DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS (FLUID MECHANICS)

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DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS (FLUID MECHANICS)

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INTRODUCTION

Technique which makes use of the study of dimensions as an aid to the

solution of several engineering problems.

Here each phenomenon is expressed as an equation comprising of

dimensional and non-dimensional quantities.

To study the performance characteristics of turbo machines, a large number

of variables are involved. The use of dimensional analysis reduces the

variables to a number of manageable dimensional groups. Usually, the

properties of interest in regard to turbo machine are the power output, the

efficiency, and the head.

Dimensional analysis applied to turbo machines has two more important

uses: (1) prediction of a prototype’s performance from tests conducted on a

scale model (similitude), and (2) determination of the most suitable type of

machine, on the basis of maximum efficiency, for a specified range of head,

speed, and flow rate.

APPLICATION TO FLUID MECHANICS

the use of empirical results from a lot of experiments. This data is often

difficult to present in a readable form. Even from graphs it may be difficult

to interpret. Dimensional analysis provides a strategy for choosing relevant

data and how it should be presented.

This is a useful technique in all experimentally based areas of engineering.

If it is possible to identify the factors involved in a physical situation,

dimensional analysis can form a relationship between them.

The resulting expressions may not at first sight appear rigorous but these

qualitative results converted to quantitative forms can be used to obtain any

unknown factors from experimental analysis.

FUNDAMENTAL DIMENSIONS

MASS M

LENGTH L

TIME T

TEMPERATURE θ

These dimensions are independent of each other and

hence are called primary quantities

DIMENSION

DERIVED QUANTITIES

AREA

VELOCITY

ACCELERATION

the primary quantities is called the dimension of the

physical quantity.

FORCE = MASS x ACCELERATION = MLT-2

DISCHARGE = AREA x VELOCITY = L3T-1

ACCL. DUE TO GRAVITY g = LT-2

DIMENSIONAL HOMOGENEITY

are equal. Such equations are called dimensionally

homogeneous equations.

t 2

l

V 2 gH

g

N P

Ns 5/ 4

H

METHOD OF DIMENSIONAL

HOMOGENEITY

Rayleigh method

Used for determining the expresion for a variable which

depends upon maximum 3 or 4 variables.

X = f (X1,X2,X3)

We express this equation in the exponential form

X=C(X1a.X2b.X3c), C is dimensional constant

We determine a,b,c on the basis that the equation is

dimensionally homogeneous

t= K*Lagb, on solving the equation we get b=-1/2 & a=1/2

therefore L

t K

g

RAYLEIGH’S METHOD

Power developed by a pump P depends on the head

H, discharge Q and specific weight w of the fluid.

P=K*HaQbwc

P= work done/time= [ML2T-3]

H=[L]

Q=area * velocity= [LT-3]

w(sp.weight)= weight/volume= Force/volume=[ML-2T-2]

a=1, b=1, c=1

P=KHQw

BUCKINGHAM π-METHOD

Rayleigh’s method becomes more laborious if

number of fundamental quantities are more.

So in this method we reduce the number of

dimensional variables into number of dimensionless

groups

This method states that if any phenomenon is

controlled by n physical variables containing m

fundamental dimensions (M,L,T,θ), then the

relationship among the physical variables can be

expressed in terms of (n-m) dimensionless and

independent terms, known as π-terms.

BUCKINGHAM π-METHOD

Efficiency of a fan η depends on density ρ, dynamic

viscosity μ of the fluid, angular velocity ω, diameter

D of the rotor and discharge Q. Express η in terms of

dimensionless parameters.

Step 1: List and count the ‘n’ physical variables involved.

η= f(ρ,μ,ω,D,Q) or f1(η,ρ,μ,ω,D,Q)=0 hence n= 6

Step 2: Calculate the fundamental dimension ‘m’

η- dimensionless, ρ- [ML-3], μ- [ML-1T-1], ω- [T-1], D- [L],

Q- [L3,T-1] HENCE m=3

BUCKINGHAM π-METHOD

Step 3: Number of π-terms = n – m = 6 – 3 =3 therefore

f1(π1,π2,π3)=0. Each π-term contains (m+1) variables. Number of

repeating variables should be m (=3).

Step 4: Choosing repeating variables

Dependent variable should not be used as the repeating variable

Geometric variable, flow variable and variable involving fluid property

should be used.

Repeating variables should not form a dimensionless group and should not

have the same dimensions.

Repeating variables together should have the same number of fundamental

dimensions ( m=3)

D ( geometric variable ), ω ( flow variable ), ρ ( flow property variable )

BUCKINGHAM π-METHOD

D = [L], ω = [T-1], ρ = [ML-3] π1

= Da1ωb1ρc1η , π2 = Da2ωb2ρc2μ , π3 = Da3ωb3ρc3Q

π1= η ; π2 = μ/(D2ωρ) ; π3 = Q/(D3ω)

f1(π1,π2,π3)=0 or f1(η , μ/(D2ωρ) , Q/(D3ω) ) =0

QUESTIONS

upon the mass density ρ of the fluid, pump speed N (rpm), the diameter of

the impeller D, pressure p and the viscosity of the fluid μ, show using

Buckingham’s π-theorem that it can be represented by :

Q = (ND3) φ[(gH/(N2D2)),(υ/(ND2))]

Q =f ( ρ,N,D,p,μ) ; 6 variables, 3 fundamental dimensions therefore 3 π terms.

Take ρ, N, & D as repeating terms

π1= ρa1 * Nb1 * Dc1 * Q ; π2= ρa2 * Nb2 * Dc2 * p &

π3= ρa3 * Nb3 * Dc3 * μ

π1= Q/ (ND3)

π2= p/(ρ N2D2)

π3= μ/(ρND2) ; p = wH = ρgH and μ/ρ= υ

QUESTIONS

theorem and using variables such as power P, speed N , head H, diameter D of the

turbine, density ρ of the fluid and acceleration due to gravity g, deduce the above

expression for Ns.

N= f ( ρ, gH ,P ,D) ; gH called shaft work is considered as one variable.

There are 5 variables completely described by 3 fundamental dimensions. Number of π-

terms = 2

π1= ρa1 * (gH)b1 * Pc1 * N

π2= ρa2 * (gH)b2 * Pc2 * D

π1=[N * P1/2/((gH)5/4 * ρ1/2)]

π2=[D*(gH)3/4 * ρ1/2/ P1/2]

[N * P1/2/((gH)5/4 * ρ1/2)] = φ[D*(gH)3/4 * ρ1/2/ P1/2]

[N * P1/2/((gH)5/4 * ρ1/2)]m = [N * P1/2/((gH)5/4 * ρ1/2)]p ; considering P=1 ; N=Ns and ρ

and g constant

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