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The Question






Martin Luther .

The Peasants· War .

.Cont. .

He translated . He became a popular leader and chief preacher of the city and . Jean Calvin (1509-64). founded this when its leader. He rose as the leader of Zwingli died.Calvinism In 1541. organized a He made Geneva a the . . a branch of Protestantism in Geneva.

stressed that anything 0 Calvin set the example of stern simplicity and relentless activity. 0 Calvin. The Calvinists also created a free Dutch Republic. the Netherlands and veered Scotland towards Calvinism.0 He published " an influential Protestant document and Protestant School at the . . For this he was nicknamed the 0 He was responsible for the .


Historically Henry VIII was the first to resist the Catholic Church. Henry VIII intended to change the organization of the Church. She secured the reconciliation of England to Rome. Her successor. By initiating the Reformation. She married a Stuart Catholic and tried to enforce Catholicism on English people." She personally supported the Protestant movement in Europe. she combined the principles of both faiths and established the "Anglican Church.Reformation in England 0 Henry VIII was impelled to quarrel with the Papacy owing to the desire to dissolve his marriage with Catherine of Aragon. 0 Mary undid all of Henry s reformation. He also wanted to prevent the interference of foreign powers in the national and international affairs of the country.e. Elizabeth maintained the compromise policy i. its doctrines and methods regarding worship. The doctrines and practices of Luther and Calvin arose only later. ..

The Catholic reform was slow until after the Protestant Revolution began to make serious inroads upon the ancient faith.15 Counter Reformation The Catholic Reformation or the Counter Reformation was the other phase of the great movement known as the Reformation. 0 0 . Schools were established. and priests were urged to accept their responsibilities as shepherds of their flocks. with the approval of the monarchy. However. together with a variety of radical sects made inroads in almost half of the traditional Catholic nations of Europe. Modern historians have shown that the beginnings of the movement for Catholic reform were entirely independent of the Protestant revolt. It was based on the assumption that the primary purpose of its leaders was to cleanse the Catholic Church in order to check the growth of Protestantism. The movement was launched chiefly for the purpose of strengthening the church in the war against heretics and infidels. Italy was not immune to Protestant teaching. Catholics were dismayed by the great increase in unorthodoxy. the Scandinavian countries. attempts had been made to make the priests of the church more worthy of their Christian calling. and the Dutch speaking parts of the Netherlands. In Italy also. During the closing years of the 15th century a religious revival was ushered in Spain by Cardinal Ximenes. had accepted the Protestant faith by the middle of the 16th century. Switzerland. But the task was difficult due to the paganism of the Renaissance and the extravagance of several religious orders dedicated to high ideals of piety and social service. Poland. much of Germany. England. it had considerable effect in regenerating the spiritual life of the nation.0 0 1. Protestantism. since the beginning of the 16th century. abuses were eliminated from the monasteries.

Clement VII became pope after him. He continued to act too much like an Italian prince and too little as the moral and religious leader of Catholicism. He and three of his successors. . Leo X had caused the Lutheran revolt. among the cardinals.0 1. and Sixtus V (1585-1590). His nephew. Pius V (1566-1572). But his reign of only twenty months was too short to enable him to accomplish much.15a The Reform Popes 0 The abuses in the papacy under the Medici Pope. The campaign against abuses within the church was not renewed until the reign of Pope Paul III (1534-1549). by the turn of the 17th century a remarkable reformation had gradually been introduced in the papacy. and followed a policy of appointing to high Church office men renowned for their virtue and learning rather than for family position or financial profit. were the most zealous crusaders for reform. Paul IV (1555-1559). down through the priests and monks. Thus. Those clerics who persisted in idleness and vice were severely dealt with. The first of the Popes to attempt a purification of the church was Pope Adrian VI of Utrecht. They reorganized papal finances.

This met in the city of Trent. 0 0 . at intervals between 1545 and 1565. absented themselves. Its work became a major force in the Counter Reformation. Pious Catholics felt that every effort should be made to restore the unity of the Church. It was argued that a clear statement of Catholic doctrine might refute the errors of the many new theologies that had cropped up during the Protestant Revolution. The council also established many reforms in the Church and contributed significantly to preserve the Catholic faith. It brought about great reform in the Church. but little had been accomplished.15b The Council of Trent (1545-1565) The Council of Trent was the outcome of the reforming zeal of the individual popes. the renewal movement in the Catholic Church during the 16th and 17th centuries. The chief Catholic ruling families of Europe .0 0 1. even before the Protestant Revolt to bring about reformation in the Church. There was mutual hostility between Catholics and Protestants. The situation in Europe was not favorable to convene a General Council at the earliest. The Council attempted to define Catholic beliefs and to counteract Protestant teachings. Its contribution was significant in the preservation of the Catholic faith. whom the pope invited to participate in the council. This Council was one of the most important in the history of the Church. National rivalry persisted between Italians and Germans.the Hapsburgs of Germany and Spain and the royal house of France were at war with each other. General Councils of the Church had been convened earlier. The work of the Council of Trent was twofold. In spite of these various difficulties Pope Paul III called for a meeting of the General Church Council. dogmatic and reformatory. The Protestants.

Without exception the dogmas of the Christian religion challenged by the Protestant Reformers were upheld. religion. To eliminate the evil of an ignorant priesthood it was held that a theological seminary must be established in every diocese. sermons were to be preached in the vernacular. and give themselves completely to spiritual endeavor.15c Decisions of the Council 0 The Council of Trent made no compromise with the Protestants on the dogmatic issue. The Council confirmed the chief points in Catholic theology expounded in the 13th century by Saint Thomas Aquinas. Bishops and priests were asked to abandon worldly pursuits. besides reaffirming its faith in the dogmas of the Christian . Latin was retained as the official and liturgical language. The papal supremacy over every bishop and priest was expressly maintained. passed important laws for the elimination of abuses and for reinforcing the discipline of the Church over its members. The Council agreed that historic tradition as well as the Bible should be taken into account as the Christian religion and the Church alone had the right to interpret the Holy Scriptures. The spiritual authority of the pope was confirmed. 0 The Council of Trent. However. The Pope was recognized as the supreme interpreter of the Canons (Church law).0 1.

the Vulgate. the Council of Trent attempted to bring about discipline among the Church officials. By these methods. A uniform catechism was prepared at Rome with a view to educate laymen in the principles and obligations of their religion. A commission was appointed to draw up an index or list of writings that were not to be read.0 The central government of the Church was reorganized. 0 Towards the end of its deliberations. Later a permanent agency known as the congregation of the Index was set up to revise the list from time to time. upon a censorship of books to prevent heretical ideas from corrupting the minds of those who still remained in the faith. The Church service books were revised and a new standard edition of the Latin Bible. was issued. The publication of this list by the pope in 1564 resulted in the formal establishment of the Index of prohibited Books as a part of the machinery of the Church. the Council of Trent decided .


At different times under the pretext of protecting religious orthodoxy the Crown liquidated genuine or suspected sedition. dated 21 July 1542. their preaching. The Jesuits were thus the leading craftsmen of the Counter Reformation. alarmed by the spread of Protestant ideas in some Italian towns. The activities of the Jesuits were numerous and varied. including Protestants.Social 0 0 1. who had been a papal nuncio in Spain. To the three usual monastic vows of poverty. The Spanish Kings used it to suppress heretics. The chief aims of these religious orders were the Catholic revival. In all their activities. 0 0 0 0 0 0 . established the Roman Inquisition by the bull Licet ab initio. preserving the Southern Europe for the Church and to deepen the spiritual life of the people. but it was never as popular in Italy as in Spain. The most important of these orders is the Society of Jesus whose members are known commonly as Jesuits. 1. writing and scholarship. from their missionary work and from the dynamic vitality of their faith. This stern instrument of papal power certainly checked heresy. the Jesuits followed the leadership of the Mother Church as their infallible guide. The Pope. and obedience was added a fourth vow of special allegiance to the Pope. Inquisition originated in the Middle Ages. chastity. Ignatius Loyola founded the Society of Jesus in 1534 and Pope Paul III approved it in 1540. and to deal with their political enemies. Their real contribution to the Catholic Church and its revival came from their teaching.15e The Founding of the Society Of Jesus A number of new religious orders made their appearance during the phase of the Counter-Reformation. The organization of the Society showed the military instincts of its founder. checking the popularity of Protestantism in the North. In the first place they considered themselves as the defenders of true religion. For this object they obtained authority from the Pope to hear confessions and grant absolution. Still others served as agents of the Inquisition in the relentless war against heresy. It was in this way that the Counter Reformation received its greatest impetus. that he suggested to Pope Paul III that he should set up a similar tribunal. The successful working of the Spanish Inquisition so impressed the zealous Cardinal Caraffa.15d The Inquisition The Inquisition was mainly a Spanish institution and as such antedated the Counter-Reformation. Many of them became priests to expound the truth of the faith.

Southern Germany.16 Legacy of the Reformation 0 1. Holland. England adopted a compromise Protestantism of her own. Poland and Ireland were left. France. Calvinism triumphed in Scotland. Spain and Portugal. Even in several of these countries aggressive Protestant minorities became a menace to the Catholic majority.0 1. Austria.16a Division of Christendom 0 The most obvious result of the Reformation was the division of western Christendom into a number of hostile sects. The unified structure of the Christian Church under the undisputed authority of the Pope collapsed. and French Switzerland. . Germany and Scandinavian countries became Lutheran. In the vast dominion that once owed allegiance to the Pope only Italy.

the Index. whether they were Catholic or Protestant sought to base their political unity on the religious unity. Protestant princes persecuted Catholic subjects and Catholic princes persecuted Protestant subjects. 0 The fall-out of the religious intolerance was that the rulers of every state in central and Western 0 Kings of the Catholic countries. They used the Inquisition. Europe. they used their power to compel their subjects to adopt one official kind of Christianity.16b Religious Intolerance 0 The evil of religious intolerance accompanied the split in western Christendom. the Pope was the anti-Christ. especially Spain. On the other hand. Calvin and all so-called reformers as heretics. Luther made an appeal to the secular rulers to use force against Catholics. countries free from Protestants. spies and police to get rid of religious dissent. who was considered as an apostle of religious tolerance did not permit either Catholic or dissenting Protestants to reside in Geneva. who faced the Lutheran revolt. For the Protestants. Portugal and Italy used every means to keep their . he and succeeding Popes banned Protestants and urged secular rulers to suppress heresy by force.0 1. Protestant leaders argued that they were restoring the pure Gospel and safeguarding it against despotism. superstition and corruption. Hence. Catholic leaders felt that they were defending traditional Christian civilization against anarchical forces or rebellion. Catholics considered Luther. Even Calvin. Both the Catholic leaders and Protestant supporters justified such intolerance. Since the time of Pope Leo X.

The Jesuits became great educationalists. Calvinists. This was an incidental and long delayed result. They did not tolerate any one who disagreed with their own respective orthodoxies. However. In Scotland John Knox set forth the ideal of an elementary school for every city. But its importance cannot be underestimated. As the sects multiplied in various countries.16c Promotion of Individualism The Reformation greatly encouraged the development of individualism. Calvin made Geneva an important center of education. the leaders of the Protestant Revolution liberated man from the clutches of the Church. The immediate result of the religious upheaval of the 16th century was religious intolerance. 1. establishing universities and colleges in different parts of Europe. war and bloodshed. and Anglicans really believed at that time in genuine religious freedom. it would be wrong to assume that Lutherans. Reforming Popes and the Council of Trent favored the multiplication of educational institutions. The Protestant leaders of that time usually favored education. The Reformation brought an end to ecclesiastical tyranny thereby promoting religious freedom. in the long run it helped to create a situation that was favorable to religious tolerance. Mutual tolerance was made necessary in order for any of them to survive. it gradually became evident that no one of them could ever become strong enough to enforce its will upon the rest.16d Development of Education The Reformation also gave an added momentum to the expansion of popular education. 1. However. However. 0 0 0 0 . This was true of the Catholic leaders as well. they set a precedent in challenging the authority and beliefs of a universal church. In this way they promoted self-assertion in the religious sphere.0 0 The Reformation resulted in a series of religious wars that kept Europe in turmoil for many years. By asserting the right of an individual to have his own judgment and by simplifying ritual and organization.

However. Anglicanism for the English. But these art forms were developed outside the churches and they dealt with secular rather than with religious subjects. 0 0 0 . glass windows.16e Promotion of Nationalism The Reformation had a great impact on politics and society of Europe. the pictorial and plastic arts continued to develop in Protestant countries.0 0 1. The Reformation crushed the power of the Church in the economic field. Bankers. who desired to make profit out of their business were happy with the interpretation of Calvin that the Catholic Church unjustly condemned the charging of interest. Similarly. Protestantism became popular in commercially and economically developed countries of the Baltic region in northern Europe. who were eager to get new sources of wealth. National Churches were established. and the Reformation in turn promoted nationalism. adopted the argument of Luther that the church property could be confiscated. Lutheranism became a national Christianity for many Germans and for the Scandinavian peoples. Wherever Protestantism spread. The rising sentiments of nationalism contributed to the Reformation. Calvinism for the Dutch and the Scots. Catholicism underwent a change towards a partially nationalizing evolution. 1. Princes and landlords. the spirit of capitalism was the cause and consequence of Reformation. Portugal. The national character of the Church was evident in France. manufacturers and traders. Ireland and elsewhere.16f Growth of Capitalism As in the case of nationalism. and created conditions for better economic development and growth of capitalism. Poland. In every country Protestantism appealed to national sentiments and decried the foreign interference in their national life.

and many of the Catholic countries imitated similar art forms. Throughout the Middle Ages. Popes continued to patronize art.kings was asserted. altars and organs. 0 1. The religious upheaval was directed against the moral decline of the Church. Christian art had flourished. 0 Reformation also had a significant effect on art. the Popes were patrons of art and architecture. Protestants did not promote cathedral buildings as such huge structures were not required for their simple religious purposes.16h Morals and Art 0 Reformation brought about other important changes as well. As such the Reformation led to an emphasis on moral values. Even after Reformation. Following the Reformation movement the absolutism of kings and princes became a fact in the political history of most of the European countries. However. They denounced and discontinued ecclesiastical sculpture and painting and did away with religious images and pictures. crucifixes and stained . By their external conduct the Catholics and Protestants were expected to prove that their religion inculcated a higher moral standard than any other. At the beginning of the 16th century.