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ALTERNATING

CURRENT (AC)
CIRCUIT
Putu Widhi Aprilia
04211540000017
OUTLINE

• 1 Phase Power Load Equation


• 3 Phase Power Load Equation
• Power Triangle
Power in alternating current system there are three kind :
1. Apparent Power : is the power delivered to an
electrical circuit.
 Total resultant between P and Q (S = P + jQ)
 The unit is in Volt Ampere (VA)

Introduction
2. True Power / Active Power : is the power consumed
by the resistive loads in an electrical circuit.
 The unit is in Watt
3. Reactive Power : is the power consumed in an AC
circuit because of the expansion and collapse of
magnetic (inductive) and electrostatic (capacitive)
fields.
 Caused by inductive load (positive Q)
 Caused by capacitive load (negative Q)
 The unit is in Volt Ampere Reactive (VAR)
Power • The power triangle shows the relationship between apparent
power, true power and reactive power.
Triangle
The power triangle represents
comparable values that can be
used directly to find the
efficiency
level of generated power to
usable power, which is expressed
as the power factor (discussed
later).
1 Phase
• Active / True / Real Power (P)
P = I2 R = E I cos Ө

Whereas: P = Active / true/ real power (Watt)

Load
I = RMS current (Ampere/A)

E = RMS voltage (Volt/V)

Equation
R = Resistance (Ω)

Ө = angle between E and I sine wave

• Reactive / Imaginary Power (Q)


Q = I2 X = E I sin Ө

Whereas: Q = Reactive / imaginary power (Volt Ampere Reactive / VAR)

I = RMS current (Ampere/A)

E = RMS voltage (Volt/V)

X = Net reactance (Ω)

Ө = angle between E and I sine wave

• Apparent / Total Power (S)


S = I2 Z = IT E

Whereas: S = Apparent / total Power (Volt Ampere/VA)

I = RMS current (Ampere/A)

E = RMS voltage (Volt/V)

Z = Impedance (Ω)
3 Phase
• Active / True / Real Power (P)
P = √3 . V . I cos Ө

Load
Whereas: P = Active / real power (Watt)
V = Voltage (Volt)

Equation
I = Current (Ampere)

• Reactive / Imaginary Power (Q)


Q = √3 . V . I sin Ө
Whereas: Q = Reactive / imaginary power (Volt Ampere Reactive /
VAR)
V = Voltage (Volt)
I = Current (Ampere)

• Apparent / Total Power (S)


S = √3 . V . I
Whereas: S = Apparent / total Power (Volt Ampere)
V = Voltage (Volt)
I = Current (Ampere)
Power Power factor (pf) is the ratio between true power and
apparent power. Cos Ѳ is called the power factor (pf) of an

Factor AC circuit. It is the ratio of true power to apparent power,


where Ѳ is the phase angle between the applied voltage
and current sine waves and also between P and S on a
power triangle.

𝑃
Cos Ѳ =
𝑆
Whereas :
Cos Ѳ = power factor
P = True Power
S = Apparent Power