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• Fly Ash
• Red Mud
• Slag
• Tailings
Fly Ash
 What is fly ash?

• Fly ash, also known as "pulverized fuel ash" is a coal combustion

product composed of fine particles that are driven out of the boiler
with the flue gases. In modern coal-fired power plants, fly ash is
generally captured by electrostatic precipitators or other particle
filtration equipment before the flue gases reach the chimneys.

• Ash that falls in the bottom of the boiler is called bottom ash.
Together with bottom ash removed from the bottom of the boiler, it
is known as coal ash.

• Fly ash particles are generally spherical in shape and range in size
from 0.5 μm to 300 μm.
 Chemical composition :

Components Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite

SiO2 (%) 20-60 40-60 15-45

Al2O3 (%) 5-35 20-30 20-25

Fe2O3 (%) 10-40 4-10 4-15

CaO (%) 1-12 5-30 15-40

LOI (%) 0-15 0-3 0-5

 Classification :
• Two classes of fly ash are defined by ASTM C618.

Fly Ash
Class F Fly Ash

Class C Fly Ash

• The chief difference between these classes is he amount of

calcium, silica, alumina, and iron content in the ash.

• The chemical properties of the fly ash are largely influenced by

the chemical content of the coal burned (i.e., anthracite,
bituminous, and lignite).
 Classification :
• Class F Fly Ash:
• The burning of harder, older anthracite and bituminous coal typically
produces Class F fly ash. This fly ash is pozzolanic in nature, and
contains less than 7% lime (CaO).
• Possessing pozzolanic properties, the glassy silica and alumina of Class
F fly ash requires a cementing agent, such as Portland cement,
quicklime, or hydrated lime mixed with water to react and produce
cementitious compounds.
• Alternatively, adding a chemical activator such as sodium silicate
(water glass) to a Class F ash can form a geo-polymer.

• Class C Fly Ash:

• The burning of younger lignite or sub-bituminous coal produces class C
fly ash. In addition to having pozzolanic properties, it also has some
self-cementing properties.
• In the presence of water, Class C fly ash hardens and gets stronger over
time. Class C fly ash generally contains more than 20% lime (CaO).
Unlike Class F, self-cementing Class C fly ash does not require an
 Environmental problems:
• Present production rate of fly ash in India:
 Environmental problems:

• Ground water contamination:

o Since coal contains trace levels of trace elements (like e.g. arsenic, barium,
beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, thallium, selenium, molybdenum
and mercury), fly ash obtained after combustion of this coal contains
enhanced concentrations of these elements, and therefore the potential of
the ash to cause groundwater pollution.

• Spill of bulk storage:

o Where fly ash is stored in bulk, it is usually stored wet rather than dry to
minimize fugitive dust. The resulting impoundments (ponds) are typically
large and stable for long periods, but any breach of their dams or bunding
is rapid and on a massive scale.
 Environmental problems:
• Contaminants:
o Fly ash contains trace concentrations of heavy metals and other substances
that are known to be detrimental to health in sufficient quantities.
Potentially toxic trace elements in coal include arsenic, beryllium,
cadmium, barium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel,
radium, selenium, thorium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc.

• Exposure Concerns:
o Crystalline silica and lime along with toxic chemicals represent exposure
risks to human health and the environment. Exposure to fly ash through
skin contact, inhalation of fine particulate dust and ingestion through
drinking water may well present health risks. Fly ash contains crystalline
silica which is known to cause lung disease. Lime reacts with water to form
calcium hydroxide, giving fly ash a pH somewhere between 10 and 12, a
medium to strong base. This can also cause lung damage if present in
sufficient quantities.
 Reuse of Fly Ash:
Concrete Production
Embankments and other structural fills
Grout and Flow able fill production
Waste stabilization and solidification
Reuse of Fly Ash

Cement clinker production

Mine reclamation
Stabilization soft soils
Road sub-base construction
Aggregate substitute material
Mineral filler in asphaltic concrete
Agricultural uses
Loose application on rivers to melt ice
Loose application on roads and parking lots for ice control
• Present utilization of Fly Ash in India:
• Present utilization of Fly Ash in India:
Red Mud
 What is Red Mud?

• Red mud is a highly alkaline waste product composed mainly of

iron oxide that is generated in the industrial production of alumina
(aluminium oxide, the principal raw material used in the
manufacture of aluminium metal and also widely used in the
manufacture of ceramics, abrasives and refractories).

• Over 95% of the alumina produced globally is through the Bayer

process; for every tonne of alumina produced, approximately 1 to
1.5 tonnes of bauxite tailings/residue are also produced.

• Red mud is also known as bauxite tailings, red sludge, bauxite

residue and alumina refinery residues (ARR).
 Chemical composition :

Percentage Composition
Fe2O3 5-60

Al2O3 5-30

TiO2 0.3-15

CaO 2-14

SiO2 3-50

Na2O 1-10
 Environmental problems:
 Risks of red mud on agricultural soil:
• Soil and groundwater alkalinization.
• Elevation of soil and groundwater Na content.
• Modification of the chemical forms and mobility of the
• Changes in soil nutrient and water cycling, as well as in soil’s
• Increased risk of sodification;
• Soil and groundwater toxicity;
• Plant growth inhibition, limited nutrient supply, deteriorated
nutrient household;
• Caustic/corrosive effect of the contaminated soil on humans;
• Detrimental effect of contaminated soil and ground water on
 Risks of red mud on agricultural soil:
• Red mud plugs the soil pores resulting anoxic conditions in
the soil.
• Meanwhile the micro-plug hinders penetration of further
• Damaging effect of the (temporary) anoxic conditions on soil
living organism.
• Detrimental effect of (temporary) anoxic conditions on plant
• Dusting, dust deposition on remotely located surfaces and
threat to humans by dust inhalation.
• Hazard due to caustic effect, threat to humans by ingestion.
• Toxic element content.
 Environmental problems:

 Risks of red mud on human health:

• Dust inhalation.
• Risk of the caustic effect on humans:
• NaOH is irritative and corrosive to the eye, skin and the
respiratory system, causing mainly occupational health
problems in the practice.
• Dermal irritation and corrosion
 Environmental problems:

Ref: Patel, S., & Pal, B. K. (2015). Current Status of an Industrial Waste: Red Mud an Overview. International Journal of Latest
Technology in Engineering, Management and Applied Science, 4(8)
 Reuse of Red mud:
• Recovery of metals:
– Since iron as oxides or oxy-hydroxides is usually the largest component of
red muds, iron recovery from red mud has attracted major attention.

• Waste water treatment:

– Red mud presents a promising application in water treatment for removal
of toxic heavy metal and metalloid ions, inorganic anions such as nitrate,
fluoride, and phosphate, as well as organics including dyes, phenolic
compounds and bacteria .

• Construction:
– Red Mud in Cement Replacement
– Red mud in the brick industry
– Concrete industry
– Used as filling Material (Road base material, mining, smelting of red mud)
Ref: Patel, S., & Pal, B. K. (2015). Current Status of an Industrial Waste: Red Mud an Overview. International Journal of Latest Technology
in Engineering, Management and Applied Science, 4(8)
Ref: Patel, S., & Pal, B. K. (2015). Current Status of an Industrial Waste: Red Mud an Overview. International Journal of Latest Technology
in Engineering, Management and Applied Science, 4(8)
 What is Slag?

• Slag is the glass-like by-product left over

after a desired metal has been separated
(i.e. smelted) from its raw ore. Slag is
usually a mixture of metal oxides and
silicon dioxide.

• While slags are generally used to remove

waste in metal smelting, they can also
serve other purposes, such as assisting in
the temperature control of the smelting,
and minimizing any re-oxidation of the
final liquid metal product before the
molten metal is removed from the furnace
and used to make solid metal.
• Basic Slag: Basic slag is a co-
product of steelmaking, and is
typically produced either
through the blast furnace-oxygen
converter route or the electric
arc furnace-ladle furnace route.
The major components of these
slags therefore include the
oxides of calcium, magnesium,
silicon, iron and aluminum, with
lesser amounts of manganese,
phosphorus, and others
depending on the specifics of the
raw materials used.
• Ground granulated blast furnace Slag (GGBFS or GGBS):
GGBFS is obtained by quenching molten iron slag (a byproduct
of iron and steel-making) from a blast furnace in water or steam,
to produce a glassy, granular product that is then dried and
ground into a fine powder.

• Chemical Composition:
Percentage Composition
CaO 30-50%

SiO2 28-38%

Al2O3 8-24%

MgO 1-18%
 Applications of GGBS:

• GGBS is used to make durable concrete structures in

combination with ordinary Portland cement and/or other
pozzolanic materials. It has been widely used in Europe and
increasingly in the United States and in Asia for its superiority in
concrete durability, extending the lifespan of buildings from fifty
years to a hundred years.

• Two major uses of GGBS are in the production of quality-

improved slag cement, namely Portland Blast-furnace cement
(PBFC) and high-slag blast-furnace cement (HSBFC), with
GGBS content ranging typically from 30 to 70%; and in the
production of ready-mixed or site-batched durable concrete.
 Applications of GGBS:

• Concrete made with GGBS cement sets more slowly than

concrete made with ordinary Portland cement, depending on the
amount of GGBS in the cementitious material, but also continues
to gain strength over a longer period in production conditions.
This results in lower heat of hydration and lower temperature
rises, and makes avoiding cold joints easier, but may also affect
construction schedules where quick setting is required.

• Use of GGBS significantly reduces the risk of damages caused

by alkali–silica reaction (ASR), provides higher resistance to
chloride ingress-reducing the risk of reinforcement corrosion and
provides higher resistance to attacks by sulfate and other
 How GGBS cement is used?:

• GGBS cement can be added to concrete in the concrete

manufacturer's batching plant, along with Portland cement,
aggregates and water. The normal ratios of aggregates and water
to cementitious material in the mix remain unchanged.
• GGBS is used as a direct replacement for Portland cement, on a
one-to-one basis by weight. Replacement levels for GGBS vary
from 30% to up to 85%.

• Architectural and Engineering benefits:

– Durability
– Appearance
– Strength
– Sustainability
 What is Tailings?
• Tailings (also called mine dumps, culm dumps, slimes) are the
materials left over after the process of separating the valuable
fraction from the uneconomic fraction of an ore.

• Tailings are distinct from overburden, which is the waste rock

or other material that overlies an ore or mineral body and is
displaced during mining without being processed.

• The amount of tailings can be large, ranging from 90-98% for

some copper ores to 20-50% of the other minerals.
 What is Tailings?
• Tailings consist of a slurry of fine particles, ranging from the
size of a grain of sand to a few µm. Mine tailings are usually
produced from the mill in slurry form, which is a mixture of
fine mineral particles and water.

• Examples:
– Sulfide minerals
– Coal and oil shale
– Aluminium mining
 Storage methods:
• The following storage methods are used to dispose the tailings:
• Tailings ponds or impoundments
• Paste tailings
• Dry stacking
• Storage in underground workings
• Riverine tailings
• Submarine tailings
• Phyto-stabilization
 Environmental Considerations:
• The rejected minerals and rocks liberated through mining and
processing are not part of the aerobic ecological systems and
are unstable. They have the potential to damage the
environment by releasing toxic metals (arsenic and mercury
being two major culprits), by acid drainage (usually by
microbial action on sulfide ores), or by damaging aquatic
wildlife that rely on clear water.

• The greatest danger of tailings ponds is dam failure. Tailings

ponds can also be a source of acid drainage, leading to the
need for permanent monitoring and treatment of water passing
through the tailings dam
 Environmental Considerations:
• Some other adverse impacts are as follows:
• Nuisance for nearby residents

• Reduction in traffic visibility

• Contamination of surface water, soils, groundwater, and air

• Adverse effect on human health

• Harm on animals and crops

 Reuse of Tailings:
• With environmental friendly and cost effective methods of
recycling, the tailings can be utilized as construction
material as follows:
• Bricks

• Concrete for pavements

• Concrete for structures, e.g. bridges

• Highway base material

• Highway embankment material