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Unit- IV

Jet Propulsion
Jet Propulsion
Principle of jet propulsion is obtained from
the application of “Newton’s third law”

“For every action there is an equal

and opposite reaction”.
When the fluid is to be accelerated,
a force is required to produce this
acceleration in this fluid.
At the same time, there is an equal
and opposite reaction force acting on this
This opposite reaction force of the
fluid on the engine is known as “Thrust”.
Classification of Jet Propulsion
1. Air breathing engines
Combustion takes place by using
atmospheric air.
2. Rocket engines
Combustion takes place by using its own
oxygen supply.
Classification of
Air breathing engines

1. Ram jet engine

2. Pulse jet engine
3. Turbo jet engine
4. Turbo prop engine
5. Turbo fan engine
Ramjet Engine
1. Diagram
2. Construction
3. Working
4. Advantages
5. Disadvantages
6. Applications
Main parts

Supersonic diffuser
Subsonic diffuser
Combustion chamber
Discharge nozzle section
Ram effect Ram Pressure:
The function of supersonic and
subsonic diffusers are to convert the
kinetic energy of the entering air into
pressure energy. This energy
transformation is called ram effect and
the pressure rise is called the ram
Very simple and does not have any
moving parts.
Low cost.
Less maintenance.
Better specific fuel consumption.
No upper limit to the flight speed.
Light weight when compared with
turbojet engine.
Dis Advantages
Take off thrust is zero, it is not
possible to start a ram jet engine
without an external launching
Very difficult to design a diffuser.
Low thermal efficiency.
High speed air crafts and missiles
due to its high thrust and high
operational speed.
Subsonic ramjets are used in
target weapons.
Pulse Jet Engine (or) Flying Bomb
Main Parts
Valve grid which contains springs that close on
their own spring pressure
Combustion chamber
Spark plug
Tail pipe or discharge nozzle.
Very simple device next to ramjet
Less maintenance
Low cost
Light weight when compared with
turbojet engine.
Dis Advantages
High rates of fuel consumption.
Maximum flight speed is limited to
750 km/h.
Low propulsive efficiency than
turbojet engines.
High degree of vibration leads to
noise pollution.

Subsonic flights
German V-I missiles
Target aircraft missiles
Pilotless air craft
Turbojet Engine
Most common type of air breathing
engine is the turbojet engine.
Main parts
1. Diffuser
2. Rotary compressor
3. Combustion chamber
4. Turbine
5. Exhaust nozzle
• Simple construction
• Less wear and tear
• Less maintenance cost
• It runs smoothly
• High flight speed
• Low grade fuels like kerosene, paraffin can be
used. This reduces fuel cost.
Dis advantages
• Low take-off thrust and poor starting
• High fuel consumption.
• Costly materials are used.
• Sudden decrease of speed is difficult.
• Propulsive efficiency and thrust are lower at
lower speeds.

• Piloted air-crafts.
• Military air-crafts.
Turbo-Prop Engine (or)
Turbo-Propeller Engine
• It is very similar to turbojet engine. In this type,
the turbine drives the compressor and propeller.
• Main parts:
 Diffuser
 Compressor
 Combustion chamber
 Turbine
 Exhaust nozzle
 Reduction gear and
 Propeller
• High take-off thrust
• Good propeller efficiency at a speed below
• Reduced vibration and noise.
• Better fuel economy.
• Easy maintenance.
• Wide range of speeds.
• Power output not limited.
• Sudden decrease of speed is possible by thrust
• Propeller efficiency is rapidly decreases at high
speeds due to shocks and flow separation.
• It requires a reduction gear which increases
the cost of the engine.
• More space needed than turbo jet engine.
• Engine construction is more complicated.
• The turbo prop engine is best suited for
commercial and military air-craft operation
due to its high flexibility of operation and
good fuel economy.
Turbofan Engine
• The turbofan engine is a combination of the
turbo prop and the turbojet engines
combining the advantages of both.
• Main parts:
– Fan
– Compressor
– Combustion chamber
– Turbine
– Fan nozzle
By Pass Ratio:
The ratio of the mass flow rates of cold air and
the hot air is known as By Pass Ratio.
• Thrust is developed is higher than turbo jet
• Weight per unit thrust is lower than turbo
prop engine.
• Less noise
• High take-off thrust.

• Increased frontal area.

• Fuel consumption is high compared to turbo
prop engine.
• Construction is complicated compared to
turbo jet engine.
• Lower speed limit than turbojet engine.

Rocket Propulsion
The thrust required for the propulsion of
rocket is produced by the high velocity of
gases leaving from the nozzle which is similar
to jet propulsion.
In jet propulsion, the oxygen required for
combustion is taken from the atmosphere. But
in the case of rocket propulsion, since the
altitude of rocket engine is very high, enough
oxygen is not available in the atmosphere. So
the oxygen is filled in a tank in the rocket engine
itself and used for combustion purposes.
Classification of Rocket Engines(1)
Chemical rocket engines
1. Liquid propellant rocket engine
2. Solid propellant rocket engine
3.Hybrid propellant rocket engine
Nuclear rocket engines
Electrical rocket engines
Solar rocket engines
Classification of Rocket Engines(2)
 Based on Application
1. Space rockets
2. Military rockets
3. Weather forecasting rockets
4. Booster rockets
 Based on Number of stages
1. Single stage rockets
2. Multistage rockets
 Based on Size and Range
1. Short range small rocket
2.Long range large rocket
Liquid Propellant Rocket Engine
• It can be reused after recovery. So it is
• Combustion process is controllable.
• Speed regulation.
• High specific impulse.
• More economical for long range operation.
• Malfunctions and accidents can be rectified at
any stage.
• More complicated.
• High manufacturing cost.
• Propellants are poisonous and corrosive.
• Size and weight of the engine is more
compared to solid propellant rocket engine.
• High vibration.
• Proper insulation is needed.
Liquid Propellants

1. Monopropellants
2. Bipropellants
A liquid propellant which contains both the
fuel and oxidizer in a single chemical is known
as monopropellant.
It is stable at normal ambient conditions
and liberates thermo-chemical energy on
1. Nitroglycerine
2. Nitro methane
3. Hydrogen Peroxide
4. Hydrazine

If the fuel and oxidizer are different from

each other in its chemical nature, then the
propellant is called bipropellant.

Widely used in liquid propellant rocket

Oxidizer Fuel
Liquid oxygen Gasoline, Methane,
Ethanol, Hydrazine

Red fuming nitric acid Aniline, Ethanol

White fuming nitric Alcohol

Hydrogen peroxide Hydrazine, Ethanol,

Properties of Liquid Propellants
• High calorific value.
• High density.
• Low vapour pressure and density.
• High specific heat and thermal conductivity.
• Products of combustion produces high jet velocity.
• Non-corrosive and non-reactive with components.
• Should not be poisonous and hazardous
• Cheap and easily available.
• Easily ignitable.
Liquid Propellant Feed System

1. Gas pressure feed system.

2. Pump feed system.
Gas Pressure Feed system
Pump Feed System
Basic Processes:
Chemical reaction between fuel and
Various methods to atomize and
mix the fuel and oxidizer

Parallel stream type

Impinging stream type
Spray injection type
Solid Propellant Rocket Engine
• Simple in design and construction
• No need for feed system (No pump & valves)
• Less vibration due to absence of moving parts.
• Less maintenance.
• Suitable for short range applications.
• Problem arising from the sudden emptying of
propellant tanks are absent.
• In case of emergency it is difficult to stop the
engine in the mid way.
• Decrease of speed is not possible.
• Low specific impulse.
• Nozzle cooling is not possible.
• Transportation and handling of these rockets
before firing require greater care due to the
presence of propellants throughout.
Solid Propellants

1. Heterogeneous (or) Composite

2. Homogeneous propellants.
Heterogeneous propellants
Plastics, Polymers and PVC
Nitrates and Per chlorates
Homogeneous propellants

 Nitroglycerine and nitrocellulose

 It combines the properties of fuel and
Properties of Solid Propellants
• It should release large amount of heat during
• Physical and chemical properties should not
change during processing.
• High density.
• It should not be poisonous and hazardous.
• Cheap and easily available.
• Non-corrosive and non-reactive with components
of the engine.
• Storage and handling should be easy.
Hybrid propellant rocket engine
• Speed regulation is possible by regulating the
supply of oxidizer.
• High load capacity.
• Hybrid rockets are lighter when compared to
the liquid propellant type rockets.
• Higher fuel density.
• In case of accident or crash the explosion is
less destructive compared to the liquid
propellant rocket engines.
• Nozzle erosion cannot be avoided.
Hybrid propellants

Fuel Oxidizer
Beryllium hydride Fluorine
Lithium hydride Chlorine trifluoride
Lithium hydride Nitrogen tetroxide
Hydrocarbon Nitrogen tetroxide
Nuclear Rocket Engine
Electrical Rocket Engine
The fundamental requirement for rocket
propulsion is the generation of very high exhaust
velocities in order to minimize the propellant
Electrical propulsion engines generate
exhaust velocities from about 4 to 100 times
those of chemical rocket engines.
Types of Electrical rocket engines

1. Arc plasma rocket engine

2. Ion rocket engine

3. Magneto-plasma rocket engine

Arc plasma rocket engine
Ion Rocket Engine
Magneto-Plasma Rocket Engine(or) Magneto
Hydrodynamics Rocket Engine (MHD)