderate speed, and avoid unexpected


actions.

• Drive both on major and minor streets, particularly in


residential neighborhoods.

• Pull over at regular intervals to make and compare notes.

• Try to be inconspicuous.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Guidelines for a walking survey
• Study a map beforehand, or do a drive-through so
you’ll know where you’re going.
• Again, it can be helpful to work in teams.

• If you want to experience the community, take


part in everyday activities.

• Go inside public buildings and cultural institutions.

• Sit down in a quiet place to take notes.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Windshield and walking surveys
• Sometimes, the best survey can be a combination
of walking and driving.

• Analyze what you’ve seen and decide how to use


the information.

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Pengertian SMD
• Survei mawas diri adalah kegiatan
pengenalan, pengumpulan dan
pengkajian masalah kesehatan yang
dilakukan oleh kader dan tokoh
masyarakat setempat di bawah
bimbingan kepala Desa/Kelurahan,
petugas Puskesmas, Bidan di Desa.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Latar Belakang SMD
• Pemberdayaan Masyarakat :
Meningkatkan Kesadaran Masyarakat akan
pentingnya kesehatan

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Tujuan SMD
• Mengumpulkan data, masalah kesehatan,
lingkungan dan perilaku.
• Mengkaji dan menganalisis masalah
kesehatan, lingkungan, dan perilaku.
• Menginventarisasi sumber daya masyarakat
yang dapat mendukung upaya mengatasi
masalah kesehatan.
• Diperolehnya dukungan kepala
desa/kelurahan dan pemuka masyarakat
dalam pelaksanaan penggerakan dan
pemberdayaan masyarakat .

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Manfaat SMD
• Masyarakat sadar akan adanya masalah.
• Mengetahui besarnya masalah.
• Menggali sumber daya yang ada / dimiliki
desa.
• Dasar untuk menyusun pemecahan
masalah.

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Pelaksana SMD

• Kader
• Tokoh masyarakat di desa.

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Sasaran SMD

Sasaran SMD adalah semua rumah yang ada


di desa/kelurahan atau menetapkan
sampel rumah dilokasi tertentu (± 450
rumah).

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Pelaksanaan SMD

1. Petugas Puskesmas, Bidan di desa dan


kader/kelompok warga : pengenalan
instrumen (daftar pertanyaan),
penentuan sasaran, penentuan cara
memperoleh informasi.
2. Melaksanakan SMD.
3. Pengolahan Data.

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Cara Penyajian Data SMD

1. Secara Tekstular
2. Secara Tabular
3. Secara Grafikal

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Contoh Kuisioner SMD

No. Uraian Absolut %

AKSES PELAYANANDAN PEMBIAYAAN KESEHATAN


Bila anda atau anggota keluarga lainnya sakit, di mana berobatnya? 95 95
a. Tenaga kesehatan (mantri, dokter, bidan desa, puskesmas, 3 3
rumah sakit) 2 2
b. Tradisional (dukun atau alternatif) 0 0
c. Diobati sendiri 100 100
d. Lain-lain,

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


6. Describe features of the defined community and the
broader context that affect the issue and efforts to
improve it.
• Demographics
• Social determinants that intensify or moderate issues
• Nature and capacity of the community
7. Determine how well the available data fit with the
geographic area you’ve defined.
8. Maintain cross-jurisdictional alliances and
collaboration, so that you can continue to monitor the
area in the future.

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


N =t² x p(1-p)

n : minimum required sample size
t : confidence level at x% level of
significance (1,96)
p : estimate of the proportion of people
falling into the group in which you are
interested (50%)
m : margin of error (5% -10 %) = confidence
interval (utk communty survey = 10%, USA)
Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas
_____N_____
New N =
1 + N–1
pop

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Tugas kelompok
• Bagi kelas sesuai dengan asal puskesmas
• Tugas:
• Pilih satu topik untuk kajian kebutuhan masyarakat
• Tetapkan tujuan
• Tetapkan metoda pengumpulan data
• Tetapkan jumlah
• Susun instrumen pengumpulan data
• Tetapkan langkah-langkah pelaksanaannya
• Peragakan

Copyright © 2014 by The University of Kansas


Kebijakan terkait dengan kajian
kebutuhan dalam perencanaan
puskesmas
• Cantumkan dalam lampiran kebijakan Bab I (dan
Bab IV):
• Perencanaan puskesmas disusun berdasarkan analisis
kebutuhan masyarakat
• Analisis kebutuhan masyarakat dilakukan dengan cara
menganalisis data umum, data khusus, data kinerja, dan
masukan dari masyarakat yang diperoleh melalui survei
mawas diri, survei kebutuhan masyarakat, musyawarah
masyarakat desa, diskusi dengan masyarakat, lokakarya
dengan masyarakat dan lintas sektor, kotak saran,
maupun masukan melalui sms maupun telpon hot-line.
• ….dst

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Terkait dengan kebijakan tsb perlu
disusun, antara lain
• Panduan SMD
• Panduan MMD
• Panduan/Kerangka acuan survei kebutuhan dan
kepuasan
• Panduan/kerangka acuan lokakarya kebutuhan
masyarakat
• Panduan/kerangka acuan focus group discussion
• Dsb

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SOP-SOP yang terkait juga perlu
disusun
• SOP SMD
• SOP MMD
• SOP FGD
• SOP Lokakarya dengan masyarakat
• SOP survei kebutuhan

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