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分析

状态 物质
•Matter is anything that has mass 质量 and
occupies space 占据空间.

•All things around us have mass and occupy space.

•Thus, we can say that everything around us is


matter.

•Matter does not exist存在 in vacuum真空.


•Matter does not exist存在 in vacuum真空.
•All things around us have mass and occupy
space.

•All living things and non-living things have mass


and occupy space.
•Matter is made up of very small particles.

•These particles粒子 are so small that they cannot


be seen even with a microscope.

•There are spaces between the particles because


they are discrete 粒子.

•The particles of matter can move.


Matter is made up of discrete particles

Solid
Matter is made up of discrete particles

liquid
Matter is made up of discrete particles

Gas
•Matter can exist in 3 different states, namely
solid, liquid and gas.

Matter

Solid Liquid Gas


•Example: ice  water steam

Steam ( Gas )

Water ( liquid )

Ice ( solid)
Characteristic Solid Liquid Gas
Arrangement

- Particles are - Particles are - Particles are


packed close loosely widely separated
to each other arranged

Ability to be No Very difficult Easily


compressed compressed

Volume Fixed Fixed Changes

Shape Fixed Follow container Fills the whole


container
Characteristic Solid Liquid Gas

Force of Very strong Moderate Very weak


attraction

Ability to flow No Yes Diffuses in all


direction

Kinetic Energy Low Average High


content
Movement of Vibrate at fixed Move at random Move quickly at
particles position and sometimes random and
collide often collide
Kinetic Theory of Matter
Matter is made up of tiny细小 particles粒子.

The particles are always vibrate振动 or


move in constant不变 motion移动.

The particles have kinetic energy动能.


When temperature rises, the particles obtain
得到 more kinetic energy and move faster.
Melting (absorbs吸收 heat热能)
Solid Liquid

• When the solid is heated, the particles gain more


kinetic energy. The kinetic energy increase.
• The particles move faster.
• Eventually最后 the particles move out their fixed
positions and become liquid.
Boiling (absorbs heat吸收热能)
Liquid Gas

• When the liquid is heated, the particles gain more


kinetic energy. The kinetic energy increase.
• The particles move faster.
• Eventually the particles are able to overcome克服 the
forces of attraction 吸引力and become gas.
Condensation (releases heat释放热能)
Gas (steam) Liquid

• When the gas is cooled, the particles lose their kinetic


energy.
• The particles move slowly.
• Eventually, the movement of the particles become slow
enough for gas to change into a liquid.
Freezing (releases heat释放热能)
Liquid Solid

• When the liquid is cooled, the particles lose more kinetic


energy.
• The particles move slower.
• Eventually 最后the particles no longer have enough
energy to move freely.
Sublimation 升华(absorb heat)
Solid Gas

• Sublimation is the process change of a solid directly to


gas e.g. iodine碘, dry ice and naphthalene萘.

Condensation冷却

Gas
Boiling沸腾 ( Steam )

Freezing 凝固
liquid
Melting 溶解 升华
Sublimation

solid
• Freezing is the physical process that takes place
when water changes into ice.

• The temperature at which water freezers to form ice


is called the freezing point of water.

Freezing point of water = 0 0C

Freezing 凝固

solid liquid
• Boiling is the physical process in which water
changes into steam.

• The temperature at which water boils to produce


steam is called the boiling point of water.
Boiling point of water = 100 0C

Boiling沸腾

Gas ( Steam )
liquid