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Introduction to Dental Materials

Dr. Arti

What is Dental Material? 

Human body is prone to damage due to either disease or accidents. Likewise the structures in the oral cavity are lost or damaged due to disease such as caries and periodontal disease and trauma. The main goal in dentistry is to maintain or improve the quality of life through replacement or alteration of tooth structure.  


Therefore the main challenge for centuries has been to develop and select ideal dental materials that can withstand the adverse conditions of the oral environment.

Ideal Restorative Material
An ideal restorative material should: 

Be biocompatible Should bond permanently to tooth structure or bone Should match the natural appearance of tooth structure and other visible tissues Exhibit properties similar to those of tooth tissues (enamel and dentine) Be capable of initiating tissue repair or regeneration of missing or damaged tissues  

Four groups of materials:  Metals  Ceramics  Polymers  Composites


Preventive dental materials Restorative dental materials Auxiliary dental materials  

Preventive Dental Materials 

Pit and Fissure Sealants Sealing agents that prevent leakage Materials used primarily for their antibacterial effects. Liners, bases, cements and restorative materials that are used primarily because they release fluoride. Chlorhexidine or other therapeutic agents used to prevent or inhibit the progression of tooth decay. 

Restorative Dental Materials 

Synthetic components that can be used to repair or replace tooth structure, including primers, bonding agents, liners, cement bases, amalgams, resin-based composites, compomers, hybrid ionomers, cast metals, metal-ceramics, ceramics, and denture polymers.

Restorative Dental Materials
Direct restorative materials  Used intraorally to fabricate restoration or prosthetic devices directly on the teeth Indirect restorative materials  Made extraorally in which the materials are formed indirectly on the teeth or tissues 

Temporary restorative materials

Auxiliary Dental Materials 

Substances used in the process of fabricating dental prostheses and appliances but do not become part of these devices. Acid ± etch solutions, impression materials, casting investments, gypsum cast, and model materials, dental waxes, acrylic resins for impression, bleaching trays, mouthguards, and occlusion aids, finishing and polishing abrasives. 

Types of restorations 

Silver Amalgam

Resin Composite

Inlays and Onlays (Gold)

Crowns (Ceramic, Gold, Ceramic fused to metal)


Full Denture & Partial Denture

The End!