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Appendix A: Binary Numbers (P 631-643) Appendix B: Floating-Point Numbers (P 643-653)

Lecture II: Binary Numbers

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Contents

Finite Precision Numbers Radix Number System Conversion from One Radix to Another Negative Binary Numbers Binary Arithmetic Principles of Floating Point Numbers IEEE Floating Point Standard 754

Lecture II: Binary Numbers 2

**Finite Precision Numbers
**

In arithmetic, no attention is paid to the amount of memory taken to store numbers. Computers have finite memory, hence memory matters ± need a representation Algebra differs in finite precision arithmetic.

± Closure violated due to overflow and underflow ± Density lost in case of real and rational numbers

Lecture II: Binary Numbers

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**Radix Number System
**

Base 10 Example

Lecture II: Binary Numbers

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1.2.3.D.2. Decimal Numbers: (Base 10) ± Built from 0.3.9 Binary Numbers: (Base 2) ± Built from 0.3.4.9.1 Octal numbers: (Base 8) ± Built from 0.6.4.A.4.6.8.5.1.5.7.C.5. Requires k different symbols to represent digits digits 0 through k-1.8.B.7 Hexadecimal numbers: (Base 16) ± Built from 0.7.2.E.6.F Lecture II: Binary Numbers 5 .1.

Examples Lecture II: Binary Numbers 6 .

Lecture II: Binary Numbers 7 .

Conversion from One Radix to Another Octal <-> Hexadecimal <-> Binary ± Easy ± Binary to Octal: Divide into groups of three bits ±starting from immediate left (and right) of the decimal point Convert each group into octal from 0 to 7. Binary ± Same procedure Lecture II: Binary Numbers 8 .3 May be necessary to add leading or trailing zeros to form groups of three ± Hexadecimal <-> Octal. Example: » Binary 1010111.011 » Octal 127.

More Examples Lecture II: Binary Numbers 9 .

16 22 ±16 = 6 6 = 4+2 Hence Binary number is 10110 I.e.e. 2**4 + 2**2 + 2**1 Lecture II: Binary Numbers 10 .Decimal to Binary: First Method Take the largest power of 2 that divides the number and subtract that amount Repeat process Example: Decimal 22 ± ± ± ± ± Largest exponent of 2 is 4. I.

Decimal to Binary Second Method (Integers only) Divide the number by 2 ± Quotient written directly under original number ± Remainder written next to quotient Repeat process until 0 is reached Directly use Euclidean Algorithm Lecture II: Binary Numbers 11 .

Example Lecture II: Binary Numbers 12 .

± Put 1 on line 1 (bottom) ± Entry on line n = 2*(entry on line n-1) + bit on line n (0 or 1) Lecture II: Binary Numbers 13 .Sum up powers of 2 ± Example: 10110 is 2**4 + 2**2 + 2**1 = 22 Method 2: Successive doubling ± Write the binary number vertically ± Lines are numbered from bottom to top.Binary to Decimal Method 1.

Example Lecture II: Binary Numbers 14 .

± Example: 00000110 (+6) ± (-6 in ones complement) 11111001 Lecture II: Binary Numbers 15 . 1 is -) One¶s Complement: To negate a number switch all 0¶s and 1¶s (including sign bit) Obsolete now.Negative Binary Numbers Signed Magnitude: Leftmost bit has sign (0 is +.

Negative Binary Numbers Two¶s Complement: (Has sign bit 0 for + and 1 for -) Negating a number: ± Switch 0¶s and 1¶s (as in one¶s complement) ± Add 1 to the result Example 00000110 (+6) ± (-6 in one.¶s complement) 11111001 ± (-6 in two¶s complement) 11111010 ± Any carry over from leftmost bit is thrown away Lecture II: Binary Numbers 16 .

Negative Binary Numbers Excess 2**(m-1): Represents a number by (number) + 2**(m-1) Example: For 8-bit numbers ±3 is ±3+127 = 125 in binary is 01111101 Numbers from ±128 to +127 mapped to 0 to 255. expressible as 8 bit positive integers Identical to two¶s complement with sign bit reversed Lecture II: Binary Numbers 17 .

Lecture II: Binary Numbers 18 .

Some Properties of Negative Numbers Signed magnitude and one¶s complement has two representatives for zero (+0 and ±0) Two¶s complement has only one zero Problem with two¶s complement negative of 100000 = 100000 What is desired: ± Only one representation for zero ± Exactly the same number of + and ± numbers ± Need to have an odd count if this is to be achieved. Lecture II: Binary Numbers 19 .

carry generated by the leftmost bit is added to the rightmost bit. carry generated by the leftmost bit is thrown away Lecture II: Binary Numbers 20 . In two¶s complement. hexadecimal) numbers can be added just as decimal numbers The carry need to be taken to the next position (left) In one¶s complement.Binary Arithmetic Two binary (octal.

Binary Arithmetic Lecture II: Binary Numbers 21 .

Examples of Binary Arithmetic Lecture II: Binary Numbers 22 .

result is opposite sign. overflow occurs In both one¶s and two¶s complement overflow occurs iff carry into sign bit differs from carry out of sign bit Most machines have overflow bit Lecture II: Binary Numbers 23 .Overflow If addend and augend are of opposite sides no overflow occurs If both are of same sign.

Floating Point Arithmetic Two Important issues in representing real (floating point) numbers: ± Range: The length of the interval ± Precision: What small differences can be shown N = f* (10**e) ± Fraction = f: Number of digits here determines precision ± Exponent = e : Determines the range Example: 3.14 = 0.314 * (10**1) Lecture II: Binary Numbers 24 .

Two digit exponent and signed three digit fraction Range +0.100*(10**-99) to +.999*(10+99) Lecture II: Binary Numbers 25 .

998* (10**0) and +0.999* (10**0) Lecture II: Binary Numbers 26 .998* (10**98) and +0.e separation between ± +0. I.999* (10**98) vastly different from +0. Underflow Regions 1 and 7 represents overflows ± answer incorrect Regions 3 and 5 represents underflow errors ±less serious than overflow errors Problems with Floating Point Numbers: ± No density ± Do not form a continumm ± Spacing between two consecutive numbers not constant throughout regions.Overflow.

Lecture II: Binary Numbers 27 .

Lecture II: Binary Numbers 28 . by shrinking others.Normalized Digits Shifting the number of digits between exponents and fraction shifts boundaries of regions 2 and 6. In computers: ± Base 2. Increasing number of digits in fraction increases density ± thus improves accuracy Increasing size of exponent increases regions 2 and 6. 8 or 16 ± If leftmost digit is zero shift one place left and decrease exponent by 1 ± A fraction with nonzero leftmost digit is said to be normalized.4.

Example next slide Lecture II: Binary Numbers 29 .Normalized Digits Normalized Digits: ± There is only one normalized expression. whereas there can be more than one nonnormalized floating point expressions.

Lecture II: Binary Numbers 30 .

IEEE Standard 754 Designed by William Kahan of UCB Three representations: ± Single Precision: 32 bits ± Double Precision: 64 bits ± Extended Precision: 80 bits Both Single and Double precision uses ± Radix2 for fractions end excess notation for exponents ± Starts with sign bits (0 for +. 1 for -) Lecture II: Binary Numbers 31 .

Lecture II: Binary Numbers 32 .

Examples Normal Fraction: ± ± ± ± ± ± ± Decimal point.5 = 3F000000 ± 1 = 3F800000 ± 1.5 3FC00000 Lecture II: Binary Numbers 33 .0 If all 1. 1 Other numbers Omit 1 to begin with (implied) Omit binary point (implied) Either 23 or 52 fraction bits: If all 0 then fraction 1.Normal Fractions.0 (slightly less) Example ± 0. then fraction taken to be 2.

0 *(2**-127) Lecture II: Binary Numbers 34 .Dealing with Underflow I If calculation results in a number smaller than the smallest representable:Use Denormalized Numbers Have exponent zero.0 *(2**-127) The largest denormalized number has 0 as exponent and all 1¶s = 1. and fraction given by 23 or 52 bits These have bit left of decimal as 0 The smallest denormalized number has 1 as exponent and 0 as fraction = 1.

with fraction 0 and exponent 0 Lecture II: Binary Numbers 35 .Dealing with Underflow II As numbers go further down. first few bits become zero: ± exponent represents 2**(-127). and ± fraction representing 2**(-23) ± So the number represents 2**(-150) Gives graceful underfull without jumping to zero Two zeros are present.

Dealing with Overflow There are no bits to represent overflow Represent infinity with ± exponent with all 1¶s ± Fraction 0 ± Not a normalized number Behaves like mathematical infinity Infinity/Infinity cannot be determined. represented by NaN Lecture II: Binary Numbers 36 .

Lecture II: Binary Numbers 37 .

Lecture II: Binary Numbers 38 .

can cause bit errors To prevent these errors. some memories and networks use error correcting and error detecting codes.Error Correcting Codes Due to occasional errors of voltage fluctuations. Memory word of n bits has m data bits and r check bits for error checking/correcting Lecture II: Binary Numbers 39 .

it will take d single bit errors to convert one to the other. Lecture II: Binary Numbers 40 . If two code words are a hamming distance apart. EXOR reveals three bit error. Hamming Distance: The distance in which two code words differ.Hamming Distance How many bits differ: Take exclusive or: Example 10001001 and 10110001.

M data and r check bits allows 2**m legal memory words. has n illegal word with distance 1. Lecture II: Binary Numbers 41 . Detecting Error Detecting Codes: To detect d single bit errors need distance d+1 apart codes To correct d single bit errors. thus each word has n+1 words dedicated to it. Parity Bit: Takes two errors to go from one correct word to another.Correcting vs. Since total bit patters is 2**n So we get m+r+1 < 2**r. need 2d+1 distance apart code words. Given m we get a lower bound for r.

Lecture II: Binary Numbers 42 .

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