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PART 1: RS 232 & RS 422

 Transmission of data from source to device or from
device to destination.
 Like this laptop to projector to present this slide

 For communication two types of transmission are

 1. Parallel Transmission

 Multiple lines carrying bit simultaneously

 High data rate

 More cables are require

 High communication interference

 Expensive
 Serial Transmission
 Single line carrying bit one by one

 Slower data rate than parallel communication

 Requirement of cable reduces

 Less communication interference

 Cheaper

 Due This three advantage we are using serial

communication as compare to parallel
 Two types
 1.Synchronous
 2.Asynchronous
 Master clock control controls transmission as continuous
stream in synchronous mode
 There is random delay in asynchronous mode

 Communication between two telephone

 Laptop connected to internet cable

 This asynchronous mode follows some protocol defined

EIA :Electronics Industry Association
TIA : Telecommunication industry Association
 That is our RS 232 standard
 RS 232 (Recommended Standard 232)
 It is called as EIA 232E,Interface between Data terminal
equipment & Data communication Equipment employing
serial binary data interchange

 RS–232 is a “complete” standard. This means that the

standard sets out to ensure compatibility between the
host and peripheral systems by specifying
1. common voltage and signal levels,
2. common pin wiring configurations,
3. A minimal amount of control information
between the host and peripheral systems.
 Unlike many standards which simply specify the
electrical characteristics of a given interface, RS–232
specifies electrical, functional, and mechanical
characteristics in order to meet the above three criteria.
Each of these aspects of the RS–232 standard is
discussed below.
 Electrical Characteristics

 Voltage level -5 to -15 : Logic 1

With Noise -3 to -15

+5 to + 15: Logic 0
With Noise +3 to +15
 Maximum slew rate 30v/µsec

 Maximum data 20kb/sec

 Impedance 3kΩ to 7kΩ

 Functional characteristics
This essentially means that RS–232 has defined
the function of the different signals that are used
in the interface.
These signals are divided into four different categories:
common, data, control, and timing.
 Mechanical characteristics

 In particular, RS–232 specifies a25–pin connector.This is

the minimum connector size that can accommodate all of
the signals defined in the functional portion of the
 it should be noted that often this connector is not used.
This is due to the fact that most applications donot
require all of the defined signals and therefore a25–pin
connector is larger than necessary. This being the case,
it is very common for other connector types tobe used.
Perhaps the most popular is the 9–position DB9S
Diagram of communication between two computer
With RS 232

Computer 1 Computer 2

1 Modem 2
 Transmitted Data (TD): One of two separate data
signals. This signal is generated by the DTE and received
by the DCE.
 Received Data (RD):The second of two separate data
signals. This signals is generated by the DCE and
received by the DTE
 Request to Send (RTS):When the host system (DTE) is
ready to transmit data to the peripheral system (DCE),
RTS is turned ON. In simplex and duplex systems, this
condition maintains the DCE in receive mode. In half±
duplex systems, this condition maintains the DCE in
receive mode and disables transmit mode. The OFF
condition maintains the DCE in transmit mode. After
RTS is asserted, the DCE must assert CTS before com-
municationcan commence.
 Clear to Send (CTS): CTS is used along with RTS to
provide handshaking between the DTE and the DCE.
After the DCE sees an asserted RTS, it turns CTS ON
when it is ready to begin communication.
 Data Set Ready (DSR): This signal is turned on by the
DCE to indicate that it is connected to the telecommu-
nications line.
 Data Carrier Detect (DCD): This signal is turned ON
when the DCE is receiving a signal from a remote DCE
which meets its suitable signal criteria. This signal
remains ON as long as the a suitable carrier signal can be
 Data Terminal Ready (DTR): DTR indicates the readi-
ness of the DTE. This signal is turned ON by the DTE
when it is ready to transmit or receive data from the
DCE. DTR must be ON before the DCE can assert DSR.
 Ring Indicator (RI): RI, when asserted, indicates that a
ringing signal is being received on the communications
channel. When the remote modem wants to communicate
with the local modem, it generates an RI signal. This
signal is transferred by the local modem to the local PC.
 Disadvantage:

 System has poor common mode noise rejection

 Cross talk and increase of bias distortion

 Not suitable for long transmission due to cable

 So RS 422 comes in the picture
 RS 422 is balanced data-transmission schemes that offer
robust solutions for transmitting data over long distances
and noisy environments.
 Data rates of up to 100K bits / second and distances up to
4000 Ft. can be accommodated with RS422.
 The TIA/EIA-422 standard, known as RS422, describes
a communication interface that uses balanced data
transmission over multiple pairs of wires to establish
communication from one transmitter to up to 10
 At least two twisted pairs of wires are used, one for
communication from the transmitter (usually the master)
to the receivers (usually the slaves), and the other for
transmission from the slaves back to the master.
 Since multiple slaves share the same wires for
transmission, they must keep their line drivers turned off
(in high impedance state) most of the time.
 When data from a slave is requested, it turns on its line
driver, transmit data and turn it off again to allow
transmission from another slave
 Use of two pairs of wires allows master and one slave to
transmit data at the same time, which is called full-
duplex operation.
PART 2: RS 423 & RS485

Prepared by Palak Parmar


 Disadvantage
 single-ended system it is more susceptible to induced
noise, ground loops and ground shifts, a ground at one end
not the same potential as at the other end of the cable.
RS 423
 RS/EIA/TIA-423 is a standard for serial
communications. It defines an unbalanced
(single-ended) interface (similar to RS-232), with
a single, unidirectional sending driver, and
allows for up to 10 receivers (similar to RS-422).
RS 485
 RS485 is a balanced line, half-duplex
transmission system allowing transmission
distances of up to 1.2 km.
 RS-485 is a multipoint communications standard
set by the Electronics Industry Alliance (EIA)
and Telecommunications Industry Association
 RS-485 is also known as EIA-485 or TIA-485.
 EIA Recommended Standard 485 is designed to provide bi-directional
half-duplex multi-point data communications over a single two-wire
 Like RS-232 and RS-422, full-duplex operation is possible using a
four-wire, two-bus network but the RS-485 transceiver ICs must have
separate transmit and receive pins to accomplish this.
 RS-485 has the same distance and data rate specifications as RS-422
and uses differential signaling but, unlike RS-422, allows multiple
drivers on the same bus. As depicted in the Figure below, each node
on the bus can include both a driver and receiver forming a multi-
point star network. Each driver at each node remains in a disabled
high-impedance state until called upon to transmit. This is different
than drivers made for RS-422 where there is only one driver and it is
always enabled and cannot be disabled.
 With automatic repeaters and tri-state drivers the 32-node limit can
be greatly exceeded. In fact, the ANSI-based SCSI-2 and SCSI-3 bus
specifications use RS-485 for the physical (hardware) layer.

 Such a network can have a "daisy chain" topology

where each device is connected to two other devices
except for the devices on the ends.
 Only one device may drive data onto the bus at a
time. The standard does not specify the rules for
deciding who transmits and when on such a network.
That solely depends upon the system designer to
 Variable data rates are available for this standards
but the standard max. data rate is 10 Mbps, however
,some manufacturers do offer up to double the
standard range i.e. around 20 Mbps,but of course, it is
at the expense of cable width.
 It can connect upto 32 drivers and receivers in fully
differential mode similar to the RS – 422.

 Among all of the asynchronous standards

mentioned above this standard offers the
maximum data rate.
 special hardware for avoiding bus contention and

 A higher receiver input impedance with lower

Driver load impedances.
 RS-485 signals are used in a wide range of
computer and automation systems
 In commercial aircraft cabins vehicle bus

 To implement Industrial Control Systems

 Building automation