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Traffic Engineering

of servers. of users competing a small no. of trunks.large users compete for small no. .large no.user is given access (or) get busy signal [Tone or Recorded message] . .user may frequently re-initiative the call attempts on receiving busy signal .user will have to wait until a server is available  Probability of service denial: .Service Levels  Delay in receiving dial tones: .

o N t i l 0 2 4 6 8 1 0 1 2 1 4 1 6 1 8 2 0 2 2 2 4 Hour of the day .Typical Telephone traffic pattern on a working day 10 2 10 0 8 0 6 0 4 0 2 0 0 Tr f ic af h e h n sl ac f o.

Holding Time: Average duration of occupancy of a traffic path by a call. of times a route path is used/unit time (or) Call intensity per traffic path during busy hour. Traffic Unit Parameters or traffic Calling Rate: No.  .

Busy Hours    Busy Hour: Continuous 1-hour period lying wholly in the time interval concerned. Peak Busy Hour: The busy hour each day. of call attempts is greatest. for which the traffic volume or the no. . of days. Time Consistent Busy Hour: The 1-hour period starting at the same time each day for which the average traffic volume or the no. of call attempts is greatest over the days under consideration. it usually varies from day to day or over a no.

of call attempts. Busy Hour Call Attempts [BHCA]: a parameter in deciding the processing capacity of a common control or a SPC system of an exchange. Busy Hour Calling Rate [BHCR]: average no.Definitions  Call Completion Rate [CCR]: is defined as the ratio    of no. of calls originated by a subscriber during the busy hour Grade of Service: GoS = (no. of calls lost) / (no. of successful calls to the no. of calls offered) OR = ( traffic lost / traffic offered) .

K. N = Avg.h)/ T where. no. of call arrivals during time ‘T’ h = Avg. call holding time Danish telephone engineer A.Erlang .Traffic Intensity (I)  I = A0 = (Period for which a server is occupied) (Total period of observation) Unit: Erlang (E) I = (N.

Traffic measurements Units     Erlangs 100 call seconds or Centum call seconds (CCS) Percentage of Occupancy Peg count .

of calls/unit time Offered Load = Carried Load + Overflow . of calls in progress during an hour. Unit: Erlang or CCS 1 Erlang = Avg.h where. of calls in monitoring period h = Avg.h / T) = nc. call holding time T = duration of monitoring period nc = no. Erlangs: ‘Traffic Intensity’ is the average number of calls simultaneously in progress during a particular period of time. = 1 x 3600 seconds = 36 CCS  Traffic Intensity = (Sum of circuit holding time) (duration of the monitoring period) I = (Nc. Nc = no. no.

 Percentage of Occupancy: Percentage of time a server is busy Peg Count: No. of attempts to use a piece of equipments   The usage (U). peg count/time period (PC) overflow period (O) and average holding time (h) are related as U = ( PC – O ) / h .