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O An adverb clause is a group of words that function as
an adverb. The clause is modify verbs, adverbs and
adjectives by telling when, where, why, how, how much
and under what condition. They begin with a
subordinating conjunction and the contain a subject
and a predicate.
An adverb clause will meet three requirements:
O First, it will contain a subject and verb.
O You will also find a subordinate conjunction that keeps
the clause from expressing a complete thought.
O Subordinating conjunctions can be arranged according
to the purpose of the clause they begin.
Here are some examples of subordinating conjunction:
Time: after, when, until, soon, before, once, while, as soon
as, whenever, by the time
Condition: if, whether or not, provided, in case, unless,
even if, in the event
Cause and effect: because, as, since, so, in order that, now
that, inasmuch as
Contrast: though, although, while, whereas, even though
Here are some examples according to what the adverb
is modifying:
O We eat pizza weekly.
O She watched the wild animal carefully.
O She is a very nice person.
O The dog is extremely hyperactive.
O My dog is almost always starving.
Examples of Adverb Clauses
O Wherever there is music, people will often dance.
O Wherever you live, I will come to that place to live.
O After the chores are done, we will eat ice cream.
O When the clock strikes midnight, she has to leave.

O She passed the course because she worked hard.
O Since he has long hair, he wears a ponytail.
O So that he would not ruin the carpet, he took off his
O He ate vegetables in order to stay healthy.
O Even though you are 13, you can’t go to that movie.
O Although you gave it your best, you did not win the
O If you save some money, you can buy a new game.
O Unless you hurry, you will be late for school.
Reduced adverb clauses refer to the shortening of an
adverb clause to an adverbial phrase of time, causality
or opposition.

Correct Reduced Adverb Clause to Adverbial Phrase

Because she has a test next week, she is studying very
hard. REDUCES TO: Having a test next week, she is
studying very hard.
O Reduced Adverb Clauses of Time
Before he bought the house, he did a lot of research ->
Before buying the house, he did a lot of research. After
she had lunch, she went back to work
-> After having lunch, she went back to work.

O Reduced Adverb Clauses of Causality

Because she was late, she excused herself at the
-> Being late, she excused herself. As Tom had extra
work to do, he stayed late at work
-> Having extra work to do, Tom stayed late at work.
O Reduced Adverb Clauses of Opposition
Though he had a lot of money, he didn't have many
-> Though having a lot of money, he didn't have many

Although she was beautiful, she still felt shy

-> Although beautiful, she still felt shy.
Adjective Clause
O Adjective Clause : is a dependent clause
that modifies a noun. It describe, identifies,
or gives further information about a noun.
(also called a relative clause)
O Using subject pronouns ; who, which, that
O Who = used for people
O Which = used for things
O That = used for both people and things.
O Example 1 : I thanked the woman, She helped me.
O Answer : I thanked the woman who helped me
O Example 2 : The book is mine, It is on the table.
O Answer : The book which is on the table is mine
O Using object pronouns : who(m), which , that
O Who(m) = used for people
O Which = used for things
O That = used for both people and things
O Example 1 : The man was Mr. Jones, I saw him
O Answer : The man whom i saw was Mr. Jones
O Example 2 : She is the woman, I told you about her.
O Answer : She is the woman about whom I told you.
Or She is the woman whom I told you about.
O Using whose
O Whose = used to show possession.
O Example 1 : I know the man, His bicycle was stolen
O Answer : I know the man whose bicycle was
O Example 2 : The student writes well, I read her
O Answer : The student whose Compesition I read
writes well.
O Using where
O Where = used in an adjective clause to modify a
O Example 1 : The building is very old, He lives there (in
the building)
O Answer : The building where he lives is very old.
O Using when
O When = used in an adjective clause to modify a
noun of time
O Example 1 : I’ll never forget the day, I met you then (on
the day)
O Answer : I’ll never forget the day when I meet you.
Adjective Clauses + Reduced
Contoh Complex Sentence Contoh Complex Sentence
(Adjective Clause) (Reduced Adjective Clause)
The student who always studies in The student always studying in
the library is my friend. the library is my friend.
The athlete who is carrying the ball The athlete carrying the ball is
Active Voice
is Miroslav Klose. Miroslav Klose.
She is the woman who She is the woman supportingme
supported me day and night. day and night.
The girl who was advised is my The girl advised is my
neighbour. neighbour.
The car which is being The car being parked there is
Passive Voice parked there is Ferarri. Ferarri.
The project which has been being
The project being worked for 3
worked for 3 months is very
months is very difficult.
The building which is in front The building in front of you was
Subject +preposition
of you was built in 1928. built in 1928.
Noun Clauses
O I like what I see.
O I know that the tide is turning.
O I've met the man who won the lottery.
O (Not all agree this is a noun clause. See Note
on the right.)
Compare the three examples above
to these:
O I like cakes.
O I know London.
O I've met Madonna.
O What Are Noun Clauses?

A noun clause is a clause that plays the

role of a noun. For example (noun clauses
O The words in bold are all nouns. This
shows that shaded clauses in the first
three examples are functioning as nouns,
making them noun clauses.
O Like any noun, a noun clause can be
a subject, an object, or a complement.
O In a sentence, a noun clause will be
a dependent clause. In other words, a noun
clause does not stand alone as a complete
Examples of Noun Clauses
O Here are some examples of noun clauses:
O A person who trusts no one can't be trusted. (Jerome Blattner)
O (This noun clause is the subject of the sentence.)
(Not all agree this is a noun clause. See Note on the right.)
O That he believes his own story is remarkable. (Jerome Blattner)
O (This noun clause is the subject of the sentence. Be aware that
starting a sentence with a noun clause starting That is acceptable,
but it grates on lots of people's ears. As a result, many writers
prefer to precede it with "The fact…".)
O Ask your child what he wants for dinner only if he's buying. (Fran
O (This noun clause is the direct object of ask.)
O He knows all about art, but he doesn't know what he likes. (James
Thurber, 1894-1961)
O (This noun clause is the direct object of know.)
Thank You