Alternative Instructional Strategies: Part I General Intro on Active Learning and Motivation and Creative Thinking

Dr. Curtis J. Bonk
Associate Professor, Indiana University,

Expectations List

Why is Class Important
‡ For Students:
± ± ± ± ± Variety, variety, variety Address preferences Provide challenges and supports Allows some autonomy Better prepared for changing times

‡ For Instructors:
± Get to know students better ± More reflection on teaching ± More confidence

My Intentions: Who Targeted
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Update teaching methods and philosophies Build collaborative teams Provide labels for what already do Create long-range goals Design usable curricula Foster interaction and collaboration Stop being giant yellow highlighters

Preliminary Action Plan«

Test Question #1
‡ When will active learning meet active teaching?

How does one fit answer to fact?´ . Gragg (1940: Because Wisdom Can¶t be Told) ³A student of business with tact Absorbed many answers he lacked.Charles I. But acquiring a job. He said with a sob.

competitive Text. manager.Traditional Teachers ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Supposed sage.or teacher-centered Transmission model Lack interconnections & inert Squash student ideas . conveyer King of the mountain Sets the agenda Learner is a sponge Passive learning & discrete knowledge Objectively assess.

Anyone? Anyone? .

Must Statistics and Math teachers be boring? .

The NSSE (nessie) (Kuh. 2003) .

³It's an embarrassment that we can tell people almost anything about education except how well students are learning. National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education .´ Patrick M. Callan.

Pascarella & Patrick T.What Really Matters in College: Student Engagement ³The research is unequivocal: students who are actively involved in both academic and out-of-class activities gain more from the college experience than those who are not so involved.´ Ernest T. How College Affects Students . Terenzini.

Evidence of Student Engagement (Kuh. 2003) ‡ To what extent are students engaged in effective educational practices? ‡ How can we obtain and best use such information? .

National Survey of Student Engagement (pronounced ³nessie´) Community College Survey of Student Engagement (pronounced ³sessie´) College student surveys that assess the extent to which students engage in educational practices associated with high levels of learning and development (Kuh. 2003) .

in press) NSSE Benchmarks Level of Academic Challenge Student Faculty Interaction Enriching Educational Experiences Active & Collaborative Learning Supportive Campus Environment .B n h ak o Ef civ e c mr s f f e t e E u aio a Pr cic d c t nl a t e (Kuh.

.Level of Academic Challenge Challenging intellectual and creative work is central to student learning and collegiate quality. 2003). Colleges and universities promote high levels of student achievement by emphasizing the importance of academic effort and setting high expectations for student performance (Kuh.

or experiences Coursework emphasizes: Making judgments about the value of information. or book-length packs of course readings Number of written papers or reports of 20 pages or more Coursework emphasizes: Analyzing the basic elements of an idea. or methods . books. arguments. information. experience or theory Coursework emphasizes: Synthesizing and organizing ideas.Level of Academic Challenge (Kuh. 2003) Sample of 10 questions: Number of assigned textbooks.

.Active and Collaborative Learning (Kuh. Collaborating with others in solving problems or mastering difficult material prepares students to deal with the messy. unscripted problems they will encounter daily during and after college. 2003) Students learn more when they are intensely involved in their education and are asked to think about and apply what they are learning in different settings.

etc.) .Active and Collaborative Learning (Kuh. 2003) 7 questions: Asked questions in class or contributed to class discussions Made a class presentation Worked with other students on projects during class Worked with classmates outside of class to prepare class assignments Tutored or taught other students Participated in a community-based project as part of a regular course Discussed ideas from your reading or classes with others outside of class (students. co-workers. family members.

2003) .Are senior transfer students generally more or less engaged compared with native students? Less engaged (Kuh.

What We¶re Learning About Student Engagement From NSSE George Kuh (in press). Change Indiana University Bloomington .

Change Indiana University Bloomington .Who¶s more engaged?  Women  Full-time students  Students living on campus  Native students (those who start at and graduate from the same school)  Learning community students  International students  Students with diversity experiences What We¶re Learning About Student Engagement From NSSE George Kuh (in press).

.Active & Collaborative Learning ‡ Samford University makes extensive use of problem-based learning (PBL) strategies to induce students to work together to examine complex problems.

a month during which classes meet from 9 AM to noon. five days a week. Group projects and discussion-oriented pedagogies are coupled with a community service project.Active & Collaborative Learning ‡ Eckerd College developed Autumn Term. .

Student-Faculty Interaction ‡ Elon University added an extra hour of class meeting time for experiential learning. . This allows students and faculty to dig deeper and promotes more frequent student-faculty contact.

A Paradigm Shift Happening? .

Students are too often« ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Not very interested in ideas Not respectful of others ideas Not well organized Wanting learning to seem easy Emotionally moody and sleepy Preoccupied with previous class or hour Expecting entertainment Unable to concentrate for too long Isolated or alienated .

Learning Metaphors ‡ Teacher or text-centered to Student or thinking skill-centered to Student generated or problem-centered ‡ Transmission to Construction or Design to Discovery or Transformation ‡ Boring to Active to Love of Learning ‡ Sponge to Growing Tree to Pilgrim on a Journey .

cannot make inferences and solve problems ‡ Educational Goals ± Retention. 1992) ‡ Causes of educational shortfall ± ± ± ± Trivial pursuit model Ability counts most theory Missing. inert. and active use of knowledge . ritual knowledge Poor thinking. naïve. rely on knowledge telling.Smart Schools (Perkins. understanding.

less formal assess Display student ideas--proud and motivated Build CT. tour guide. real-world tasks Subjective. facilitator Student and problem-centered Learner is a growing tree and on a journey Knowledge is constructed and intertwined Many resources (including texts & teachers) Authentic. CR. collaborative. mentor.Consultative Teachers ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Co-learner. continual. CL skills .

And also a sense of humor!!! .

Relevant/Meaningful/Interests 4.Active Learning Principles: 1. Authentic/Raw Data 2. Negotiation. Teacher as Facilitator and Co-Learner 7. Multiple Viewpoints/Perspectives 10. Social Interaction and Dialogue 8. Problem-Based & Student Gen Learning 9. Choice and Challenge 6. Student Autonomy/Inquiry 3. & Reflection . Link to Prior Knowledge 5. Collab.

Failure to learn results from exclusion from practice 7. 1993) 1. Learning is an act of membership 4. Knowledge is integrated into life of community 3. Knowing in engagement in practice 5. Engagement & empowerment are linked 6. We have a society of lifelong learners . Learning is social 2.7 Fundamental Principles of Learning (Kahn.

Resources in a Learning Environment: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Teachers Peers Curriculum/Textbooks Technology/Tools Experts/Community Assessment/Testing Self Reflection Parents .

.Sociocultural Ideas ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Shared Space and Intersubjectivity Social Dialogue on Authentic Problems Mentoring and Teleapprenticeships Scaffolding and Electronic Assistance Group Processing and Reflection Collaboration and Negotiation in ZPD Choice and Challenge Community of Learning with Experts and Peers Portfolio Assessment and Feedback Assisted Learning (e. task structuring) .g.

meaning is derived from negotiating. 1991). or real world. and linking concepts within a community of peers (Harel & Papert. & Duguid. hence. contexts with problems that allow students to generate their own solution paths (Brown. Collins. generating. . ‡ Constructivism--concerned with learner's actual act of creating meaning (Brooks. The constructivist argues that the child's mind actively constructs relationships and ideas. 1990).Connections New Theories ‡ Situated Learning--asserts that learning is most effective in authentic. 1989).

. ___ 6. students work in small groups or teams when solving problems. I help students to explore. ___ 3. and connect their ideas.Teacher Self-Assessment for active learning. ___ 4. I give hints and clues for solving problems but do not give away the answers. (Bonk. ___ 7. ___ 1. students can relate new terms and concepts to events in their lives ___ 5. students use computers to help them organize and try out their ideas. students share their ideas and views with each other and me.. students have a say in class activities and tests.. 1995) In my classes. build. ___ 2.

students bring in information that extends across subject areas or links topics. ___ 8.. students develop ideas from a variety of library and electronic resources. I relate new information or problems to what students have already learned. ___ 12. I provide diagrams or pictures of main ideas to make confusing info clearer. ___ 14.. students prepare answers with a partner or team b/4 sharing ideas with the class. I ask questions that have more than one answer. ___ 9. ___ 15. ___ 13. students take sides and debate issues and viewpoints. . ___ 10. students suggest possible problems and tasks. 1995) In my classes. (Bonk. ___ 11.Teacher Self-Assessment for active learning.

I had a voice within the discussion forum. 2000) The online forum offered multiple perspectives. I could count on others to reply to my needs. . I received useful mentoring and feedback from others. I liked collaborating with others online.SCALCO (Bonk & Wisher.

thinking? ± Social²What is the general tone? Is there a human side to this course? Joking allowed? ± Other: firefighter. filter.Four Key Hats of Instructors: ± Technical²do students have basics? Does their equipment work? Passwords work? ± Managerial²Do students understand the assignments and course structure? ± Pedagogical²How are students interacting. summarizing. marketer. editor. concierge. convener. . etc. negotiator. weaver. tutor. facilitator. debating. mediator. e-police. assistant. host. conductor.

(Interviewed 40 training managers and knowledge officers) . Michelle Delio (2000).Online Learning Boring? From Forrester. Wired News.

Motivational Techniques .1.

enthusiasm. interest. Supportive. 3. . 6. choice. fun. 2. familiar. 10. 4. Offer rewards for good/improved performance. interact with peers. Teach goal setting and self-reinforcement. curiosity. Make content personal. active. suspense. minimize anxiety. Novelty. Gamelike. fantasy. concrete. Allow to create finished products. adaptable to interests. 8.Motivation Research Highlights (Brophy) 1. Provide immediate feedback. dissonance. appropriate challenge. Show intensity. moderation/optimal. 5. meaningful. divergence. variety. advance organizers. 9. Higher levels. 7.

Wish students ³good effort´ not ³good luck´. 6. 2. Minimize social comparisons and public evaluations. Stipek. Design interactive and interesting activities.Classroom Motivation Tips (Alexander. . 5. Use coop learning. 1998): 1. Pintrinch & Schunk. Communicate respect via tasks select and control. 3. 8. group discussions. Give flexibility in assignments and due dates. Include positive before negative comments. 7. authentic learning tasks. Use relevant. 1996. 1996. 4. debates. Reeve. class notes.

(Attrib success to effort or competence) 16. 1996. Give poor performing student the role of expert. Reeve. Use challenge. 1998): 9. curiosity.More Classroom Motivation Tips (Alexander. Encourage students to give and get help. Give students diff ways to demo what they know. 13. . Pintrinch & Schunk. 15. control. Give challenging but achievable tasks. Attrib failure to low effort or ineffective strategy. 11. Use optimal difficulty and novelty. and fantasy. class notes. 10. Stipek. 14. 12. 1996. Create short term/proximal goals & vary goals.

150 To Motivate Your Lover (Raffini. Floating A. Expectations (BS ST and LT objectives and ideas on how to achieve) 3. why is it impt? B. Volunteer Assignments (to be used on any assignment within a day) 4. Goal Notebooks. who is like me?) 2. Ice Breakers (a. Self Report Cards. Goal Cards. treasured objects²do you have a treasured object. Self Evaluation (make set of tests available on the Web) . 1996) 1. Escape Clauses.

Problems (perhaps answer questions of another team. Issues. say ³I think I can´) . 1996) 5. Success contracts and calendars (Guarantee an A or B if fulfill contract provisions) 8. Puzzles 7. Challenges.150 To Motivate Your Lover (Raffini. Self Reinforcements (Bury the ³I can¶ts´. talking chips) 6. Discussion Questions. save ³I cans´. Positive Statements. Team Competitions.

class project. Celebrations. Acknowledgements. Digitized Web class photo. class awards. teeshirts. Thank Yous. 1996) 9. Portal. end of term events) 10. Put-Ups (multicultural days. helpers.150 To Motivate Your Lover (Raffini. field trips) . Class Community Building (designated class Web Site or Class Forum. Praises. trips. photo album.

switch roles for a day) . 1996) 11. Random Acts of Kindness.150 To Motivate Your Lover (Raffini. Volunteerism 13. Change Roles or Status (Random roles. Class Opinion Polls 12. assume expert roles. Student Interest Surveys. Democratic Voting. Service Learning/Teaching.

Visuals 5. Accomplishment Hunt 8. Have You Ever Been? 10. Expectations (flip chart) 2. Talking String 4. CT. Self-Disclosures 3.Activities²Motivational Ice Breakers 1. CR. Psychic Massage 9. CL Web . Treasure Hunt 7. Index Card 6.

.. ‡ Round I: Self-disclosure introductions ±Who are you ±Job ±Interests ±Hobbies .1. (Ice Breaker) Self-Disclosure Introductions.

2. "I am a tightwad. Marvelous Mary. Treasured Objects--Take out two items out of your wallet and describe how they best represent you (e. Self-Disclosure Introductions. family pictures.g. a. . Round II." "I am superstitious") c. State name with an adjective starting with 1st letter of 1st name (e. b.. Describe themselves (e..g.. Self-disclosure introductions. rabbits' feet) and share.. credit cards...g..

or potential nickname. d. past. e. My person I most admire is? The best book I ever read?) F. Self-disclosure introductions.. Round II. Brainstorm a list of questions you would like to ask the others. Now intro self & also by a nickname current.g.. ..(e... Middle name game (state what middle name is and how you got it). Self-Disclosure Introductions...2.

Write short and long terms goals down on goal cards that can be referenced later on.. what are your goals.3. . Expectations Charts ‡ What do you expect from this workshop. b. Write 4-5 expectations for this workshop/retreat c. Expectations Flip Chart: share of 1-2 of these. what could you contribute? a..

2 comments..4. personable. opinionated. Birthplace and Favorite cities to visit (upper right) c. talkative. Treasure Hunt (Index Cards) a. like movies. hate Purdue.g. Favorite Sports/hobbies/past times (upper left) b. Teaching strategies you are proud of (in the middle) . Current Job and Classes Taught (lower left) d. hate sports) (lower right) e. or traits about yourself (e. team player. move a lot. things.

strengths. would like to live. and find a match (find one thing in common and one thing different with everyone) .4. hobbies. Treasure Hunts After completing card with interests. etc. job role. where born.

b. Participants have to ask "Is this you?" If yes. during life). Turn in 2-3 accomplishments (e. get a signature. c..5. during college. past summer.g. . Accomplishment Hunt a. Workshop leader lists 1-2 of those for each student on a sheet without names.

and. Make a list of issues people would like to discuss. c. b.6. Partner off and create a list and then collect question cards. d. Perhaps everyone brings 2-3 questions or issues to the meeting. Issues and Discussion Questions a. . Then distribute and your group must answer questions of the other groups.

.7. Team Brainteasers ‡ IQ tests ‡ Scrambled cities ‡ Crossword puzzles ‡ Competitions ‡ Dilemmas or Situations ‡ Unscrambled sayings.

#2: something very few people know. Coat of Arms--fill in. . #1: a recent Peak Performance. #5: write in something that epitomizes your personal motto.8. #4: fill in something you are really good at. #3: draw a symbol of how you spend your free time.

Divide into groups of 3-4 and discuss concerns. . d. Subgroups think creatively of how to solve those problems and share with group. b. f. e. It¶ll Never Fly Wilbur a. Each group writes down 3 roadblocks on a 3 X 5 card. c.9. Everyone writes 4-5 problems they see in it. Facilitator redistributes so each group gets a different card. Introduce a new idea or concept or plan.

Europe) and then divide into truck and car people. etc. Asia. High School Sweethearts²Group by location where they graduated from high school (Midwest. Demographic Groupings Birthday Grouping²Nonverbally line up by date of the year born and partner off with person closest to you and then do« Auto Grouping²Group by location one¶s vehicle was manufactured (US.10. Europe. color of vehicle.) . West. Asia. South. East. etc.

next ones state names of previous people and then state their reasons.11. . Talking String ‡ state what hope to gain from retreat (or discuss some other issue) as wrap string around finger.

.12. Disclosure Interviews ‡ Divide into small groups of about six people and then hand out prepared list of 5 questions in increasing order of disclosure for participants to ask each other and then have someone stand and their group must describe him or her.

In alphabetical order of first names have someone turn his or back to the group c. d. . One minute per person. uplifting statements about that person behind his or her back but loud enough for others to hear them. Psychic Massage (a closer activity) a. Divide in teams of 3-5. Team members must make positive.13. b.

´ c. each person fills out a 3 x 5 card about other participants.14. . b. 2-3 times during the session. Positive Strokes a. the folded cards are passed out and read aloud and then given to the named person. They must complete sentences like: ³the thing I like best about (name) is´ and ³the biggest improvement I saw in (name) is. At the end of the day.

. take photo of group. ‡ Put announcement of retreat on Web or newsletter..15. have online interest groups. Community Building ‡ Create common t-shirts. and perhaps put up on the Web. etc.

± etc. Communication/Learning Visuals ‡ Draw one or more of the following: ± Gun.16. ± cannon. ± noose. ± high fives. . ± toilet. ± watch. ± thumbs up. ± smiley face.

16. Personalizing (e. and what¶s next??? ‡ How might they do things differently??? . asking ³how´ and ³what´ questions) ‡ Ask how feel.g.. what has happened. how might such and such help in the workforce. ask ³what-if´ things were different at work.

Have you ever questions: ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Performed the Heimlich maneuver Tried on a straight jacket Laid down inside a casket. Made an obscene gesture at someone when driving your car. Cheated on your income tax. Run a toll booth. bungee jumped. Been above the Arctic circle or below the Antarctic Circle.18. Done back-to-back all-nighters. Sky dived. Been in a play. Flown a plane. . Ditched a blind date (or any date). or whitewater rafted a dangerous river. Milked a goat or a cow. Drunk more than 25 imported beers during your life. Been a Boy Scout or Girl Scout Shaved your head. Completed a marathon.


Cooperative . Critical 2. Creative 3.The 3 C¶s: 1.

Creative Critical Cooperative .

parks. music scene. night spots. scenery. outdoor recreation. outdoor recreation ‡ Lots of job opportunities ‡ Diversity within the community . all-night cafes. extreme sports.What is an idea city? Where want to live? What makes it cool? ‡ Culture.

urban parks. high energy²bike lanes. ultimate frisbee.What is an idea city? Where want to live? What makes it cool? ‡ Convenience for amenities ‡ Fun. climbing walls. bistros and cafes not chains .

The Creative Class ‡ Values creativity. and merit ‡ Are active & participate. embrace diversity and differences. and new work rules . value tolerance. not watch sports ‡ Want: relax dress codes. promote individuality. use flexible schedules. open to immigration.

engineers. novelists. artists. think-tank researchers. poets. actors. entertainers. analysts. editors.The Creative Class ‡ Engage in work to create meaningful new forms (scientists. professors. architects. cultural figures) .

Semantic Webbing or Mapping 7. Creative Thinking 1. Six Hats 3. Reverse BS: Top Ten Lists 2. Freewriting. What Ifs. Brainstorm. Checkerboarding. Creativity License Cards. Analogies 9. Simulations. Attribute Listing 10.Pedagogical Strategies: A. Forced Wrap Arounds 6. Exploration and Web Link Suggestions . Think Sheets 8. Idea-Spurring Questions. Role Plays & Assigning Thinking Roles 5. or Diaries 4. Metaphors. Wet Inking.

Creative Writing and Story Telling 8. Webbing 4. Brainstorming 10. Reverse Brainstorming . Just Suppose 5. Creativity Awareness 6. Metaphorical Thinking 2. Creative Dramatics 7. Wet Ink or Freewriting 9. New Perspectives 3.Activities²Creativity Tasks 1.

Olympic games. Metaphorical thinking ‡ how is my school like: ±a prison. . etc. a beehive. garden. family. theater. artist's palette. ghetto. hospital. an orchestra. herd. military camp.1. ±expedition. ±machine.

1. Metaphorical thinking, Analogies, «
1. Creativity is like ____. 2. Being Creative is like ____. 3. Creativity is to ___ as...

1. Synectics
Combining 2 dissimilar ideas. The joining together of unrelated elements (William J. J. Gordon). One brings strange concepts into familiar areas. Putting yourself in a situation. Thinking of how others might solve the problem.

2. Breaking Mental Set and Shifting Perspectives
‡ The process of creation frequently involves a dramatic and usually instantaneous change in perception. Sometimes we all need a whack in the side of the head! ‡ Have students assume roles of other people, cultures, economies, genders, etc.

etc. . Breaking Set. Synectics.2. ‡ Analogies. Imagery. Concealed colors. Nine dot problem. Flying Pig. Breaking Mental Set and Shifting Perspectives ‡ Word games. Aesthetics. Which one is different.

As new ideas are suggested. Webbing Directions: write the topic in the center and link closely related ideas or questions in the first ring of ideas.3. they are connected by a line to the related item or items. .

Webbing Webbing can be used to determine: (1)all the possible directions and activities a student or class can explore as a result of interest in a specific topic or subject (2)all that is presently known. integrating.3. This technique expands awareness for relating. . and (3)knowledge interrelationships. and organizing brainstormed ideas.

3. cooperative learning? b. use. critical thinking. talk. relate) . write. drawn upon.e.. take ownership. Part I: What is creativity. Webbing a. break free from. students:) (discover. Part II: What is active learning (i.

4. ‡ ³Just suppose you have six weeks of paid professional development each summer for workshops or classes like this. what would teaching be like? What would learning be like?´ . Just Suppose or What If ‡ Imagine a situation or scenario and reflect on the consequences.

‡ Rate yourself for creativity. What is creativity here? How did you do? .5. Creativity Awareness: Creativity Scales ‡ Self-awareness of creative traits is important in promoting creativity.

Creativity Awareness: Creativity Models von Oech's ‡Explorer ‡Artist ‡Judge ‡Warrior .5.

. Angriest/happiest. Mirror effect. More Creative Dramatics (Davis book) ‡ Imagine taste/smell. stiffest/most rubbery.6. Ridiculous Poses. Mirror effect. Favorite animal. Puppets. . Holding up the roof. smell. tastes. Favorite animal. touch.. Ice Cubes. People Machines. Invisible Balls. Creative Dramatics ‡ Biggest/smallest thing.. Imagine taste/smell. ‡ Imagine hear..

7. . Could be done via email. Forced Wrap Arounds: ‡ One person tells a story and it is repeated until it gets through a group or classroom (teaches generative and constructive psychology principles) Object Obituary: ‡ Write a fictional obituary for some object that you own or were close to. Creative Writing or Story Telling Tell a Tall Tale: ‡ One person starts a story and everyone adds something to it. You might throw a ball to the person who is to add to it or the instructor might decide or the next person could just jump in.

. question.What do you see? Can students wonder. seek justification??? How is creativity fostered here? Describe environment. . Wet Ink or Freewriting Writing without reflecting or lifting your pen for a set period of time.. etc.. active listening. Physically. withhold judgment.. emotionally. take risks. respect for ideas. speculate. ‡ Just imagine: imagine you have created a highly active teaching situation. mentally.8.

situation. Here more is better and the wilder the better. ‡ For example. there is no evaluation of ideas allowed. or concern. However. issue. How can we increase the use of active learning ideas in college settings? . The hitchhiking or piggybacking as well as combination of ideas is encouraged.9. Brainstorming ‡ Generating ideas to solve a particular problem.

10. However. The hitchhiking or piggybacking as well as combination of ideas is encouraged. more is better and the wilder the better. there is no evaluation of ideas allowed. Reverse Brainstorming ‡ Generating ideas to solve the reverse of a particular problem. situation. or concern. Once again. ‡ For example. How can we decrease the use of active learning ideas in college settings? . issue.

colors. (find the second best or third best suggestion) . Alternative Uses: Uses for "XYZ" for this class or for teaching in general. and Transformation a. b. purpose. Attribute Modification: "XYZ"--after listing attributes. Attribute Webbing/Listing: "XYZ" shapes. c.11. Modification. sizes. think of ways to improve each. Attribute Listing. numbering.

Modification.11. funeral parlor. Attribute Transferring: "XYZ"--transfer ideas from one context to the next. (with idea spurring questions: What else is this like? What have others done? What else is this like? What could we copy? What has worked before?) (What can we borrow from a carnival. and Transformation d. Attribute Listing. track meet. wild west) .

Idea Spurring Questions how can we: MAXimize. subtutesti.12. MAGnify. EEEXXXAAGGGERRRRATTEE . arrangeRE. combine-adapt.

13. Have students solve in teams. Future Problem Solving Pose futuristic problem. . Present to class.

.14. ‡ Write features of another item down the vertical (characters). ‡ Write features of one item down the horizontal column (plots). Checkerboarding (done in Lone Ranger series) ‡ Analyze problems with 2 key variables or components. ‡ Randomly check off items and a new create story.

‡ Write features of another item down the vertical. ‡ Look at intersection for new item or concept.15. Morphological Synthesis ‡ Write features of one item down the horizontal column. .

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