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And Job Satisfaction
• It shows individual preference of what is right, good or desirable. • Values have both content and intensity attributes • Content shows what is important to you • Intensity shows how much important that is for you • When we combine both this attributes than person value system is obtain.
• Values are basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end state of existence is socially or personally preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence. • Value System-A hierarchy based on the ranking of an individual's values in term of intensity.
• Importance of values- How it influence attitudes and behavior
the goals that a person would like to achieve during his lifetime. with each set containing 18 individual value items. 5 . • Terminal values. • The RVS consists of two sets of values.Desirable end states of existence.Types of Values • Milton Rokeach created the Rokeach Value Survey (RVS).
6 .Preferable mode of behavior or means of achieving one's terminal value.• Instrumental values.
respectful. relations Responsible. aspiring Self respect. hardworking. reliable wisdom Self controlled.Terminal values Comfortable life Instrumental values Ambitious. admiration Polite. self esteem Obedient. self disciplined 7 . dutiful Social recognition. well mannered True friendship. respect. courteous.
to analyze variations among different national cultures Geert Hofstede conducted survey on more than 1. • He found 5 value dimensions of national culture. 8 .Values Across Cultures • Hofstede”s framework for assessing cultures:.16lac IBM employees in 40 countries about their work related values.
Power Distance • The degree to which people in a country accept that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.india 9 . • Ranges from relatively equal (low power distance).USA • To extremely unequal (higher power distance).
• Collectivism indicates degree to which people want to be part of society or group expect from members of group to look after them and protect them.Individualism vs. 10 . collectivism • Individualism is the degree to which people in a country prefer to act as a individual rather than member of s group.
Quality vs. 11 .people give value to assertiveness. quantity of life • Quantity.people values relationships. sensitive and welfare of others. • Quality. concern for others. acquisition of money and material goods.
emphasize on future and short term orientation emphasize on past and present.A national culture attribute describing the extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertainty and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them. • Long term orientation.• Uncertainty Avoidance. 12 . respect for tradition and fulfill social obligations.
Attitudes • • • • • • It reflect how one feels about something. Attitude and value are interrelated 3 Component of attitude: Cognitive: Opinion or believe segment Affective: Emotional or feeling segment Behavior: An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something 13 .
Types of Attitudes • Job Satisfaction: How positive (Job satisfaction) or negative (Job Dissatisfaction) attitude one's has toward his job. • Job Involvement: It measures the degree to which a person identifies psychologically with his job. actively participate in it and considers his performance important to self worth. 14 .
and wishes to maintain membership in the organization.• Organization Commitment Now Occupation Commitment: The degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals. • Attitude and Consistency 15 .
Cognitive Dissonance Theory • Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. • Attitude and workforce divercity 16 .
Job Satisfaction • Its an individual general attitude towards his job. • 2 approaches to find out job satisfaction among employees • Single global rating • Summation Score 17 .
• Absenteeism: • Turnover: • Organization Citizenship Behavior • Customer Satisfaction 18 .Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance • Productivity: Happy workers are productive workers.
Chapter 4 Motivating Self and Others 19 .
Motivating Self and Others Questions for Consideration • What do theories tell us about motivating ourselves and others? • How do we motivate for specific organizational circumstances and/or individual differences? • Are rewards always necessary? 20 .
and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal • Intensity: how hard a person tries • Direction: where effort is channeled • Persistence: how long effort is maintained 21 . direction.What Is Motivation? • Motivation – The processes that account for an individual’s intensity.
and must be coerced. will attempt to avoid it. seek responsibility. and can exercise self-direction and self-control.Theory X and Theory Y • Theory X – Assumes that employees dislike work. • Theory Y – Assumes that employees like work. 22 . or threatened with punishment if they are to perform. controlled. are creative.
Motivators • Intrinsic – A person’s internal desire to do something. due to such things as interest. bonuses. and personal satisfaction. 23 . and other tangible rewards. • Extrinsic – Motivation that comes from outside the person. challenge. such as pay.
will result in motivation • Maslow’s hierarchy of needs • Herzberg’s two factor theory (motivation-hygiene theory) • Alderfer’s ERG theory • McClelland’s theory of needs 24 .Needs Theories of Motivation • Basic idea: – Individuals have needs that. when unsatisfied.
shelter. acceptance. and friendship 25 . thirst.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Physiological – Includes hunger. and other bodily needs • Safety – Includes security and protection from physical and emotional harm • Social – Includes affection. belongingness.
achieving one’s potential. includes growth. and achievement. and external esteem factors such as status. recognition. autonomy. and attention • Self-actualization – The drive to become what one is capable of becoming.Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Esteem – Includes internal esteem factors such as selfrespect. and self-fulfillment 26 .
Exhibit 4-1 Selfactualization Esteem Social Safety Physiological 27 .
context of work • • • • Company policy and administration Unhappy relationship with employee's supervisor Poor interpersonal relations with one's peers Poor working conditions 28 .Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory • Hygiene factors are necessary. for healthy adjustment – Extrinsic factors. but not sufficient.
content of work • • • • • Achievement Recognition Challenging.the sources of satisfaction – Intrinsic factors. varied or interesting work Responsibility Advancement 29 .Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory • Motivators .
Exhibit 4-3 Contrasting Views of Satisfaction and Dissatisfaction Traditional view Satisfaction Dissatisfaction Herzberg's view Motivators Satisfaction Hygiene Factors No dissatisfaction Dissatisfaction 30 No satisfaction .
Criticisms of Motivation-Hygiene Theory • The reliability of Herzberg’s methodology is questioned • No overall measure of satisfaction was used • The theory is inconsistent with previous research 31 .
Alderfer’s ERG Theory • Existence – Concerned with providing basic material existence requirements • Relatedness – Desire for maintaining important interpersonal relationships • Growth – Intrinsic desire for personal development 32 .
McClelland’s Theory of Needs • Need for Achievement – The drive to excel. to achieve in relation to a set of standards. to strive to succeed • Need for Power – The need to make others behave in a way that they would not have behaved otherwise • Need for Affiliation – The desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships 33 .
Exhibit 4-4 Summarizing the Various Needs Theories Maslow Self-Actualization Esteem Affiliation Security Physiological Growth Relatedness Hygiene Factors Existence Motivators Need for Achievement Need for Power Need for Affiliation Alderfer Herzberg McClelland 34 .
35 .Summary: Hierarchy of Needs – Maslow: Argues that lower-order needs must be satisfied before one progresses to higher-order needs. however. – Herzberg: Hygiene factors must be met if person is not to be dissatisfied. They will not lead to satisfaction. or power. affiliation. the desire to satisfy a lower-level need increases. Their motivation and how well they perform in a work situation are related to whether they have a need for achievement. – Alderfer: More than one need can be important at the same time. If a higher-order need is not being met. – McClelland: People vary in the types of needs they have. Motivators lead to satisfaction.
feedback. – McClelland: Tells us that high need achievers do not necessarily make good managers. since high achievers are more interested in how they do personally. Most managers are familiar with it. Shows that more than one need may operate at the same time. – Alderfer: Seen as a more valid version of the need hierarchy.Summary: Impact of Theory – Maslow: Enjoys wide recognition among practising managers. 36 . and moderate risks. – Herzberg: The popularity of giving workers greater responsibility for planning and controlling their work can be attributed to his findings. Tells us that achievers will be motivated by jobs that offer personal responsibility.
but theory is consistent with our knowledge of individual differences among people. there is little support for the hierarchical nature of needs.Summary: Support and Criticism of Theory – Maslow: Research does not generally validate the theory. particularly on needs achievement. Criticized for how data were collected and interpreted. 37 . – Herzberg: Not really a theory of motivation: Assumes a link between satisfaction and productivity that was not measured or demonstrated. – McClelland: Mixed empirical support. In particular. Good empirical support. – Alderfer: Ignores situational variables.
Process Theories of Motivation • Looks at the actual process of motivation – Expectancy theory – Goal-setting theory 38 .
Expectancy Theory • The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. 39 .
– Rewards-personal goals relationship • The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy an individual’s personal goals or needs and and are attractive to the individual.Expectancy Relationships • The theory focuses on three relationships: – Effort-performance relationship • The perceived probability that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. – Performance-reward relationship • The degree to which the individual believes that performing at a particular level will lead to a desired outcome. 40 .
Using Expectancy Theory Improving Expectancy Improving Instrumentality Improving Valence Improve the ability of the individual to perform • Make sure employees have skills for the task • Provide training • Assign reasonable tasks and goals Increase the individual ’s belief that performance will lead to reward • Observe and recognize performance • Deliver rewards as promised • Indicate to employees how previous good performance led to greater rewards Make sure that the reward is meaningful to the individual • Ask employees what rewards they value • Give rewards that are valued 41 .Exhibit 4-7 Steps to Increasing Motivation.
42 . result in higher performance than do easy goals • Feedback leads to higher performance than does nonfeedback.” • The specificity of the goal itself acts as an internal stimulus. – Specific hard goals produce a higher level of output than does the generalized goal of “do your best. when accepted.Goal-Setting Theory • The theory that specific and difficult goals lead to higher performance. • Specific goals increase performance • Difficult goals. – Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be expended.
Management by Objectives • A program that encompasses – Specific goals – Participative decision-making – Explicit time period – Performance feedback 43 .
Responses to the Reward System • Equity Theory • Fair Process 44 .
but also with the relationship of this amount to what others receive.Equity Theory • Main points – Individuals compare their job inputs and outcomes with those of others and then respond so as to eliminate any inequities. 45 . – Equity theory recognizes that individuals are concerned not only with the absolute amount of rewards for their efforts.
Exhibit 4-8 Equity Theory Ratio of Output to Input Person 1 Person 2 Person 1’s Perception Inequity. underrewarded Person 1 Equity Person 2 Person 1 Person 2 Inequity. overrewarded 46 .
Responses to Inequity • • • • • Change Inputs Change Outcomes Adjust Perceptions Choose a Different Referent Leave the Field 47 .
equity theory focused on: – Distributive justice • However. equity should also consider – Procedural justice 48 .Fair Process and Treatment • Historically.
Fair Process • Distributive Justice – Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals • Procedural Justice – Perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards • Interactional Justice – The quality of the interpersonal treatment received from another 49 .
money is not all employees’ top priority – Many emphasize relationships in the workplace 50 .Role of Money • Money is most commonly used reward in organizations – Money certainly helps some needs get met • But.
ESOPs 51 .• Employee Recognition: Motivating to Show People Matter – Employee recognition plans Motivating for Specific Organizational Goals • Variable-Pay Programs: Motivating for Improved Productivity – Individual-based incentives: piece rate – Group-based incentives: gainsharing – Organizational-based incentives: profit sharing.
bonuses – Group-based • Gainsharing – Organizational-based • Profit sharing • Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) 52 .Variable-Pay Programs • A portion of an employee’s pay is based on some individual and/or organizational measure(s) of performance. – Individual-based • Piece-rate wages.
• Gainsharing – An incentive plan where improvements in group productivity determine the total amount of money that is allocated.Variable Pay Programs • Piece-rate pay plans – Workers are paid a fixed sum for each unit of production completed. 53 .
54 . • Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs) – Company-established benefit plans in which employees acquire stock as part of their benefits.Variable Pay Programs • Profit-sharing plans – Organization wide programs that distribute compensation based on some established formula designed around a company’s profitability.
– Value support. – Well paid/Chief reward is work itself. – Strong and long-term commitment to their field of expertise. – More focused on work as central life interest.Motivating Professionals • How are “professionals” different? – Receive a great deal of “intrinsic” satisfaction from their work. 55 .
– Reward with educational opportunities.Motivating Professionals • How do we motivate professionals? – Provide challenging projects – Give them autonomy in follow interests and structure work. 56 . – Recognize their contributions.
– Contingent or temporary workers are typically provided with little or no health care. pensions.Motivating Contingent Workers • No simple solutions to motivating contingent workers. or similar benefits. 57 . therefore. – Contingent or temporary workers have little or no job security/stability. they don’t identify with the organization or display the commitment of permanent employees.
Motivating Contingent Workers • Greatest motivating factor is the opportunity to gain permanent employment. • Motivation is also increased if the employee sees that the job he or she is doing for the firm can develop saleable skills. 58 .
scheduling.Motivating Low-Skilled Service Workers • Many 15. and hiring • Creation of a “family” atmosphere among employees 59 .to 24-year-olds have “McJobs” with pay levels near minimum wage • To motivate – – – – Employees want more respect Make jobs more appealing Raise pay levels Find unusual ways to motivate: • Flexible work schedules • Broader responsibility for inventory.
Motivating Unionized Employees • Constraints of contract affect some forms of rewards – Some unions against pay-for-performance • Additional ideas – – – – Create better work environments Show appreciation Provide opportunities for training and advancement Listen to employees concerns 60 .
Motivating Public Sector Employees • Special challenge – Much work is service-oriented. harder to measure productivity – Hard to link rewards to performance • What to do – Goal setting helps • Goal difficulty and goal specificity help improve motivation 61 .
Cross-Cultural Differences in Motivation • Canada and US rely on extrinsic rewards more than other countries • Japan and Germany rarely use individual incentives – Japan emphasizes group rewards • China more likely to give bonuses to everyone 62 .
Are Rewards Overrated? Cognitive Evaluation Theory • Allocating extrinsic rewards for behaviour that had been previously intrinsically rewarded tends to decrease the overall level of motivation. 63 .
Abolishing Rewards • Alfie Kohn suggests that organizations should focus less on rewards. more on creating motivating environments – – – – – – Abolish incentives Re-evaluate evaluation Create conditions for authentic motivation Collaboration Content Choice 64 .
absenteeism.Summary • Need Theories – Be aware that individuals differ in their levels and types of needs • Goal Setting Theory – Clear and difficult goals lead to higher levels of employee productivity. and turnover. 65 . • Expectancy Theory – Offers a relatively powerful explanation of employee productivity.
• Use Goals and Feedback • Allow Employees to Participate in Decisions That Affect Them 66 .Implications • Recognize Individual Differences – Employees have different needs. – Spend the time necessary to understand what’s important to each employee. – Don’t treat them all alike.
Chapter 5 Group Dynamics 67 .
who have a stable relationship. interacting and interdependent. a common goal. 68 .Groups: ? • Groups – Two or more individuals. and perceive themselves to be a group • Types of Groups – Informal groups: a collection of people seeking friendship and acceptance that satisfies esteem needs. – Formal groups: a collection of people created to do something productive that contributes to the success of the larger organization.
Types of Groups • • • • • • Formal Groups Task Command Informal Groups Interest Friendship 69 .
Exhibit 5-4 Stages of Group Development Prestage I Stage I Forming Stage II Storming Stage III Norming Stage IV Performing Stage V Adjourning 70 .
characterized by close relationships and cohesiveness 71 . characterized by intragroup conflict • Stage III: Norming – The third stage in group development.Stages of Group Development • Stage I: Forming – The first stage in group development. characterized by much uncertainty • Stage II: Storming – The second stage in group development.
characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than task performance 72 .Stages of Group Development • Stage IV: Performing – The fourth stage in group development. when the group is fully functional • Stage V: Adjourning – The final stage in group development for temporary groups.
Putting the Five-Stage Model Into Perspective • Groups do not necessarily progress clearly through the stages one at a time • Groups can sometimes go back to an earlier stage • Conflict can sometimes be helpful to the group • Context can matter: airline pilots can immediately reach performing stage 73 .
• Transition – A transition takes place at the end of the first phase. – The transition initiates major changes. – The first phase of group activity is one of inertia. • Last meeting is characterized by markedly accelerated activity 74 . which occurs exactly when the group has used up half its allotted time. • Second phase – A second phase of inertia follows the transition.The Punctuated-Equilibrium Model • First phase – The first meeting sets the group’s direction.
Exhibit 5-5 The PunctuatedEquilibrium Model (High) Performance Phase 2 First Meeting Transition Phase 1 Completion (Low) A (A+B)/2 Time 75 B .
Explaining Work-Group Behavior • • • • • • External Conditions Imposed on Group Group Member Resources Group Structure Group Processes Group Task Performance and Satisfaction 76 .
External Conditions Imposed on Group • • • • Organization Overall Strategy Authority Structure Formal Regulations Performance evaluation and reward system • Organization culture • Physical work setting 77 .
Group Member Resources • • • • Knowledge Skills Abilities Personal Characteristics 78 .
Group Structure • • • • • • • Formal Leadership Roles Norms Status Size Composition Cohesiveness 79 .
– Role Identity: Certain attitudes and behaviours consistent with a role – Role Perception: An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation 80 .Roles • A role is a set of expected behaviour patterns associated with someone occupying a given position in a social unit.
Roles – Role Expectations: How others believe a person should act in a given situation • Psychological Contract: Unwritten agreement that sets out what management expects from the employee. and vice versa. – Role Conflict: A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations 81 .
Norms • Acceptable standards of behaviour within a group that are shared by the group’s members 82 .
levels of tardiness • Appearance – Personal dress. assignments. allocation of tools and equipment 83 . what kind of quality. when to look busy. when to "goof off.What Norms Cover • Performance – How hard to work." how to show loyalty • Social arrangement – How team members interact • Allocation of resources – Pay.
How Norms Develop • • • • Explicit statements Critical events Initial patterns of behaviour Carry-over behaviour 09/24/10 84 .
Why Norms Are Enforced • • • • • Facilitate group survival Make behaviour predictable Minimize embarrassment Express central values Clarify the group’s identity 09/24/10 85 .
Conformity • Adjusting your behaviour to align with the norms of the group • People conform to reference groups – Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong 86 .
its members. or both.Deviant Workplace Behaviour • Antisocial actions by organizational members that intentionally violate established norms and that result in negative consequences for the organization. 87 .
Exhibit 5-3 Deviant Workplace Behaviour Category Production Examples Leaving early Intentionally working slowly Wasting resources Sabotage Lying about hours worked Stealing from the organization Showing favouritism Gossiping and spreading rumours Blaming co-workers Sexual harassment Verbal abuse Stealing from co-workers Property Political Personal aggression 88 .
Status • A socially defined position or rank given to groups or group members by others • Status and norms • Status equity • Status and culture 89 .
Roles in Groups • Task-oriented roles – Roles performed by group members to ensure that the tasks of the group are accomplished • Maintenance roles – Roles performed by group members to maintain good relations within the group • Individual roles – Roles performed by group members that are not productive for keeping the group on task 90 .
Exhibit 5-7 Roles That Build Task Accomplishment Initiating 91 .
Exhibit 5-7 Roles That Build and Maintain a Team
Harmonizing Compromising Gatekeeping Mediating conflict among other members, reconciling disagreements, relieving tensions Admitting error at times of group conflict Making sure all members have a chance to express their ideas and feelings and preventing members from being interrupted Helping a group member make his or her point. Establishing a climate of acceptance in the group
• Research Evidence
– Smaller groups faster at completing tasks – When problem solving, larger groups do better – Social loafing-The tendency of individuals to expend less efforts when working collectively than working individually.
• Group demography-The degree to which members of a group share common demographic attributes like age, experience, qualification and it impact on turnover • Cohorts-Individuals who, as a part of group hold a common attribute.
• Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group
Exhibit 5-9 Relationship Between Group Cohesiveness. and Productivity Cohesiveness Performance Norms High High productivity Moderate productivity Low Low productivity Moderate to low productivity 96 . Performance Norms.
Group Processes • Synergy • Social facilitation effect.The tendency for performance to improve or decline in response to the presence of others 97 .
skills and ideas therefore group discussion required • If task is simple and repetitive than people can better work on it independently. 98 .Group Task • If task is complex then it need diverse views.
Exhibit 5-10 Advantages and Disadvantages of Diversity Advantages • Multiple perspectives • Greater openness to new ideas • Multiple interpretations • Increased creativity • Increased flexibility • Increased problemsolving skills • • • • • Disadvantages Ambiguity Complexity Confusion Miscommunication Difficulty in reaching a single agreement • Difficulty in agreeing on specific actions 99 .
Group Decision Making • Strength of group decision making – More complete information and knowledge – Diversity of views – High quality decisions • Weakness of group decision making – Time Consuming and Conformity – Effectiveness and efficiency 100 .
Group Decision Making Strengths of Group Decision Making • Generates more complete information and knowledge • Offers increased diversity of views • Generates higher-quality decisions • Leads to increased acceptance of a solution 101 .
Weaknesses of Group Decision Making • More time consuming • Conformity pressures in groups • Discussion can be dominated by one or a few members • Decisions suffer from ambiguous responsibility 102 .
• Groupthink – Phenomenon in which the norm for consensus overrides the realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action • Groupshift – Phenomenon in which the initial positions of individual members of a group are exaggerated toward a more extreme position 103 .
when the members’ strivings for unanimity override their motivation to realistically appraise alternative courses of action. • Symptoms of Groupthink – – – – Excessive optimism An assumption of inherent morality Suppression of dissent A desperate quest for unanimity 104 .Group Think • Groupthink (Irving Janis) – A mode of thinking (blind conformity) that people engage in when they are deeply involved in a cohesive in-group.
– Assign someone the role of devil’s advocate. 105 . – Bring in outside experts for fresh perspectives. – Urge each group member to think independently. – Take time to consider possible effects and consequences of alternative courses of action.• Preventing Groupthink – Avoid using of groups as rubberstamps.
Group shift • A change in decision risk between the group decision and individual decision that members within the group would make. can be either toward conservation or greater risk • It is one of the type of group think 106 .
Group Decision-making Techniques • • • • Interacting Groups Brainstorming Nominal Group Technique Electronic meeting 107 .
Chapter 8 Conflict and Negotiation 108 .
Chapter Outline • • • • • • Conflict Defined Sources of Conflict From Potential to Actual Conflict Conflict Management and Teams Negotiation Issues in Negotiation 109 .
Conflict and Negotiation Questions for Consideration Questions for Consideration • How do we manage conflict? • When is conflict functional? • How do we negotiate? 110 .
– Functional • Supports the goals of the group and improves its performance – Dysfunctional • Hinders group performance 111 .Conflict • A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected. something that the first party cares about. or is about to negatively affect.
Conflict Process • Potential opposition or incompatibility Communication Structure personal variables 112 .
tenseness or frustation 113 .• Cognition and personalization Perceived conflict-Awareness by one or more party of the existence of conditions that create opportunities for conflict to arise Felt conflict-emotional involvement in conflict creating anxiety.
How Structure Can Lead to Conflict • Stimulating conflict – Size. specialization. and composition of the group – Too much reliance on participation – Diversity of goals among groups – Ambiguity in precisely defining where responsibility for actions lies – Reward systems where one member’s gain is at another’s expense 114 .
Exhibit 8-1 How Conflict Builds Conflict-handling Intentions • • • • • Competing Collaborating Compromising Avoiding Accommodating Outcomes • Functional: increased performance • Dysfunctional: decreased group performance Behaviour 115 .
Conflict-Handling Intentions • Two Dimensions – Cooperativeness • The degree to which one party attempts to satisfy the other party’s concerns – Assertiveness • The degree to which one party attempts to satisfy his or her own concerns 116 .
• Collaborating • A situation where the parties to a conflict each desire to satisfy fully the concerns of all parties • Avoiding • The desire to withdraw from or suppress a conflict. regardless of the impact on the other parties.Specific Intentions • Competing • A desire to satisfy one’s interests. • Accommodating • The willingness of one party in a conflict to place the opponent’s interests above his or her own • Compromising • A situation in which each party to a conflict is willing to give up something 117 .
Exhibit 8-2 Dimensions of Conflict-Handling Intentions Assertive Competing Collaborating Assertiveness Compromising Unassertive Avoiding Uncooperative Accommodating Cooperative Cooperativeness 118 .
Exhibit 8-4 Conflict Intensity Continuum Annihilatory conflict Overt efforts to destroy the other party Aggressive physical attacks Threats and ultimatums Assertive verbal attacks Overt questioning or challenging of others No conflict Minor disagreements or misunderstandings 119 .
• Conflict outcomes Functional or dysfunctional conflict 120 .
Conflict Resolution Techniques • • • • • Problem Solving Shared Goals Expansion of Resources Avoidance Authoritative Command 121 .
Types of Conflict • Cognitive – Conflict related to differences in perspectives and judgments • Task-oriented • Results in identifying differences • Usually functional conflict • Affective – Emotional conflict aimed at a person rather than an issue • Dysfunctional conflict 122 .
Reducing Group Conflict • Team members reduced conflict using the following tactics: – Worked with more. rather than less. information – Debated on the basis of facts – Developed multiple alternatives to enrich the level of debate – Shared commonly agreed-upon goals – Injected humour into the decision process – Maintained a balanced power structure – Resolved issues without forcing consensus 123 .
Summary and Implications • Conflict can be either constructive or destructive to the functioning of a group. 124 . • An optimal level of conflict: – – – – Prevents stagnation Stimulates creativity Releases tension And initiates the seeds for change • Inadequate or excessive levels of conflict can hinder group effectiveness.
125 . – – – – – Use competition when quick.Summary and Implications • Don’t assume there's one conflict-handling intention that is always best. decisive action is vital Use collaboration to find an integrative solution Use avoidance when an issue is trivial Use accommodation when you find you’re wrong Use compromise when goals are important • Negotiation is an ongoing activity in groups • Intergroup conflicts can also affect an organization’s performance.
more constructive level of tension • All Conflicts Are Dysfunctional! v The negative consequences from conflict can be devastating v Effective managers build teamwork not conflict v Competition is good for an organization. but not conflict v Managers who accept and stimulate conflict don’t survive in organizations 126 .Point-CounterPoint • Conflict Is Good for the Organization v Conflict is a means by which to bring about radical change v Conflict facilitates group cohesiveness v Conflict improves group and organizational effectiveness v Conflict brings about a slightly higher.
a win-lose situation – Integrative bargaining • Negotiation that seeks one or more settlements that can create a win-win solution 127 .Negotiation • A process in which two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree upon the exchange rate for them – Distributive bargaining • Negotiation that seeks to divide up a fixed amount of resources.
you lose Integrative Bargaining Variable amount of resources to be divided I win.Exhibit 8-6 Distributive versus Integrative Bargaining Bargaining Characteristic Available resources Distributive Bargaining Fixed amount of resources to be divided I win. you win Convergent or congruent with each other Long term Primary motivations Primary interests Focus of relationships Opposed to each other Short term 128 .
How to Negotiate • Assess personal goals. consider other’s goals. develop strategy • Identify target and resistance points – Target: what one would like to achieve – Resistance: lowest outcome acceptable • Identify BATNA – Best Alternative To a Negotiated Agreement 129 .
Issues in Negotiation • • • • Gender Differences Cross-Cultural Differences Alcohol and Negotiations Third-Party Negotiations 130 .
Gender Differences • Women – More inclined to be concerned with feelings and perceptions. and take a longer-term view – View the bargaining session as part of an overall relationship – Tend to want all parties in the negotiation to be empowered – Use dialogue to achieve understanding • Men – View the bargaining session as a separate event – Use dialogue to persuade 131 .
. saying such things as "I propose a start date of 12 weeks . . I'm sorry. mislead. no.Alcohol Consumption and Negotiations – Negotiators who had been drinking • Were more aggressive and more likely to insult. when in fact it had 132 . I was confused" • Were more likely to focus on irrelevant information or misunderstand the problem • Were not aware that alcohol had influenced their performance. 4 weeks. and threaten their opponent • Were more likely to make mistakes.
as the drinker tended to be far more aggressive 133 .Alcohol Consumption and Negotiations – Sober negotiators • Were were more likely to look for win-win solutions • Did not do well when bargaining against someone who had been drinking.
Third Party Roles in Negotiations • Conciliator • Mediator • Arbitrator 134 .
interpret messages.Conciliator • Trusted third party who provides an informal communication link between the negotiator and the opponent – Informal link – Used extensively in international. persuade disputants to develop agreements 135 . family and community disputes – Fact-find. labour.
persuasion.Mediator • A neutral third party who facilitates a negotiated solution by using reasoning. satisfaction rate is about 75% – Participants must be motivated to bargain and settle – Best under moderate levels of conflict – Mediator must appear neutral and non-coercive 136 . and suggestions for alternatives – Labour-management negotiations and civil court disputes – Settlement rate is about 60%.
Arbitrator • Has authority to dictate an agreement – Voluntary (requested) or compulsory (imposed by law or contract) – Always results in a settlement – May result in further conflict 137 .
Chapter 12 Organizational Structure 138 .
Chapter Outline • • • • • What Is Organizational Structure? Common Organizational Designs Traditional Designs New Design Options Why Do Structures Differ? 139 .
Organizational Structure Questions for Consideration • What are the key elements of organizational structure? • How do traditional organizational designs compare with newer organizational structure? • Why do organizational structures differ? 140 .
grouped. and includes the degree of complexity. and coordinated. formalization. and centralization in the organization. 141 .What Is Organizational Structure? • Organizational structure refers to how job tasks are formally divided.
Exhibit 12-1 Pyramidal Organizational Structure 142 .
Exhibit 12-2 Flat Organizational Structure 143 .
How many individuals can a manager efficiently and effectively handle? 5. To what degree are tasks subdivided into separate jobs? 2. To what degree will there be rules and regulations to direct employees and managers? . To whom do individuals and groups report? 4. On what basis will jobs be grouped together? 3. Where does decision-making authority lie? 6.Exhibit 12-3 Six Key Questions for Organizational Structure The Key Question By The Answer Is Provided Work specialization Departmentalization Chain of command Span of control Centralization and decentralization Formalization 144 1.
low productivity. stress. high turnover. putting equipment away • Easier to train employees • Downsides – Boredom. increased absenteeism 145 .Work Specialization • The degree to which tasks in the organization are subdivided into separate jobs – Also known as division of labour • Benefits – Efficiency • Less time changing tasks.
Departmentalization • The basis on which jobs are grouped together • Types – – – – – – Functional Product Geographic Process Customer Mixed 146 .
Quality Assurance 147 .Exhibit 12-4 Functional Departmentalization Composites Atlantic Board of Directors President/ CEO Counsellor of the President Executive Vice-President Executive Secretary VP Operations Financial Controller VP Business Development Director.
Exhibit 12-5 Product Departmentalization Nortel Public Carrier Networks Broadband Networks Enterprise Networks Wireless Networks 148 .
Exhibit 12-6 Geographic Departmentalization Royal Bank Canada Asia Europe United States 149 .
Exhibit 12-7 Customer Departmentalization Dell Canada Individual Users Educational Users Federal Government Users Large Business Users Small/Medium Business Users 150 .
Chain of Command • Two aspects – Authority • Who has the right to give orders and expect them to be obeyed – Unity of command • Subordinates should have only one superior • Today’s organizations – Fewer follow chain of command – More have decision making opportunities at all levels 151 .
more managers – Makes vertical communication more complicated – Encourages tight supervision and discourages autonomy • Larger span – Empowers workers – Speeds up decisions 152 .Span of Control • Number of subordinates that can be efficiently and effectively managed • Small span – Expensive.
Exhibit 12-8 Contrasting Spans of Control
Members at each level
Assuming span of 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 4 16 64 256 1024 4096 Operatives = 4096 Managers (Levels 1 – 6) = 1365 Operatives = 4096 Managers (Levels 1 – 4) = 585 Assuming span of 8 1 8 64 512 4096
Centralization and Decentralization
• Are decisions concentrated at top (centralization) or pushed to lower levels (decentralization)? • There is a marked trend toward decentralization
• How standardized are the jobs?
– High formalization means employees have little discretion – Low formalization means employees have more freedom
Exhibit 12-10 Mechanistic versus Organic Models
The mechanistic model The organic model
• • • • • •
High specialization Rigid departmentalization Clear chain of command Narrow spans of control Centralization High formalization
• • • • • •
Cross-functional teams Cross-hierarchical teams Free flow of information Wide spans of control Decentralization Low formalization
Simple Structure • Strengths – Simplicity: fast. flexible. inexpensive • Weakness – Works best in small organizations – Can slow down decision making in larger organization – Can be risky as it relies on one person to make all decisions 157 .
which reduces employment costs • Weaknesses – Creates subunit conflicts – There is an obsessive concern with following rules 158 . minimum duplication of personnel and equipment • Lower quality employees are acceptable.Bureaucracy • Strengths – Standardizes activities in an efficient manner • Economies of scale.
stress 159 . confusion.Matrix Organization • Breaks the unity of command principle – Employees have two bosses • Strengths – Facilitates coordination when there are many activities – More communication – Efficient allocation of specialists • Disadvantages – Power struggles.
D.Exhibit 12-11 Matrix Structure Academic Programs departments Under graduate Master’s Ph. Research Executive Development Community Service Accounting Administrative studies Finance Information and decision sciences Marketing Organizational behaviour Quantitative methods 160 ..
New Design Options • Breaking the Boundaries Internally – Team Structure • Breaking the Boundaries Externally – Modular Organization – Virtual Organization • Breaking the Boundaries Externally and Internally – The Boundaryless Organization 161 .
Modular Organization • A small core organization that outsources major business functions • Advantages – Can devote technical and managerial talent to most critical activities – Can respond more quickly to environmental changes – Increased focus on customers and markets • Disadvantages – Reduces management’s control over business – Relies on outsiders to get job done 162 .
Exhibit 12-12 Modular Structure Organizational Infrastructure Human Resource Management Technology Development Procurement Operations Marketing and Sales Service OUTSOURCED 163 .
Virtual Organization • A continually evolving network of independent companies —suppliers. even competitors—linked together to share skills. costs. and access to one another’s markets • Advantages – Organizations can share costs and skills – Provides access to global markets – Increases market responsiveness • Disadvantages – Companies give up operational and strategic control to work together – Managers need to be more flexible. acquire new skills 164 . customers.
Exhibit 12-13 Virtual Structure Organizational Infrastructure Human Resource Management Technology Development Procurement Operations Marketing and Sales Service Alliance Partner A Alliance Partner B Alliance Partner C Alliance Partner D Alliance Partner E 165 .
tight controls over current activities and looser controls for new undertakings 166 . low formalization. extensive work specialization. high centralization Imitation Mechanistic and organic: Mix of loose with tight properties. low specialization.Exhibit 12-14 The Strategy-Structure Thesis Strategy Innovation Structural Option Organic: A loose structure. high formalization. decentralized Cost minimization Mechanistic: Tight control.
Why Do Structures Differ? • Strategy – Innovation. and imitation. 167 . • Organization Size – An organization’s size significantly affects its structure. rather. – The relationship isn’t linear. cost minimization. size affects structure at a decreasing rate.
human. 168 . • Environment – Composed of forces outside the organization and the uncertainty associated with them.Why Do Structures Differ? • Technology – Every organization has at least one technology for converting financial. and physical resources into products or services – The common theme that differentiates technologies is their degree of routineness.
Environmental Uncertainty • Capacity – Degree to which environment can support growth • Instability – Degree of predictable change • Complexity – Degree of heterogeneity and concentration in environment 169 .
Exhibit 12-15 Model of the Environment Stable Abundant Simple Complex Scarce Dynamic 170 .
Exhibit 12-16 Organization Structure: Its Determinants and Outcomes Causes • Strategy • Size • Technology • Environment determines Structural designs • Mechanistic • Organic leads to Outcomes • Performance • Satisfaction Moderators • Individual differences • Cultural norms 171 .
• An organization’s structure reduces ambiguity for employees. and centralization are objective characteristics that can be measured by organizational researchers. 172 . formalization. • The specific effect of structural designs on performance and satisfaction is moderated by employees’ individual preferences and cultural norms.Summary and Implications • An organization’s internal structure contributes to explaining and predicting behaviour. • Structural variables like work specialization. span of control.
Chapter 11 Basic Approaches to Leadership 173 .
SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT.What Is Leadership? Leadership The ability to influence a group toward the achievement of goals. . Management Use of authority inherent in designated formal rank to obtain compliance from organizational members. 174 DR..
Trait Theories Traits Theories of Leadership Theories that consider personality. physical.. social. or intellectual traits to differentiate leaders from nonleaders.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. 11–175 . Leadership Traits: Leadership Traits: •• Ambition and energy Ambition and energy •• The desire to lead The desire to lead •• Honest and integrity Honest and integrity •• Self-confidence Self-confidence •• Intelligence Intelligence •• High self-monitoring High self-monitoring •• Job-relevant Job-relevant knowledge knowledge 175 DR.
•• Traits predict behavior better in “weak” Traits predict behavior better in “weak” than “strong” situations.. 11–176 . and ineffective leaders. •• Better predictor of the appearance of Better predictor of the appearance of leadership than distinguishing effective leadership than distinguishing effective and ineffective leaders.Trait Theories Limitations:: Limitations •• No universal traits found that predict No universal traits found that predict leadership in all situations. than “strong” situations. •• Unclear evidence of the cause and effect Unclear evidence of the cause and effect of relationship of leadership and traits. 176 DR.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. leadership in all situations. of relationship of leadership and traits.
•• Behavioral theory: Behavioral theory: Leadership traits can be taught. not made. not made. 11–177 . 177 DR. Leaders are born. Leadership traits can be taught.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT.Behavioral Theories Behavioral Theories of Leadership Theories proposing that specific behaviors differentiate leaders from nonleaders.. •• Trait theory: Trait theory: Leaders are born.
Ohio State Studies Initiating Structure The extent to which a leader is likely to define and structure his or her role and those of subordinates in the search for goal attainment. 178 DR. Consideration The extent to which a leader is likely to have job relationships characterized by mutual trust.. 11–178 .SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. respect for subordinate’s ideas. and regard for their feelings.
179 DR.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT.University of Michigan Studies Employee-Oriented Leader Emphasizing interpersonal relations. 11–179 .. Production-Oriented Leader One who emphasizes technical or task aspects of the job. taking a personal interest in the needs of employees and accepting individual differences among members.
SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. 11–180 . Their premise is that in a changing world. 180 DR. Researchers in Finland and Sweden question whether there are only two dimensions (production-orientation and employeeorientation) that capture the essence of leadership behavior.. seeking new ideas.Scandinavian Studies Development-Oriented Leader One who values experimentation. effective leaders would exhibit development-oriented behavior. and generating and implementing change.
Fiedler’s Contingency Model The theory that effective groups depend on a proper match between a leader’s style of interacting with subordinates and the degree to which the situation gives control and influence to the leader. Least Preferred Co-Worker (LPC) Questionnaire An instrument that purports to measure whether a person is task- or relationshiporiented.
DR.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT.. 11–181
Fiedler’s Model: Defining the Situation Leader-Member Relations
The degree of confidence, trust, and respect subordinates have in their leader. Task Structure The degree to which the job assignments are procedurized. Position Power Influence derived from one’s formal structural position in the organization; includes power to hire, fire, discipline, promote, and give salary 182 increases. DR.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT.. 11–182
Cognitive Resource Theory
Cognitive Resource Theory A theory of leadership that states that stress can unfavorably affect a situation and that intelligence and experience can lessen the influence of stress on the leader. Research Support: : Research Support
• • Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership Less intelligent individuals perform better in leadership roles under high stress than do more intelligent roles under high stress than do more intelligent individuals. individuals. • • Less experienced people perform better in leadership Less experienced people perform better in leadership roles under low stress than do more experienced people. roles under low stress than do more experienced people.
DR.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT.. 11–183
Hersey and Blanchard’s Situational Leadership Theory
Situational Leadership Theory (SLT) A contingency theory that focuses on followers’ readiness.
Unable and Unwilling Unable but Willing Able and Unwilling Able and Willing
Follower readiness: ability and willingness
Leader: decreasing need for support and supervision
Directive High Task and Relationship Orientations Supportive Participative Monitoring 184
DR.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT.. 11–184
Leadership Styles and Follower Readiness (HerseyUnwilling Blanchard) and Willing Follower Readiness Able Supportive Participative Monitoring Leadership Styles Unable Directive High Task and Relationship Orientations 185 DR.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT.. 11–185 .
.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. 186 DR.Leader–Member Exchange Theory Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory Leaders create in-groups and out-groups. and greater job satisfaction. and subordinates with in-group status will have higher performance ratings. less turnover. 11–186 .
.Path-Goal Theory Path-Goal Theory The theory that it is the leader’s job to assist followers in attaining their goals and to provide them the necessary direction and/or support to ensure that their goals are compatible with the overall objectives of the group or organization.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. •Directive Leader •Supportive Leader •Participative Leader •Achievement oriented Leader 187 DR. 11–187 .
188 DR.. 11–188 .SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT.Leader-Participation Model Leader-Participation Model (Vroom and Yetton) A leadership theory that provides a set of rules to determine the form and amount of participative decision making in different situations.
7.. 5. Whether followers buy into organizational goals. 11–189 . 3. 189 DR. 4.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT.Contingency Variables in the Leader-Participation Model 1. Importance of using participation as a tool for developing follower decision skills. 2. 6. 8. Whether there is likely to be conflict among followers over solutions alternatives. Time constraints on the leader that may limit follower involvement 10. How well structured the problem is Whether an autocratic decision would receive follower commitment. Whether followers have the necessary information to make good decision. Importance of the decision Importance of obtaining follower commitment Whether the leader has sufficient information to make a good decision. 9.
Chapter 12 Contemporary Issues in Leadership 190 .
SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. 12–191 . 191 DR.Trust: The Foundation of Leadership Trust A positive expectation that another will not— through words. actions. or decisions—act opportunistically. Trust is a history-dependent process (familiarity) based on relevant but limited samples of experience (risk).
• Consistency – an individual’s reliability. 192 DR. • Openness – reliance on the person to give you the full truth. and good judgment in handling situations. predictability. 12–192 .Dimensions of Trust • Integrity – honesty and truthfulness. • Loyalty – the willingness to protect and save face for another person.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. • Competence – an individual’s technical and interpersonal knowledge and skills.
12–193 .SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT.Trust and Leadership Leadership Leadership TRUST TRUST and and INTEGRITY INTEGRITY 193 DR.
SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT.Three Types of Trust Deterrence-based Trust Trust based on fear of reprisal if the trust is violated. Knowledge-based Trust Trust based on behavioral predictability that comes from a history of interaction. 194 DR. Identification-based Trust Trust based on a mutual understanding of each other’s intentions and appreciation of the other’s wants and desires. 12–194 .
SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. • Trust begets trust. 12–195 . • Trust increases cohesion. • Mistrusting groups self-destruct.Basic Principles of Trust • Mistrust drives out trust. • Mistrust generally reduces productivity. • Decline or downsizing tests the highest levels of trust. 195 DR. • Growth often masks mistrust.
Leaders use framing (selectively including or Leaders use framing (selectively including or excluding facts) to influence how others see excluding facts) to influence how others see and interpret reality.Framing: Using Words to Shape Meaning and Inspire Others Framing A way to use language to manage meaning.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. and interpret reality. 196 DR. 12–196 .
Setting high performance expectations Setting high performance expectations Conveying a new set of values Conveying a new set of values 197 DR. 2. 3. Articulating the vision 1. Making personal sacrifices 4.Inspirational Approaches to Leadership Charismatic Leadership Theory Followers make attributions of heroic or extraordinary leadership abilities when they observe certain behaviors. 12–197 4. Making personal sacrifices . 3. Charismatics Influence Followers By: Charismatics Influence Followers By: 1. Articulating the vision 2.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT.
and the ability to stimulate others to high performance. – Channel their ego needs away from themselves and into the goal of building a great company.Beyond Charismatic Leadership • Level 5 Leaders – Possess a fifth dimension—a paradoxical blend of personal humility and professional will —in addition to the four basic leadership qualities of individual capability. managerial competence. 198 DR.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. team skills. 12–198 .
• Charisma • Inspiration • Intellectual Stimulation • Individual Consideration 199 12–199 . Transformational Leaders Leaders who provide individualized consideration and intellectual stimulation.Transactional and Transformational Leadership Transactional Leaders • Contingent Reward • Management by Exception (active) • Management by Exception (passive) • Laissez-Faire Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. and who possess DR.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT.
SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. 12–200 .Emotional Intelligence and Leadership Effectiveness Elements of Emotional Elements of Emotional Intelligence: : Intelligence ••Self-awareness Self-awareness ••Self-management Self-management ••Self-motivation Self-motivation ••Empathy Empathy ••Social skills Social skills 200 DR.
12–201 . •• Coaching to improve team Coaching to improve team member performance member performance 201 DR. Serve as troubleshooters.Contemporary Leadership Roles: Providing Team Leadership Team Leadership Roles: : Team Leadership Roles •• Act as liaisons with Act as liaisons with external constituencies. Managing conflict. external constituencies. •• Serve as troubleshooters. •• Managing conflict.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT.
SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. Mentoring Activities: : Mentoring Activities •• Present ideas clearly Present ideas clearly •• Listen well Listen well •• Empathize Empathize •• Share experiences Share experiences •• Act as role model Act as role model •• Share contacts Share contacts •• Provide political Provide political guidance guidance 202 DR. 12–202 .Contemporary Leadership Roles: Mentoring Mentor A senior employee who sponsors and supports a lessexperienced employee (a protégé).
• • Encourage self-criticism. • • Encourage employees to Encourage employees to create self-set goals.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. rewards. • • Encourage the use of selfEncourage the use of selfrewards. • • Create positive thought Create positive thought patterns. patterns.Self-Leadership Contemporary Leadership Roles: Self-Leadership Creating self leaders: : Creating self leaders • • Model self-leadership. DR. . leadership. 203 12–203 A set of processes through which individuals control their own behavior. Encourage self-criticism. create self-set goals. Model self-leadership. • • Create aaclimate of selfCreate climate of selfleadership.
204 DR. Engage in socially constructive behaviors.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. 12–204 .Ethical Leadership Actions:: Actions •• Work to positively change the attitudes and Work to positively change the attitudes and behaviors of employees. •• Engage in socially constructive behaviors. attain goals. behaviors of employees. •• Do not abuse power or use improper means to Do not abuse power or use improper means to attain goals.
– The structure and tone of electronic messages can strongly affect the response of receivers. – Writing skills will likely become an extension of interpersonal skills 205 DR. – An individual’s verbal and written communications may not follow the same style. 12–205 .SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. – There is no supporting context to assist the receiver with interpretation of an electronic communication.Online Leadership • Leadership at a Distance: Building Trust – The lack of face-to-face contact in electronic communications removes the nonverbal cues that support verbal interactions.
Challenges to the Leadership Construct
Attribution Theory of Leadership The idea that leadership is merely an attribution that people make about other individuals. Qualities attributed to leaders: : Qualities attributed to leaders
• • Leaders are intelligent, outgoing, have strong verbal Leaders are intelligent, outgoing, have strong verbal skills, are aggressive, understanding, and industrious. skills, are aggressive, understanding, and industrious. • • Effective leaders are perceived as consistent and Effective leaders are perceived as consistent and unwavering in their decisions. unwavering in their decisions. • • Effective leaders project the appearance of being aa Effective leaders project the appearance of being leader. leader.
DR.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. 12–206
Finding and Creating Effective Leaders
– Review specific requirements for the job. – Use tests that identify personal traits associated with leadership, measure self-monitoring, and assess emotional intelligence. – Conduct personal interviews to determine candidate’s fit with the job.
– Recognize the all people are not equally trainable. – Teach skills that are necessary for employees to become effective leaders. – Provide behavioral training to increase the development potential of nascent charismatic employees.
DR.SANDEEP RAMAKANT SAWANT. 12–207
Power and Politics
Power and Politics
Questions for Consideration Questions for Consideration
• • • • What is power? How does one get it? What does it mean to empower employees? How can we be effective at office politics?
210 .Power and Politics • Power – A capacity that A has to influence the behaviour of B so that B acts in accordance with A’s wishes. • Dependency: B’s relationship to A when A possesses something that B requires • Politics – Behaviour to influence or attempt to influence the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization.
Leadership and Power Power • Does not require goal acceptance • Focuses on intimidation (threats) • Maximizes importance of lateral and upward influence • Power focuses on tactics for gaining compliance Leadership • Requires goal agreement • Focuses on downward influence • Minimizes importance of lateral and upward influence • Leadership research focuses on answers 211 .
• Power that is based on fear. and you want to avoid getting him or her angry. to expect you to comply with legitimate requests. • Legitimate power – The person has the right. considering his or her position and your job responsibilities. • Reward power – The person is able to give special benefits or rewards to people. 212 .Measuring Bases of Power • Coercive power – The person can make things difficult for people. and you find it advantageous to trade favors with him or her.
and you defer to his or her judgment in some matters. 213 . • Referent power – You like the person and enjoy doing things for him or her.Measuring Bases of Power • Expert power – The person has the experience and knowledge to earn your respect.
• Legitimate power does not have a negative effect. • Reward power may improve performance in a variety of situations if the rewards are consistent with what the individuals want as rewards. 214 .Evaluating the Bases of Power • Coercive power tends to result in negative performance responses from individuals. • Expert power relies on trust that all relevant information is given out honestly and completely. and it does not generally result in increased commitment. but does not generally stimulate employees to improve their attitudes or performance. and creates fear. decreases satisfaction. increases mistrust.
and reward – Easiest to implement • Effective leaders use referent and/or expert power 215 .Leaders’ Use of Power • The least effective power bases are the ones most likely to be used by managers – Coercive. legitimate.
Dependency: Key to Power • Importance – The things you control must be important • Scarcity – A resource must be perceived as scarce • Non-substitutability – The resource cannot be substituted with something else 216 .
Increasing Dependency • To increase the dependency of others on you. you need to – Control things viewed as important – The resources must be viewed as scarce – The resource must have few or no substitutes (nonsubstitutability) 217 .
Popularity of Power Tactics: From Most to Least Popular When Managers Influenced Superiors* Most Popular Reason Coalition (association) Friendliness Bargaining Assertiveness Higher authority When Managers Influenced Subordinates Reason Assertiveness Friendliness Coalition Bargaining Higher authority Sanctions Least Popular 218 .
Empowerment: Giving Power to Employees • The freedom and the ability of employees to make decisions and commitments • Managers disagree over definition of empowerment – Empowerment as delegating decision making within a set of clear boundaries versus – Empowerment as “a process of risk taking and personal growth” 219 .
and not criticized when they try to do something extraordinary • Employees need to be recognized for their efforts 220 .Conditions for True Empowerment • Clear definition of the values and mission of the company • Company must help employees acquire the relevant skills • Employees need to be supported in their decision making.
They are not micromanaged • Sense of meaning – Employees feel that their work is important to them.Characteristics of Empowered People • Sense of self-determination – Employees are free to choose how to do their work. They care about what they are doing • Sense of competence – Employees are confident about their ability to do their work well. They know they can perform • Sense of impact – Employees people believe they can have influence on their work unit. Others listen to their ideas 221 .
Coalitions • Two or more individuals who combine their power to push for or support their demands • Predictions about coalition formation – Coalitions seek to maximize their size – Coalitions more likely to be created when there is greater task and resource dependence – Coalitions more likely when tasks are routine 222 .
Political Behavior • Those activities that influence. the distribution of advantages and disadvantages within the organization. – Legitimate: normal everyday behaviour – Illegitimate: extreme political behaviours that violate the implied rules of the game 223 . or attempt to influence.
goals and interests • Resources in organizations are limited • Performance outcomes are not completely clear and objective 224 .Why Do We Get Politics? • Organizations are made up of groups and individuals who have differing values.
Factors Influencing Political Behaviour Individual factors • • • • • • High self-monitors Internal locus of control High Mach Organizational investment Perceived job alternatives Expectations of success Political behaviour Favourable outcomes • Rewards • Averted punishments Organizational factors • • • • • • • • • Reallocation of resources Promotion opportunities Low trust Role ambiguity Unclear performance evaluation system Zero-sum reward practices Democratic decision making High performance pressures Self-serving senior managers Low High 225 .
What Individual Factors Contribute to Politics? • • • • • • High self-monitors Internal locus of control High mach Organizational investment Perceived job alternatives Expectations of success 226 .
What Organizational Factors Contribute to Politics? • • • • • • • • • Reallocation of rewards Promotion opportunities Low trust Role ambiguity Unclear performance evaluation system Zero-sum reward practices Democratic decision-making High performance pressure Self-serving senior managers 227 .
Types of Political Activity • • • • • • Attacking or blaming others Controlling information Forming coalitions Networking Creating obligation Managing impressions 228 .
How employee respond to Politics • • • • Decreased job satisfaction Increased anxiety Increased turnover Reduced performance 229 .
– and more likely to resist the manager. • Expert power is the most strongly and consistently related to effective employee performance. • Few employees relish being powerless in their jobs and organization. • People respond differently to various power bases. – Employees working under coercive managers are unlikely to be committed.Summary and Implications • Power is a two-way street. 230 .
• The more political that employees perceive an organization. • The effective manager accepts the political nature of organizations. 231 .Summary and Implications • The power of the manager may also play a role in determining job satisfaction. the lower their satisfaction.
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