Introduction to Information Security Chapter 1

Do not figure on opponents not attacking; worry about your own lack of preparation. -- Book of the Five Rings

Learning Objectives:
Upon completion of this chapter you should be able to:
± Understand what information security is and how it came to mean what it does today. ± Comprehend the history of computer security and how it evolved into information security. ± Understand the key terms and critical concepts of information security as presented in the chapter. ± Outline the phases of the security systems development life cycle. ± Understand the role professionals involved in information security in an organizational structure.
Principles of Information Security - Chapter 1 Slide 2

What Is Information Security?
Information security in today¶s enterprise is a ³well-informed sense of assurance that the information risks and controls are in balance.´ ±Jim Anderson, Inovant (2002)

Principles of Information Security - Chapter 1

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The History Of Information Security
j Computer security began immediately after the first mainframes were developed j Groups developing code-breaking computations during World War II created the first modern computers j Physical controls were needed to limit access to authorized personnel to sensitive military locations j Only rudimentary controls were available to defend against physical theft, espionage, and sabotage

Principles of Information Security - Chapter 1

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Figure 1-1 ± The Enigma Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 5 .

The 1960s jDepartment of Defense¶s Advanced Research Project Agency (ARPA) began examining the feasibility of a redundant networked communications jLarry Roberts developed the project from its inception Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 6 .

ARPANET Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 7 .Figure 1-2 .

The 1970s and 80s j ARPANET grew in popularity as did its potential for misuse j Fundamental problems with ARPANET security were identified ± No safety procedures for dial-up connections to the ARPANET ± User identification and authorization to the system were non-existent j In the late 1970s the microprocessor expanded computing capabilities and security threats Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 8 .

R-609 ± The Start of the Study of Computer Security jInformation Security began with Rand Report R-609 jThe scope of computer security grew from physical security to include: ± Safety of the data ± Limiting unauthorized access to that data ± Involvement of personnel from multiple levels of the organization Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 9 .

security was treated as a low priority Principles of Information Security . the first manifestation of a global network of networks jIn early Internet deployments.The 1990s jNetworks of computers became more common.Chapter 1 Slide 10 . so too did the need to interconnect the networks jResulted in the Internet.

The Present jThe Internet has brought millions of computer networks into communication with each other ± many of them unsecured jAbility to secure each now influenced by the security on every computer to which it is connected Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 11 .

What Is Security? The quality or state of being secure--to be free from danger´ j To be protected from adversaries j A successful organization should have multiple layers of security in place: j ± ± ± ± ± Physical security Personal security Operations security Communications security Network security Slide 12 Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 .

store. and technology are necessary j The C.A. training. such as policy. including the systems and hardware that use. integrity. and availability j The C.Chapter 1 Slide 13 . and transmit that information j Tools.I.I. triangle was the standard based on confidentiality. education.What Is Information Security? j The protection of information and its critical elements. awareness. triangle has expanded into a list of critical characteristics of information Principles of Information Security .A.

± Availability ± Accuracy ± Authenticity ± Confidentiality ± Integrity ± Utility ± Possession Principles of Information Security .Critical Characteristics Of Information The value of information comes from the characteristics it possesses.Chapter 1 Slide 14 .

Chapter 1 Slide 15 .Figure 1-3 ± NSTISSC Security Model Principles of Information Security .

and procedures necessary to use information as a resource in the organization Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 16 . you need to know the elements of an information system j An Information System (IS) is much more than computer hardware. people.Components of an Information System j To fully understand the importance of information security. data. hardware. it is the entire set of software.

Chapter 1 Slide 17 .Securing the Components jThe computer can be either or both the subject of an attack and/or the object of an attack jWhen a computer is ± the subject of an attack. it is used as an active tool to conduct the attack ± the object of an attack. it is the entity being attacked Principles of Information Security .

Figure 1-5 ± Subject and Object of Attack Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 18 .

the level of security must allow reasonable access. it is a process jSecurity should be considered a balance between protection and availability jTo achieve balance.Chapter 1 Slide 19 . yet protect against threats Principles of Information Security .Balancing Security and Access jIt is impossible to obtain perfect security it is not an absolute.

Chapter 1 Slide 20 .Figure 1-6 ± Balancing Security and Access Principles of Information Security .

Chapter 1 Slide 21 .technical expertise of the individual administrators jSeldom works. as it lacks a number of critical features: ± participant support ± organizational staying power Principles of Information Security .Bottom Up Approach jSecurity from a grass-roots effort systems administrators attempt to improve the security of their systems jKey advantage .

Chapter 1 Slide 22 .Figure 1-7 ± Approaches to Security Implementation Principles of Information Security .

Top-down Approach j Initiated by upper management: ± issue policy. procedures. a dedicated champion. and the chance to influence organizational culture j May also involve a formal development strategy referred to as a systems development life cycle ± Most successful top-down approach Principles of Information Security . clear planning.Chapter 1 Slide 23 . dedicated funding. and processes ± dictate the goals and expected outcomes of the project ± determine who is accountable for each of the required actions j This approach has strong upper management support.

The Systems Development Life Cycle jInformation security must be managed in a manner similar to any other major system implemented in the organization jUsing a methodology ± ensures a rigorous process ± avoids missing steps jThe goal is creating a comprehensive security posture/program Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 24 .

Figure 1-8 ± SDLC Waterfall Methodology Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 25 .

started in response to some occurrence or ± plan-driven .Chapter 1 Slide 26 .as a result of a carefully developed implementation strategy jAt the end of each phase comes a structured review Principles of Information Security .SDLC and the SecSDLC jThe SecSDLC may be ± event-driven .

technical.Investigation jWhat is the problem the system is being developed to solve? ± The objectives.Chapter 1 Slide 27 . and behavioral feasibilities of the process Principles of Information Security . constraints. and scope of the project are specified ± A preliminary cost/benefit analysis is developed ± A feasibility analysis is performed to assesses the economic.

Analysis j Consists primarily of ± assessments of the organization ± the status of current systems ± capability to support the proposed systems j Analysts begin to determine ± what the new system is expected to do ± how the new system will interact with existing systems j Ends with the documentation of the findings and a feasibility analysis update Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 28 .

data support and structures capable of providing the needed inputs are identified j Finally. another feasibility analysis is performed Principles of Information Security .Logical Design j Based on business need. applications are selected capable of providing needed services j Based on applications needed. based on all of the above.Chapter 1 Slide 29 . select specific ways to implement the physical solution are chosen j At the end.

Chapter 1 Slide 30 .Physical Design jSpecific technologies are selected to support the alternatives identified and evaluated in the logical design jSelected components are evaluated based on a make-or-buy decision jEntire solution is presented to the enduser representatives for approval Principles of Information Security .

assembled. and tested jUsers are trained and documentation created jUsers are then presented with the system for a performance review and acceptance test Principles of Information Security . received.Implementation jComponents are ordered.Chapter 1 Slide 31 .

Chapter 1 Slide 32 . a new project is implemented Principles of Information Security .Maintenance and Change jTasks necessary to support and modify the system for the remainder of its useful life jThe life cycle continues until the process begins again from the investigation phase jWhen the current system can no longer support the mission of the organization.

seemingly unconnected actions Principles of Information Security .Security Systems Development Life Cycle jThe same phases used in the traditional SDLC adapted to support the specialized implementation of a security project jBasic process is identification of threats and controls to counter them jThe SecSDLC is a coherent program rather than a series of random.Chapter 1 Slide 33 .

Chapter 1 Slide 34 . outcomes and goals of the project. including objectives. problems analyzed. and constraints jBegins with a statement of program security policy jTeams are organized. and scope defined.Investigation jIdentifies process. and constraints not covered in the program policy jAn organizational feasibility analysis is performed Principles of Information Security .

Chapter 1 Slide 35 . and evaluating the levels of risk) also begins Principles of Information Security .Analysis jAnalysis of existing security policies or programs. assessing. along with documented current threats and associated controls jIncludes an analysis of relevant legal issues that could impact the design of the security solution jThe risk management task (identifying.

Logical & Physical Design j Creates blueprints for security j Critical planning and feasibility analyses to determine whether or not the project should continue j In physical design. feasibility study determines readiness so all parties involved have a chance to approve the project Principles of Information Security . alternatives generated.Chapter 1 Slide 36 . and final design selected j At end of phase. security technology is evaluated.

the entire tested package is presented to upper management for final approval Principles of Information Security . and tested again jPersonnel issues are evaluated and specific training and education programs conducted jFinally. tested.Implementation jThe security solutions are acquired (made or bought).Chapter 1 Slide 37 . and implemented.

Maintenance and Change jThe maintenance and change phase is perhaps most important. the information security profile of an organization requires constant adaptation Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 38 . given the high level of ingenuity in today¶s threats jThe reparation and restoration of information is a constant duel with an often unseen adversary jAs new threats emerge and old threats evolve.

Security Professionals and the Organization jIt takes a wide range of professionals to support a diverse information security program jTo develop and execute specific security policies and procedures. additional administrative support and technical expertise is required Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 39 .

or a similar title Principles of Information Security . the Security Administrator. management.Senior Management j Chief Information Officer ± the senior technology officer ± primarily responsible for advising the senior executive(s) for strategic planning j Chief Information Security Officer ± responsible for the assessment.Chapter 1 Slide 40 . and implementation of securing the information in the organization ± may also be referred to as the Manager for Security.

Chapter 1 .Security Project Team A number of individuals who are experienced in one or multiple requirements of both the technical and non-technical areas: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± The champion The team leader Security policy developers Risk assessment specialists Security professionals Systems administrators End users Slide 41 Principles of Information Security .

Data Ownership jData Owner .the end systems users who work with the information to perform their daily jobs supporting the mission of the organization Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 42 .responsible for the security and use of a particular set of information jData Custodian . and protection of the information jData Users .responsible for the storage. maintenance.

Chapter 1 Slide 43 . Within that corporate culture.Communities Of Interest jEach organization develops and maintains its own unique culture and values. there are communities of interest: ± Information Security Management and Professionals ± Information Technology Management and Professionals ± Organizational Management and Professionals Principles of Information Security .

Chapter 1 Slide 44 .Information Security: Is It an Art or a Science? jWith the level of complexity in today¶s information systems. the implementation of information security has often been described as a combination of art and science Principles of Information Security .

Chapter 1 Slide 45 . policy.Security as Art jNo hard and fast rules nor are there many universally accepted complete solutions jNo magic user¶s manual for the security of the entire system jComplex levels of interaction between users. and technology controls Principles of Information Security .

and systems malfunction is a result of the interaction of specific hardware and software jIf the developers had sufficient time. security hole. they could resolve and eliminate these faults Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 46 .Security as Science jDealing with technology designed to perform at high levels of performance jSpecific conditions cause virtually all actions that occur in computer systems jAlmost every fault.

Security as a Social Science jSocial science examines the behavior of individuals interacting with systems jSecurity begins and ends with the people that interact with the system jEnd users may be the weakest link in the security chain jSecurity administrators can greatly reduce the levels of risk caused by end users. and create more acceptable and supportable security profiles Principles of Information Security .Chapter 1 Slide 47 .

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