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Basic Training Material for ITIL® Foundation

Issue: December 2015


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Welcome to the Basic Training Material (1)
• These slides contain basic presentation material to prepare students for the
ITIL® Foundation examination. They may be used as a basis for an
accredited training. All the topics in the exam requirements are covered.
Trainer notes are included.

• A good training will always require extra examples, practice, elaborating


subjects of special interest to the audience and a good time schedule,
including break-out sessions. See next slide.

• The order in which the subjects are presented here, follow the order of the
exam requirements, which is not necessarily the order in a good training
course. You can change the order while turning this material into your own
training.

• When using this basic material your organization will still need to go through
the normal accreditation procedure at EXIN.
Welcome to the Basic Training Material (2)
To complete your training the following must be added:

For course participants:


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• Material to prepare for the exam (sample exam, syllabus/preparation guide)
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• Description of course objectives and target audience
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• All topics addressed in the relevant exam syllabus to the correct level and breadth
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• The expected response time in case of questions (for e-learning)
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ITIL Foundation - The training

ITILFND01
Service Management as a practice
Standards Employees

Industry practices Customers

Sources Academic research Suppliers Enablers


(generate) (aggregate)

Training and education Advisers

Internal experience Technologies

Substitutes Competition

Drivers Regulators Compliance Scenarios


(filter) (filter)

Customers Commitments

Knowledge fit for business


Objectives, context and purpose

Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
(SS book fig. 2.3)
Why is ITIL® successful?
Vendor-neutral
Non-prescriptive
Practice

ITIL is adopted by organizations to enable them to:


Deliver value for customers through services
Integrate the strategy for services with the business strategy and
customer needs
Measure, monitor and optimize IT services and service provider
performance
Manage the IT investment and budget
• Manage risk

• Manage knowledge

• Manage capabilities and resources

• Adopt a standard approach to service management

• Change the organizational culture

• Improve the interaction and relationship with customers

• Coordinate the delivery of goods and services

• Optimize and reduce costs


I must ask, do you I believe services are a means of delivering value by
have a definition facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the
for services? ownership of specific costs and risks.

What would that mean


in operational terms? Well, services facilitate outcomes by
Give me a few handles. having a positive effect on activities,
objects and tasks, to create conditions for
better performance. As a result, the
probability of desired outcomes is higher.
But without the ownership of costs and
risks? Customers cannot wish them
away.

No, they cannot, but what they can do is


Manager Manager let the provider take ownership. That’s
(Operations) (Strategy)
really why it is a service. If customers
Aha! Because the provider is specialized
manage it all by themselves, they
with capabilities for dealing with those
wouldn’t need a service, would they?
costs and risks.

Yes, and also because the customer would


rather specialize in those outcomes.
(A casual conversation
at the water cooler)
And also because the provider can
Let’s write a book on
potentially spread those costs and
service management!
risks across more than one customer.

Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
(SS book fig. 2.1)
Internal customers
• Internal customers are people or departments who
work in the same organization as the service provider
External customers
• External customers are people who are not employed
by the organization, or organizations that are separate
legal entities, that purchase services from the service
provider in terms of a legally binding contract or
agreement
Services

• A Service is a means of delivering value to customers by facilitating outcomes


customers want to achieve without the ownership of specific costs and risks
Internal Services
• Delivered between departments or business units in the same organization
External Services
• Delivered to external customers

Differentiate between Services that support an internal activity, and Services that
achieve business outcomes.
IT Service Management

• The implementation and management of quality IT services that meet the


needs of the business
• Service management is a set of specialized organizational capabilities for
providing value to customers in the form of services
• IT service management is performed by IT service providers through a
mix of people, process and information technology

IT service provider

• A service provider that provides IT services to internal or external


customers
IT Service Management

• IT is a collection of systems, applications and infrastructures which are


components or sub-assemblies of a larger product

• IT is an organization with its own set of capabilities and resources

• IT is a category of services utilized by business

• IT is a category of business assets that provide a stream of benefits for


their owners, including, but not limited to, revenue, income and profit
Functions

• Self containing units of organizations specialized to perform certain types


of work and be responsible for specific outcomes

• Functions typically define roles and the associated authority and


responsibility for specific performance and outcomes
Process

• A set of coordinated activities combining and implementing resources and


capabilities in order to produce an outcome (specific objective), which,
directly or indirectly, creates value for an external customer or
stakeholder

• A process includes all of the roles, responsibilities, tools and management


controls required to reliably deliver the outputs

• Each process should be owned by a process owner, who should be


responsible for the process, the process improvement and for ensuring
that a process meets its objectives
Processes have the following characteristics:
• Processes are measurable
• They have specific results
• Processes have customers
• They respond to specific events

Process control can be defined as:

• The activity of planning and regulating a process, with the objective of


performing a process in an effective, efficient and consistent manner
Process control

Process policy
Process owner Process objectives

Triggers Process
Process feedback
documentation

Process

Process metrics
Process activities Process roles

Process Process Process Process


inputs procedures improvements outputs

Process work
Including process
instructions
Reports and reviews

Process enables

Process
Process resources
capabilities

(SS book fig. 2.5) Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
ITILFND02
The ITIL service lifecycle
Continual
service
improvement Service
transition

Service
strategy

Service Service
design Operation

(SS book fig. 1.1) Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
SERVICE STRATEGY

Purpose of Service Strategy

• Understand what strategy is


• Definition of Services and Customers
• Define how value is created and delivered
• Identification of opportunities to provide Services
• Service provision model
• Understand organizational capabilities
• Use of Service Assets
• Strategy related processes
SERVICE STRATEGY
Scope of Service Strategy

• Definition of and discussion on the generic principles and processes of


service management
• Application of these generic principles consistently to the management of
IT services

Two aspects of strategy:


• Defining a strategy whereby a service provider will deliver services to
meet a customer’s business outcomes
• Defining a strategy for how to manage those services
SERVICE STRATEGY

Goals and objectives of Service Strategy

• Service providers must think and act in a strategic manner

• Service Strategy helps organizations to transform service management into


a strategic asset
SERVICE STRATEGY
Value to the business of Service Strategy

• Ability to link activities performed by the service provider to outcomes that are
critical to customers

• Understanding of what types and levels of service will make its customers
successful

• Respond quickly and effectively to changes in the business

• Support Service Portfolio creation and maintenance

• Facilitate communication about Services


SERVICE DESIGN

Purpose of Service Design


• Design IT services, together with the governing IT practices, processes
and policies

• Realize the service provider’s strategy

• Facilitate the introduction of these services into supported environments

• Ensure quality service delivery, customer satisfaction and cost-effective


service provision
SERVICE DESIGN

Objective of Service Design

• Design IT services so effectively that minimal improvement during their


lifecycle will be required

• Continual Service Improvement should be embedded in all Service


Design activities
SERVICE DESIGN

Scope of Service Design

• Design of appropriate and innovative IT services to meet agreed business


requirements

• Identify, define and align the IT solution with the business requirement

• Introduction of the Service Design Package

• Selection of the appropriate Service Design Model

• Driven by functional requirements, requirements within service level


agreements (SLAs), business benefits and the overall design constraints
SERVICE DESIGN

Value to the business of Service Design

• Reduced Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)


• Improved quality, performance and consistency of Services and processes
• Easier implementation of Services
• Improved Service alignment (customer focused)
• Improved IT governance
• Building controls into designs
• Improved information and decision-making
SERVICE TRANSITION
Objectives of Service Transition

• Plan and manage service changes efficiently and effectively

• Manage risks for new, changed or retired services

• Successfully deploy service releases

• Set correct expectations of services

• Ensure that service changes create the expected business value

• Provide good-quality knowledge and information


SERVICE TRANSITION
To achieve the objectives

• Plan and manage the capacity and resources required

• Implement a framework for evaluating service capabilities and risk profiles


before deployment

• Ensure integrity of service assets

• Provide mechanisms for building, testing and deploying services and releases

• Ensure that services can be managed, operated and supported


SERVICE TRANSITION

Scope of Service Transition

• Development and improvement of capabilities for transitioning new and


changed services into supported environments

• Release planning, building, testing, evaluation and deployment

• Service retirement

• Transfer of services between service providers


SERVICE TRANSITION

Value of Service Transition

• Assist organizations in delivering significant benefits

• Set up service transition and the processes that support it

• Make effective use of those processes to facilitate the effective transitioning


of new, changed or decommissioned services
SERVICE TRANSITION
Value of Service Transition

• Higher volumes of successful change

• Shared and re-use of Service Transition assets

• Reduce delays from unexpected clashes and dependencies

• Increase confidence for all stakeholders involved

• New or changed services will be maintainable and cost-effective

• Improve control of service assets and configurations


SERVICE OPERATION

Purpose of Service Operation

• Coordinate and run activities and processes required to deliver and manage
services at agreed levels to business users and customers

• Management of technology used to deliver and support services

• Monitor performance, assess metrics and gather operational data


SERVICE OPERATION

Objectives of Service Operation

• Maintain business satisfaction and confidence in IT

• Effective and efficient delivery and support of agreed IT services

• Minimize the impact of service outages on day-to-day business activities

• Ensure that access to agreed IT services is only provided to those authorized


to receive those services
SERVICE OPERATION
Scope of Service Operation

• Processes, functions, organization and tools used to underpin the ongoing


activities required to deliver and support services
• The services themselves
• Service management processes
• Technology
• People
SERVICE OPERATION
Value of Service Operation

• Reduce unplanned labour and costs

• Reduce the duration and frequency of service outages

• Provide operational results and data that can be used by other ITIL processes
to improve services continually

• Meet the goals and objectives of the organization’s security policy

• Provide quick and effective access to standard services

• Provide a basis for automated operations, thus increasing efficiencies


CONTINUAL SERVICE IMPROVEMENT
Purpose of Continual Service Improvement

• Align IT services to the changing business needs

• Identifying and implementing improvements to IT Services that support Business


Processes

• Measurement of current performance


• You cannot manage what you cannot control
• You cannot control what you cannot measure
• You cannot measure what you cannot define
CONTINUAL SERVICE IMPROVEMENT
Objectives of Continual Service Improvement

• Review, analyze and recommend improvements

• Review and analyze Service Level Achievements

• Identify and implement activities to improve IT Service quality and Improve cost
effectiveness

• Ensure customer satisfaction

• Ensure applicable quality management methods are used to support CSI activities

• Understand what to measure, why and what the successful outcome should be
CONTINUAL SERVICE IMPROVEMENT

Scope of Continual Service Improvement

• Provides guidance in four main areas:

• The overall health of ITSM

• Continual alignment of the service portfolio with the current and future
business needs

• Maturity and capability of the organization, management, processes and people


utilized by the services

• Continual improvement of all aspects of the IT service


CONTINUAL SERVICE IMPROVEMENT
Value to the business

• Lead to a gradual and continual improvement in service quality

• IT services aligned to business requirements

• Reduction in costs and/or the capability to handle more work at the same cost

• Identify opportunities for improvement in all lifecycle stages, capabilities, partners,


technology, staff skills, training, communications and processes
ITILFND03
Generic concepts and definitions
UTILITY

Performance supported?
T/F
OR
Constraints removed? Fit for
purpose?

AND Value Created


Available enough? T/F
Fit for use?
Capacity enough?
AND
Continuous enough? T/F T: True
F: False
Secure enough?
WARRANTY

(SS book fig. 2.2) Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
Capabilities Resources

Management Financial capital

Organization Infrastructure

Processes Applications

Knowledge Information

People (experience, skills People (number


and relationships) of employees)

Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS

(SS book fig. 2.4)


Service portfolio

Service Retired
Service catalogue
pipeline services

Configuration management system

Supplier and contract Customer


Customer Application Project
management information agreement CMDB
portfolio portfolio portfolio
system portfolio

Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS

(SS book fig. 4.14)


The service catalogue

Business Business Business Business/customer


process 1 process 2 process 3 service catalogue view

Service A Service B Service C Service D Service E

Service 1 Service 2 Service 3 Service 4 Service 5 Service 6

Technical/supporting service catalogue view

Links to related
information

Service assets/configuration records

Key = Customer-facing services = Supporting services


(SD book fig. 4.4)
Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
The service catalogue

Wholesale service catalogue view Retail service catalogue view

Wholesale Wholesale Retail Retail


customer 1 customer 2 customer 1 customer 2

Service A Service B Service C Service D Service E

Service 1 Service 2 Service 3 Service 4 Service 5 Service 6

Links to related
information

Service assets/configuration records

Key = Customer-facing services = Supporting services

(SD book fig. 4.5) Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
SERVICE STRATEGY
Service Portfolio Management

Governance

• Ensures that policies and strategy are actually implemented, and that required
processes are correctly followed

• Governance includes defining roles and responsibilities, measuring and


reporting, and taking actions to resolve any issues identified

• Comply with legislation and regulations

• Defines the common directions, policies and rules


Business impact Business Objectives

Lower costs

Tangible measure:
Service delivery costs
Target:
Lower service delivery costs by 30%

Improved maintainability Customer satisfaction

Tangible measure: Tangible measure:


MTRS (mean time to restore service) Repeat rate of business
Impact: Target:
MTRS to 2 hours from 6 hours Improve rate to 60% from 25%

Market image

Tangible measure:
Customer quality surveys
Target:
Improved industry ranking to 1st from 3rd

Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS

(SS book fig. 3.40)


SERVICE DESIGN
IT Service Continuity Management

Risk Management
• Identify the risks
• Name the risk
• What are the threats
• Document the risk with its possible consequences

• Analyse the risks


• Quantify the impact and probability
• Prioritize the risk

• Put measures in place to mitigate risks


• Repetitive activity to manage the action plans
SERVICE PROVIDER
There are three main types of service provider:

• Type I – internal service provider


• An internal service provider that is embedded within a business unit
• There may be several Type I service providers within an organization

• Type II – shared services unit


• An internal service provider that provides shared IT services to more than
one business unit

• Type III – external service provider


• A service provider that provides IT services to external customers
SERVICE DESIGN
Supplier Management
Supplier

• A Third Party responsible for supplying goods or Services that are required to
deliver IT services

• Examples of suppliers
• Commodity hardware and software vendors
• Network and telecom providers
• Outsourcing Organizations
SERVICE DESIGN
Service Level Management

SLA, OLA and UC

• SLA is a written agreement between an IT service provider and the IT


customer(s), defining the key service targets and responsibilities of both parties

• OLA is an agreement between an IT service provider and another part of the


same organization that supports provision of services

• An UC is a contract with external partners and suppliers, ensuring that all


targets and measures agreed in SLAs are supported by the third party
SERVICE DESIGN
Design Coordination

Service Design Package

• Document(s) defining all aspects of an IT Service and its Requirements


through each stage of its Lifecycle at the right cost, functionality, quality
and within the right time frame

• A Service Design Package is produced for each new IT Service, major


Change to an IT Service, or IT Service Retirement
Business
Customers Customers Customers

Service level agreements


availability (service availability %)

Service A Service B Service C


IT

IT systems

Operational level agreements


Reliability and maintainability (MTBF and MTRS)

Internal support teams

Contracts and agreements


Serviceability (availability, MTBF and MTRS)

Suppliers

(book fig. 4.8) Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
Service knowledge Support for decisions
management system

Support for delivery of services

Configuration management system

Configuration management
database

Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS

(book fig. 4.36)


SKMS

The CMS is Some CIs (such as


part of the SLAs or release
SKMS plans) are in the
CMS SKMS

Configuration Each configuration


records are record points to and
stored in describes a CI
CMDBs in
the CMS

Other CIs (such as


users and servers)
are outside the
SKMS

(book fig. 4.8) Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
Customer Service Service
options portfolio

Banking
Contract
core service

Serviced by

E-banking Supported by Hosted Application Uses Technical


support Application hosting infrastructure
service service service

Business Data Web Network Network


Availability Usability Messaging Authentication
logic services services topology service

Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS

(book fig. 4.7)


Service knowledge management system (SKMS)

Configuration management system (CMS)

Presentation layer

Knowledge processing layer

Information
integration
layer Integrated CMDB

Schema mapping, metadata management,


reconciliation, extract, transform, mining

Data layer

Incident records HR database

Service request records Customer database

Problem records Financial database

Known error records


CMDB with External databases
configuration records Change records (examples)

Release records
CMDB with
configuration records
Records in CMS or other
parts of the SKMS
CMDB with
configuration records

Discovery, collection, audit Other items in the SKMS

(book fig. 4.9) Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
CMS
DML

CMDB

Information
about the CIs
Physical CIs

Release
record

Build new release

Electronic CIs

Test new release

Deploy new release

(book fig. 4.10) Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
SERVICE TRANSITION
Change Management

Scope of Change Management

• Changes to all architectures, processes, tools, metrics and documentation, as


well as changes to IT services and other configuration items
• Changes to all configuration items across the whole service lifecycle

• Definition of a Change
• Addition, modification or removal of anything that could have an effect on IT
services
SERVICE TRANSITION
Change Management
Change types

• Standard Change
• A pre-authorized change that is low risk, relatively common and follows a
procedure or work instruction

• Emergency Change
• A change that must be implemented as soon as possible, for example to
resolve a major incident or implement a security patch

• Normal Change
• Any service change that is not a standard change or an emergency change
SERVICE OPERATION
Event Management

Event

• An event can be defined as any change of state that has significance for the
management of a configuration item (CI) or IT service

• Events are typically recognized through notifications created by an IT


service, CI or monitoring tool
• Informational Events
• Warning Events
• Exception Events
SERVICE OPERATION
Event Management
Alert

• If the event requires human intervention, it will need to be escalated

• The purpose of the alert is to ensure that the person with the skills
appropriate to deal with the event is notified

• The alert will contain all the information necessary for that person to
determine the appropriate action
• Including reference to any documentation required
SERVICE OPERATION
Incident Management

Basic concepts of Incident Management

• An ‘incident’ is an unplanned interruption to an IT service or reduction in the


quality of an IT service
• Failure of a configuration item that has not yet impacted service is also
an incident (failure in a disk mirror set)

• Timescales
• Timescales agreed for all incident-handling stages
• Depending upon the priority level of the incident and Incident response
and resolution targets within SLAs
SERVICE OPERATION
Incident Management

Incident prioritization
Priority is a ranking order:

• Based on the urgency of the incident …


• (how quickly the business needs a resolution)
• … and the impact it is causing
• (number of users being affected, and impact of loss of service)
• (Services affected, financial loss, Regulatory/legislative breaches)
Priority Urgency
High Medium Low
Impact High 1 2 3
Medium 2 3 4
Low 3 4 5
SERVICE OPERATION
Request Fullfilment

Service Request

• Generic description for many varying types of demands that are placed
upon the IT organization by the users:
• Small changes with low risk, frequently occurring, low cost, etc.
• A request to change a password
• A request to install an additional software application
• A request to relocate some items of desktop equipment
• A question requesting information
SERVICE OPERATION
Problem Management

Definitions

• Problem
• Unknown, underlying cause of one or more incidents
• Proactive analyzed trends in incident records or trends reported by
tools

• Workaround
• Temporary way (solution ) of overcoming the difficulties
• Sometimes with a degraded level of service
• Work on a permanent resolution continues
SERVICE OPERATION
Problem Management

Known Error
• Underlying cause is found after successful diagnosis
• Possibly a workaround has been found
• Known Error Record in the Known Error Database

Known Error Data Base (KEDB)


• Storage of previous knowledge of incidents and problems
• Allow quicker diagnosis and resolution
• The Known Error Record should hold exact details of the fault,
symptoms, any workaround or resolution action
SERVICE OPERATION
Problem Management

Invoke problem management during an incident


• Incident management cannot match an incident
• Trend analysis of incidents reveals an underlying problem might exist
• A major incident has occurred
• Other IT functions identify a problem condition
• The service desk may have resolved an incident but has not determined a
definitive cause
• Analysis of an incident by a support group reveals an underlying problem
• A notification from a supplier that a problem exists
SERVICE OPERATION
Communication within Service Operation

Communication in Service Operation

• Routine operational communication


• Communication between shifts
• Performance reporting
• Communication in projects
• Communication related to changes, exceptions and emergencies
• Training on new or customized processes and service designs
• Communication of strategy and design to Service Operation teams
SERVICE TRANSITION
Release & Deployment Management
Release Policy

• The unique identification, numbering and naming conventions


• The roles and responsibilities
• Only use software assets from the DML
• The expected frequency for each type of release
• The approach for grouping changes into a release
• The mechanism to automate the build, installation and release distribution
• Capturing configuration baseline for the release
• Exit and entry criteria and authority
• Criteria and authorization to exit early life support and handover to the service
operation functions
SERVICE

Types of IT service
Type of service Definition Description

Supporting service A service that is not directly used Supporting services are defined to
by the business, but is required by allow IT teams to identify the
the IT service provider so they can interdependencies between IT
provide other IT services components

Internal customer- An IT service that directly supports An internal customer-facing service


facing service a business process managed by is identified and defined by the
another business unit business

External customer- An IT service that is directly An external customer-facing service


facing service provided by IT to an external is available to external customers
customer and is offered to meet business
objectives defined in the
organization’s strategy

Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS

(Table 3.4 Types of IT Service,


ITIL® Service Strategy, 2011 Edition, Page 52)
SERVICE TRANSITION
Change Management
Change Proposals

• Normally created by the service portfolio management process, passed to


change management for authorization

• Includes
• High-level description of the new, changed or retired service, including
business outcomes to be supported, and utility and warranty to be
provided
• Full business case including risks, issues and alternatives, as well as
budget and financial expectations
• Outline schedule for change design and implementation
CONTINUAL SERVICE IMPROVEMENT
CSI Register

Record all the improvement opportunities

• Categorized (small, medium, large)

• Important information for the overall service provider

• Held and regarded as part of the Service Knowledge Management System


(SKMS)

• Ensure all initiatives are captured and recorded, and benefits realized

• Coordinated, consistent view of the potentially many improvement activities


I must ask, do you I believe services are a means of delivering value by
have a definition facilitating outcomes customers want to achieve without the
for services? ownership of specific costs and risks.

What would that mean


in operational terms? Well, services facilitate outcomes by
Give me a few handles. having a positive effect on activities,
objects and tasks, to create conditions for
better performance. As a result, the
probability of desired outcomes is higher.
But without the ownership of costs and
risks? Customers cannot wish them
away.

No, they cannot, but what they can do is


Manager Manager let the provider take ownership. That’s
(Operations) (Strategy)
really why it is a service. If customers
Aha! Because the provider is specialized
manage it all by themselves, they
with capabilities for dealing with those
wouldn’t need a service, would they?
costs and risks.

Yes, and also because the customer would


rather specialize in those outcomes.
(A casual conversation
at the water cooler)
And also because the provider can
Let’s write a book on
potentially spread those costs and
service management!
risks across more than one customer.

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Example A: Example B:
Greeting card Consulting
company company
110 550

100 500

90 450

Number of timesheet transactions


80 400

Number of cards sold


70 350

(in millions)
60 300

50 250

40 200

30 150

20 100

10 50

J F M A M J J A S O N D M T W T F
Time (months) Time (days)

Example C:
Newspaper Each chart shows patterns of business activity (PBA). Each
activity relies on IT services and each places a demand on
100
the IT service provider’s assets.
90
Example A – annual PBA: Greeting cards need to be
80 designed, manufactured and distributed for each major
holiday. The fluctuation in sales will result in a fluctuation in
70 demand for IT services.
Number of cards sold

60 Example B – weekly PBA: Consultants need access to a


(in millions)

timesheet system to track their activities so that customers


50
can be billed. Most consultants wait until the end of the week
40 to complete their timesheets. Some consultants record their
activities daily.
30
Example C – daily PBA: Journalists have to meet the
20 deadline of 6pm to submit their stories for publication. After
the deadline, only high-impact corrections are made. The
10 later in the day, the more critical the IT services become, and
also the more utilized. Most journalists use the lunch hour to
interview people for stories.

(SS book fig. 4.40)


9 10 11 12 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Time (months)

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CUSTOMERS, USERS, SUPPLIERS

Customers
• Those who buy goods or services
• Person or group who defines and agrees the service level targets

Users
• Those who use the service on a day-to-day basis

Suppliers
• Third parties responsible for supplying goods or services that are required to
deliver IT services
Continual quality control and consolidation

Plan Project Plan


Do Project
Check Audit
Act New actions

ACT PLAN
Business

Maturity level
IT
alignment
CHECK DO

Effective quality
improvement
Consolidation of the level reached
i.e. baseline

Timescale

(SS book fig. 2.8) Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
ITILFND04
Key principles and models
Business
outcomes

Value

Preferences Perceptions

(SS book fig. 3.6)


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Positive Negative
difference difference

Losses from
_ utilizing the
service
Net
difference
Gains from
utilizing the +
service

Based on DIY strategy or


existing arrangements

Reference Economic value


value of service

(SS book fig. 3.7)


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People

Products/
Processes technology

Partners/
suppliers

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(SD book fig. 3.3)
SERVICE DESIGN

Five major aspects of Service Design

• Design of:
• Service solutions for new or changed Services
• Management information systems and tools
• Service Portfolio including Service Catalogue
• Technology architectures and Management architectures
• Processes required
• Measurement methods and Metrics
Business vision,
What is the vision? mission, goals and
objectives

Baseline
Where are we now? assessments

How do we keep the Where do we want Measurable


momentum going? to be? targets

Service and process


How do we get there?
improvement

Measurements and
Did we get there?
metrics

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Vision

Mission

Goals

Objectives

CSF

KPI

Metrics

Measurements

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(CSI book fig. 5.7)
Continual Service Improvement
Critical success factors and key performance indicators

• Each organization should identify appropriate CSFs based on its objectives for
the process

• KPIs support the CSFs

• Achievement against KPIs should be monitored and used to identify


opportunities for improvement
• Logged in the CSI register for evaluation and possible implementation
Continual Service Improvement
Baselines

• Starting points for later comparison

• Initial data point to determine if a service or process needs to be improved

• Ensure baselines are documented, recognized and accepted throughout the


organization
• Baselines must be established at each level
• Strategic goals and objectives
• Tactical process maturity
• Operational metrics and KPIs
Continual Service Improvement
Types of Metrics
Technology metrics
• Component and application-based metrics
• Performance, availability etc.

Process metrics
• Process CSFs, KPIs and activity metrics
• Quality, performance, value and compliance KPIs

Service metrics
• End-to-end service performance
• Component metrics used to compute service metrics
ITILFND05
Processes
Service portfolio

Service Retired
Service catalogue
pipeline services

Configuration management system

Supplier and contract Customer


Customer Application Project
management information agreement CMDB
portfolio portfolio portfolio
system portfolio

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(SS book fig. 4.14)


Business impact Business Objectives

Lower costs

Tangible measure:
Service delivery costs
Target:
Lower service delivery costs by 30%

Improved maintainability Customer satisfaction

Tangible measure: Tangible measure:


MTRS (mean time to restore service) Repeat rate of business
Impact: Target:
MTRS to 2 hours from 6 hours Improve rate to 60% from 25%

Market image

Tangible measure:
Customer quality surveys
Target:
Improved industry ranking to 1st from 3rd

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(SS book fig. 3.40)


Service Strategy
Business Relationship Management

Purpose of BRM
• Establish and maintain a business relationship between the
service provider and the customer
• Understand the customer and its business needs
• Identify customer needs and ensure that the service provider is
able to meet these needs
Service Strategy
Business Relationship Management
Objectives of BRM
• Ensure that the service provider understands the customer’s perspective
of service
• Ensure high levels of customer satisfaction
• Establish and maintain a constructive relationship between the service
provider and the customer
• Understand the customer and their business drivers
• Identify changes to the customer environment that could potentially
impact services

Service Strategy
Business Relationship Management
Objectives of BRM
• Identify technology trends that could potentially impact services
• Establish and articulate business requirements
• Ensure that the service provider is meeting the business needs of the
customer
• Work with customers to ensure that services and service levels are
able to deliver value
• Mediate in cases of conflicting requirements
• Establish formal complaints and escalation processes
Service Strategy
Business Relationship Management

Scope of BRM
• For internal service providers executed between a
senior representative from IT and senior managers
(customers) from the business units
• In external service providers often executed by a
separate and dedicated function of BRMs or account
managers – each one dedicated to a customer, or group
of customers
Service-specific level SLA

Customer level SLA or


business unit level SLA

Corporate level SLA

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(SD book fig.4.7)


Business requirements
Early life Live
support period operation

Design and development


Project (project team)

SAC SAC
SAC SAC SAC SAC SAC

Document and Design Develop Build Test Deploy


agree business service service service service service
requirements solution solution solution solution solution
(strategy and design) (design) (design) (transition) (transition) (transition)

Strategy

Design Improvement

Transition

Transition and operation involvement Operation

Pilot Live
SLM SLR SLR SLR SLR SLR SLR
SLA SLA

Change management
RFC Authorized for Authorized for Authorized for Authorized for Authorized for Authorized for Review and
released design development build and test deployment SLA pilot acceptance close
Release and deployment management
Plan and prepare Build and test Deploy and verify release Review and
release release (incl. early life support) close

(SD book fig.3.8)


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January Febuary March April May June July August

Target Target Target


met breached threatened

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(CSI book fig.4.4)


Service Design
Service Catalogue Management

Purpose of Service Catalogue Management


• Provide and maintain a single source of consistent
information on all operational services and those being
prepared to be run operational
• Ensure that the Service Catalogue is widely available to
those who are authorized to access it
Service Design
Service Catalogue Management

Objectives of Service Catalogue Management


• Manage the information in the Service Catalogue
• Ensure that the Service Catalogue is accurate showing
details, status, interfaces, dependencies
• Ensure that the service catalogue is made available to
those approved to access
• Ensure that the service catalogue is made available to
all other service management processes for service
catalogue information
Service Design
Service Catalogue Management

Scope of Service Catalogue Management


• Contribution to the definition, development and
maintenance of Services and Service Packages
• Production and maintenance of an accurate Service
Catalogue
• Interfaces, dependencies and consistency between the
Service Catalogue and the overall Service Portfolio
Service Design
Service Catalogue Management

• Interfaces and dependencies between all Services,


supporting Services and supporting components and
Configuration Items (CIs) within the Service Catalogue
and the CMS

• Excluded:
• Capturing, maintenance and use of service asset and
configuration data (SA & Configuration
Management)
• Capturing, maintenance and fulfilment of service
requests (Request Fulfilment)
Business
Customers Customers Customers

Service level agreements


availability (service availability %)

Service A Service B Service C


IT

IT systems

Operational level agreements


Reliability and maintainability (MTBF and MTRS)

Internal support teams

Contracts and agreements


Serviceability (availability, MTBF and MTRS)

Suppliers

(SD book fig.4.8)


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Service Design
Information Security Management

Purpose of Information Security Management


• Align IT security with business security and ensure that
the Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability of the
organization’s assets, information, data and IT services
always matches the agreed needs of the business
Service Design
Information Security Management

Objectives of Information Security Management


• Information is available and usable when required (availability)
• Information is only available for those who have a right to know (confidentiality)
• Information is complete, accurate and protected against unauthorized
modification (integrity)
• Business transactions, and information exchanges between enterprises, or
partners, can be trusted (authenticity and non-repudiation)
Service Design
Information Security Management

Scope of Information Security Management


• Information Security Management needs to understand the
total IT and business security environment
• Business security policy and plans
• Current business operation and its security
requirements
• Future business plans and requirements
• Legislative and regulatory requirements
• Security obligations and responsibilities within SLAs
• The business and IT risks and their management
Service provider

Supplier management Finance and


process owner purchasing
Contracts
manager

Legal

Supplier Supplier Supplier Supplier


manager 1 manager 2 manager 3 manager 4

Service Service Service Service Service Service

Supplier 6

Supplier 5

Supplier 4

Supplier 3

Supplier 2
Supplier 1 Sub-contracted
supplier 2
Sub-contracted
supplier 1

(SD book fig.4.26)


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Strategic
High suppliers

Operational

Value and importance


suppliers

Medium Tactical
suppliers

Commodity Operational
Low suppliers
suppliers

Low Medium High

Risk and impact

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(SD book fig.4.28)


Business capacity
Strategic
management

Storage of capacity
management data
Service capacity

management
activities
Iterative
Tactical

Demand
management

Modelling

Application
sizing
Component capacity
management Operational

Capacity
management
sub-processes Production of the capacity plan

Reports on all aspects of CMIS


capacity management

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(SD book fig.4.16)


Critical
Focus on risk reduction

High
Impact
Balanced
continuity
approach

Medium

Focus on recovery

Low

1 week 2 weeks 3 weeks 4 weeks 5 weeks


Time

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(SD book fig.4.22)


Assets Threats Vulnerabilities

Risk
assessment

Risks

Countermeasures

Risk
management

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(SD book fig.4.15)


Service Design
Design Coordination

Purpose of Design Coordination


• Ensure the goals and objectives of the service design
stage are met by providing and maintaining a single
point of coordination and control for all activities and
processes within this stage
Service Design
Design Coordination

Objectives of Design Coordination


• Ensure the consistent design of appropriate
• Services
• Service management information systems
• Architectures
• Technology
• Processes
• Information
• Metrics
• Coordinate all design activities
Service Design
Design Coordination

• Plan/coordinate required resources/capabilities


• Produce Service Design Packages (SDPs)
• Ensure service designs/ SDPs are produced
• Manage quality criteria, requirements and handover
points
• Ensure that all service models and service solution
designs conform to the requirements
• Improve the effectiveness and efficiency
• Adopt a standard, reusable design framework
• Monitor and improve SD performance
Service Design
Design Coordination

Scope of Design Coordination


• All design activity, particularly all new or changed
service solutions that are being designed for transition
into (or out of, in the case of a service retirement) the
live environment
• Some design efforts will be part of a project, whereas
others will be managed through the change process
Business Service provider Supplier

Manage the
Strategic Manage the
Manage IT services supplier’s
change business
business

Manage the Service Manage


Tactical
business portfolio external
change
processes services

Service
change

Manage
Operational business Service External
change operations operations operations

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(ST book fig.4.1)


Change management
Raise and Assess Authorize/ Coordinate Review Close
record change change reject change change change
request change implementation*

Release and deploy


new/changed CIs

Service asset and configuration management


Capture
Reports Update release and Audit Check
Identify records
and audits affected items records environment items
baselines updated

Configuration management system

* Includes build and test where applicable

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(ST book fig.4.6)


Role
Create RFC
Change
initiator

Record RFC
Change
Change management
proposal Requested
(optional)
Review RFC
Change
management
Ready for evaluation
Activities assigned to the
role ‘change management’ Assess and
may be carried out by a evaluate change
change practitioner, a Change
change authority or the management
Ready for decision Work flows
change management process
owner, depending on Rejected Authorize change

Update information in CMS


organizational design build and test
Change
authority
Authorized
Rejected Coordinate change
Change build and test*
*Activities to plan, create management
and deploy releases are
part of the release and Created Work flows
deployment management Authorize change
process deployment
Change
authority
Scheduled
Coordinate change
deployment*
Change
management Implemented Work flows

Review and close


change record
Change
management, Closed
change authority,
change initiator
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Change management

Auth Auth Auth Auth


Auth
Auth
Auth
Authorize Post-
Authorize Authorize Authorize
deployment/ Implementation
release planning build and test ceck-in to DML
transfer/retirement review

Release and Release


Review and
deployment build and Deployment
close
planning test

Deployment

Deployment

Change management authorization Deployment


Auth

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ST slide 36 (book fig 4.23)


Context

Wisdom

Why?

Knowledge

How?

Information

Who, what,
When, where?

Data
Understanding

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ST slide 48 (book fig 4.35)


Service knowledge Support for decisions
management system

Support for delivery of services

Configuration management system

Configuration management
database

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ST slide 49 (book fig 4.36)


Service Transition
Service Asset & Configuration Management

Purpose of SA&CM
• Ensure that the assets required to deliver services are
properly controlled
• Ensure that accurate and reliable information about
those assets is available when and where it is needed
• This includes details of how the assets have been
configured and the relationships between assets
Service Transition
Service Asset & Configuration Management

Objectives of SA&CM
• Assets under the control of the IT organization are
identified and controlled
• Identify, control, record, report, audit and verify services
and other configuration items (CIs), including versions,
baselines, constituent components, their attributes and
relationships
• Account for, manage and protect the integrity of CIs
and configurations
Service Transition
Service Asset & Configuration Management

• Establishing and maintaining an accurate and complete


configuration management system (CMS)
• Maintain accurate configuration information on the
historical, planned and current state of services and
other CIs
• Support efficient and effective service management
processes by providing accurate configuration
information
Service Transition
Service Asset & Configuration Management

Scope of SA&CM
• Service assets that need to be managed in order to
deliver services are known as configuration items (CIs)
• Every CI is a service asset, but many service assets
are not CIs (Capabilities)
• The scope of SACM includes management of the
complete lifecycle of every CI
• The scope includes interfaces to internal and external
service providers
Service Transition
Transition Planning and Support

Purpose of Transition Planning and Support


• Provide overall planning for service transitions and to
coordinate the resources that they require
Service Transition
Transition Planning and Support

Objectives of Transition Planning and Support


• Plan and coordinate the resources
• Coordinate activities across projects, suppliers and
service teams
• Establish new or changed services into supported
environments
• Establish management information systems and tools,
technology and management architectures, service
management processes, and measurement methods and
metrics
Service Transition
Transition Planning and Support

• Ensure that all parties adopt the common framework of


standard re-usable processes and supporting systems
• Provide clear and comprehensive plans
• Identify, manage and control risks, to minimize the
chance of failure and disruption across transition
activities
• Monitor and improve the performance of the service
transition lifecycle stage
Service Transition
Transition Planning and Support

Scope of Transition Planning and Support


• Maintaining policies, standards and models
• Guiding each major change or new service through all
the service transition processes
• Coordinating the efforts needed to enable multiple
transitions
• Prioritizing conflicting requirements for service
transition resources
• Planning the budget and resources
Event
Web interface Phone Call Email
management

Incident
identification

To request fulfilment
(if this is a service
request) or service
Is this really portfolio management
No
an incident? (if this is a change
proposal)

Yes

Incident logging

Incident
categorization

Incident
prioritization

Major incident
Yes Major incident
procedure

No

Initial diagnosis

Functional Functional Escalation


Yes Yes
escalation escalation Needed?

No
No

No

Management Hierarchic Investigation


Yes No
escalation escalation And diagnosis

Resolution
identified?

Yes

Resolution and
recovery

Incident closure

SO slide 22 (book fig 4.3) End Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
Location Application
impacted impacted

Service Database
impacted impacted

OR Server
System
impacted impacted

Application Disk drive


impacted impacted

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SO slide 23 (book fig 4.4)


Incident-matching
procedure (part of
initial diagnosis)

Update incident count


Extract resolution or Match on on problem record
Yes
workaround action from known error
known error database database?

Update incident count No Update incident record


on known error record with ID of problem
Match to Yes
existing problem
record?
Update incident record Update incident record
with ID of known error with classification data
No

Routine Yes
Update incident record incident?
with classification data

No

Inform customer of Log new


workaround problem

Return to
initial diagnosis

Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
SO slide 24 (book fig 4.5)
Proactive
Service Event Incident
Problem Email
desk management management
management

Problem
detection

Problem
logging

Problem
categorization

Problem
prioritization

Problem
CMS investigation
and diagnosis

Incident Implement Workaround


workaround Yes
management needed?

No

Raise known Known


error record Error
if required database

Change RFC Change


Yes
management needed?

No

Problem
resolution

No Resolved?

Yes
• Lessons learned
Problem • Review results
closure
Service
knowledge
management
system

Major Major problem


Yes
Problem? review

No Continual
Service

SO slide 26 (book fig 4.7)


improvement
End
• Improvement actions
• Communications
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Service Operation
Event Management

Purpose of Event Management


• Manage events throughout their lifecycle
• Activities to detect events, make sense of them and
determine the appropriate control action
• Basis for operational monitoring and control
• Automate many routine operations management
activities
Service Operation
Event Management

Objectives of Event Management


• Detect all changes of state that have significance for the
management of a CI or IT service
• Determine the appropriate control action
• Provide the trigger for the execution of many service
operation processes and activities
• Provides a way of comparing actual performance and
behaviour against design standards and SLAs
• Provide a basis for service assurance and reporting
Service Operation
Event Management

Scope of Event Management


• Any aspect of service management that needs to be
controlled and which can be automated
• Configuration items (CIs)
• Environmental conditions
• Software licence monitoring
• Normal activity
Service Operation
Request Fulfillment

Purpose of Request Fulfillment


• Request fulfilment is the process responsible for
managing the lifecycle of all service requests from the
users
Service Operation
Request Fulfillment

Objectives of Request Fulfillment


• Maintain user and customer satisfaction through efficient and
professional handling of all service requests
• Provide a channel for users to request and receive standard
services for which a pre-defined approval and qualification
process exists
• Provide information to users and customers about the availability
of services and the procedure for obtaining them
• Source and deliver the components of requested standard
services (e.g. licences and software media)
• Assist with general information, complaints or comments
Service Operation
Request Fulfillment

Scope of Request Fulfillment


• The process needed to fulfil a request will vary
depending upon exactly what is being requested, but
can usually be broken down into a set of activities that
have to be performed
• For each request, these activities should be
documented into a request model and stored in the
SKMS
• Service Requests can be handled as a particular type of
‘incident’
Service Operation
Access Management

Purpose of Access Management


• Provide the right for users to be able to use a service
or group of services
• Execution of policies and actions defined in Information
Security Management
Service Operation
Access Management

Objectives of Access Management


• Manage access to services based on policies and actions
defined in information security management
• Efficiently respond to requests for
• Granting access to services
• Changing access rights
• Restricting access
• Oversee access to services and ensure rights being
provided are not improperly used
Service Operation
Access Management

Scope of Access Management


• Execution of the policies in information security
management
• Manage the confidentiality, availability and integrity of the
organization’s data and intellectual property
• Users are given the right to use a service
• Executed by all technical and application management
functions
• Can be initiated by a service request
Wisdom 1.Identify the strategy for 2. Define what you will Data
improvement measure
• Vision
• Business need
• Strategy
• Tactical goals
• Operational goals

PLAN
7. Implement improvement 3. Gather the data
• Who? How? When?
• Criteria to evaluateintegrity
of data
• Operational goals
• Service measurement

ACT DO

6. Present and use the


information
• Assessment summary
• Action plans
• Etc.

CHECK

5. Analyse the information 4. Process the data


and data • Frequency?
• Trends? • Format?
• Targets? • Tools and systems?
• Improvements required? • Accuracy?

Knowledge Information

CSI slide 16 (book fig. 3.4)


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Operational management Step 1 Step 2

PLAN

Step 7 Step 3
ACT DO

Step 4
CHECK

Step 6 Step 5

Step 1 Step 2

PLAN

Step 7 Step 3
ACT DO

Step 4
CHECK

Step 6 Step 5
Tacticle management

Step 1 Step 2

PLAN

Step 7 Step 3
ACT DO

Step 4
CHECK

Step 6 Step 5

Strategic management

CSI slide 17 (book fig. 3.5)


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ITILFND06
Functions
User User User User

Customer Site

Service Desk

Technical Application IT operations Third-party Request


management management management support fulfilment

SO slide 34 (book fig 6.2) )


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User User User User User User User User User User User User

Customer site 1 Customer site 2 Customer site 3

Service desk

Technical Application IT operations Third-party Request


management management management support fulfilment

SO slide 35 (book fig 6.3)


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San Francisco
service desk

Paris Rio de
service desk Janeiro
service desk

Virtual
Service desk

Beijing Sydney
service desk service desk

Service
Knowledge
Management
system
London
service desk

SO slide 36 (book fig 6.4)


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Service Operation
Technical Management

Role of Technical Management


• The custodian of technical knowledge and expertise related to
managing the IT Infrastructure
• Knowledge required to design, test, manage and improve IT
services is identified, developed and refined
• Provides the actual resources to support the ITSM Lifecycle
• Resources are effectively trained and deployed
• Organization has access to the right type and level of human
resources
• Ensure a balance between the skill level, utilization and the cost
of these resources
Service Operation
Technical Management

Objectives of Technical Management


• Assist to plan, implement and maintain a stable technical
infrastructure to support the organization’s business
processes
• Technical topology is well designed, highly resilient and
cost-effective
• Adequate technical skills to maintain the technical
infrastructure are used
• Technical skills are used to diagnose and resolve any
technical failures quickly
Service Operation
Application Management

Objectives of Application Management


• Support the organization’s business processes by identifying
functional and manageable requirements for application software
• Assist in the design and deployment of those applications and the
ongoing support and improvement
• These objectives are achieved through:
• Well designed, resilient and cost-effective applications
• Availability of required functionality
• Optimal technical skills
• Diagnose and resolve any technical failures
Service Operation
Application Management

Application development versus application management


Application development Application management

Nature of activities One-time set of activities to design and Ongoing set of activities to oversee and
construct application solutions. manage applications throughout their
entire lifecycle
Scope of activities Performed mostly for applications Performed for all applications,
developed in house. purchased from third parties or
developed in house
Primary focus Utility focus. Utility and Warranty focus
Building functionality for their customer. What the functionality is as well as how
What the application does is more to deliver it
important than how it is operated. Manageability aspects of the
application, stability and performance of
the application.
(Table 6.2 Application Development versus Application Management, Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved
ITIL® Service Operation, 2011 Edition, Page 187) Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
Service Operation
Application Management

Application development Application management

Management mode Most development work is done in Most work is done as part of repeatable,
projects where the focus is on delivering ongoing processes.
specific units of work to specification, on A relatively small number of people
time and within budget. work in projects.
Difficult for developers to understand and Difficult for operational staff to get
build for ongoing operations (not involved in development projects (takes
available for support of the application them away from their ongoing
once they have moved on to the next operational responsibilities).
project).

Measurement Staff are typically rewarded for creativity Staff are typically rewarded for
and for completing one project so that consistency and for preventing
they can move on to the next project. unexpected events and unauthorized
functionality.

(Table 6.2 Application Development versus Application Management, Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved
ITIL® Service Operation, 2011 Edition, Page 187) Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
Service Operation
Application Management

Application development Application management

Cost Development projects are relatively easy Ongoing management costs are often
to quantify because the resources are mixed in with the costs of other IT
known and it is easy to link their services because resources are often
expenses to a specific application or IT shared across multiple IT services and
service. applications.
Lifecycles Development staff focus on software Staff involved in ongoing management
development lifecycles, which highlight typically only control one or two stages
the dependencies for successful of these lifecycles – operation and
operation, but do not assign improvement.
accountability for these.
(Table 6.2 Application Development versus Application Management, Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved
ITIL® Service Operation, 2011 Edition, Page 187) Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
Service Operation
IT Operation Management

Objectives of IT Operations Management


• Maintenance of the status quo to achieve stability of the
organization’s day-to-day processes and activities
• Regular investigations and improvements to improve
service, reduce costs, and maintain stability
• Swift application of operational skills to diagnose and
resolve any IT operations failures
Service Operation
IT Operation Management

Role of IT Operation Management


• Execute the ongoing activities and procedures
• Manage and maintain the IT Infrastructure
• Deliver and support IT Services at the agreed levels
• Operations Control
• Facilities Management
ITILFND07
Roles
Roles

• The Service Owner is accountable for the delivery of a specific IT service


• The Process Owner role is accountable for ensuring that a process is fit for purpose
• The Process Manager role is accountable for operational management of a process
• The Process Practitioner is responsible for carrying out one or more process
activities
Responsibilities

RACI Model
• When designing a service or a process, all the roles should be clearly defined
• RACI model is beneficial when decisions have to be made
• Responsible
• Person or people responsible for getting the job done
• Accountable
• only one person can be accountable for each task
• Consulted
• people who are consulted and whose opinions are sought
• Informed
• people who are kept up-to-date on progress
ITILFND08
Technology and architecture
Level of degradation
in service quality

Unacceptable

High

Low

Amount of variation
in service process

SS slide 130 (book fig. 7.2)


Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS
Context

Wisdom

Why?

Knowledge

How?

Information

Who, what,
When, where?

Data
Understanding

SS slide 131 (book fig. 7.3)


Copyright © AXELOS Limited 2013. All rights reserved. Material is reproduced under licence from AXELOS