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N A G P

C LI MATE CULTURE

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MATE R IALS

CONTENTS OF THE PRESENTATION
‡ CLIMATE ‡ CULTURE AND TRADITION ANALYSIS OF NAGPUR
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GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIAL POLITICAL ECONOMIC/ TRADE AND COMMERCE ARCHITECTURE

‡ MATERIAL TECHNOLOGY TRADITIONAL AND MODERN ‡ TECHNOLOGY IN MULTI-STORIED STRUCTURES ‡ BUILDING SERVICES
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SERVICE CORE VERTICAL TRANSPORT FIRE ESCAPE ELECTRICAL SERVICES

 THE CITY OF NAGPUR ENJOYS A VERY DRY OR SEMI-HUMID CLIMATE THROUGHOUT THE YEAR EXCEPTING THE MONSOON MONTHS OF JUNE AND SEPTEMBER.

C L I M A T E 

NAGPUR CAN BE BROADLY DIVIDED INTO THREE IMPORTANT SEASONS OF SUMMER, WINTER AND MONSOON.

. IN WINTER SEASON TEMPERATURE HOVERS AROUND 12 DEGREE CELSIUS AND SOMETIMES EVEN DIPS DOWN BELOW THAT LEVEL. SOMETIMES IT MAY BE AS HIGH AS 48 DEGREE CELSIUS. THE TEMPERATURE REMAINS BEYOND 40 DEGREE CELSIUS.  ALMOST THROUGHOUT THE SUMMER.LOCATION : 210 N latitude and 790 E longitude SUMMER: MAX TEMP: 470C MIN TEMP: 270C WINTER MAX TEMP: 300C MIN TEMP: 70C THE NAGPUR CLIMATE WITNESSES A VERY HOT WEATHER DURING THE MONTHS OF SUMMER.

 THE RAIN IN NAGPUR IS HEAVILY DOMINATED BY THE SOUTH-WESTERLY MONSOON WINDS. IT SHOWERS MAXIMUM IN THE MONTHS OF JULY AND AUGUST.MONSOON : HEAVILY CLOUDED WINDS: SOUTH-WEST MONSOON WINDS MONSOONS TAKE ITS CHARGE IN THE MONTH OF JUNE. THE NAGPUR CLIMATE EXPERIENCES A LOW PRESSURE RESULTING IN THE WIND BLOWING AT A SPEED OF 20 KM PER HOUR OR MORE. IN THE MONTH OF FEBRUARY AND AT THE MAY-END. . FOR THE REST PART OF THE YEAR. BUT. THE SPEED REMAINS 5 TO 6 KM PER HOUR.

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ACTS AS A CHIMNEY AND REMOVES THE HOT AIR. THUS. THE HOT AND DRY CLIMATE MAKES ONE COMFORTABLE MOSTLY IN COTTON CLOTHES. IN THE EVENING.INFLUENCE OF NAGPUR CLIMATE ON CULTURE AND ARCHITECTURE ‡ COURTYARD IN THE CENTRE WITH THE BUILT FORM AROUND IT. . ‡ DURING THE AFTERNOON. COVERED AND SEMI-COVERED SPACES CREATE POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE AREAS. THE FOUNTAIN IN THE COURTYARD HELPS IN EVAPORATIVE COOLING. ‡ THE CLOTHING IS ALSO DICTATED BY CLIMATE. ACTS AS A PRINCIPLE OF HEAT SINK. THE COOL AIR MOVES FROM THE COURTYARD TO INSIDE THE BUILDING.

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ISLAM. LAVANI AND KOLI WITH EXCITING TUNE AND MUSICAL MOVEMENTS ENTERTAIN THE NATIVE OF NAGPUR. CHRISTIANITY. MARBAT: CLEANSING OF THE CITY! THE FOLK DANCE FORMS LIKE POVADA. ETC. COSMOPOLITAN: LARGE NUMBER OF PEOPLE FROM OTHER INDIAN STATES AS WELL AS PEOPLE BELONGING TO THE WORLD'S MAJOR FAITHS. JAINISM AND BUDDHISM. . NAGPUR PLAYS HOST TO A VARIETY OF CULTURAL EVENTS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR.AN AMALGAMATION OF THE VARIOUS CULTURES PREVALENT WITHIN INDIA. THE REGION OF NAGPUR PRESENTS A COLLECTION OF RELIGION WITHIN NAGPUR AND SOME OF THEM ARE HINDUISM. THE CULTURE OF NAGPUR BOASTS OF MANY DIFFERENT RELIGIONS AND BELIEFS.

THE PRESENCE OF SEVERAL CENTRAL GOVERNMENT OFFICES AND INSTITUTES IN THE CITY. BECAUSE OF WHICH PEOPLE FROM ALL PARTS OF THE COUNTRY MAKE NAGPUR THEIR HOME FOR EXTENDED PERIODS. . HINDI AND SANSKRIT ARE AN INTEGRAL PART OF CULTURE AND TRADITION OF NAGPUR.LANGUAGE TRADITIONS LANGUAGE ANDAND TRADITIONS NAGPUR ENJOYS A COSMOPOLITAN CULTURE FOR TWO REASONS. NAGPUR S GEOGRAPHICAL CENTRAL AND CULTURAL PROXIMITY TO THE NEIGHBORING STATES OF MADHYA PRADESH AND ANDHRA PRADESH.

LATER CHALUKYA OF KALYANI.MYTHOLOGICAL ASSOCIATIONS RAMAYANA. BHONSALES.VIDHARBHA . CULTURAL REGION . YADAVAS OF DEVGIRI. MAHABHARATHA. HISTORICAL TIMES FROM MAURYA DYNASTY. PARMARIS OF DHAR. KALCURIS OF MAHISMATI. BHONSALAS OF NAGPUR. AND VARIOUS PURANAS HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATIONS PREHISTORICAL PERIOD DOLMENS AND OTHER SEPULCHRAL MONUMENTS. THE SATAVAHANAS. GONDS. VAKATAKAS. INDEPENDENCE TO PRESENT TIME. PESHVAS. RASHTRAKUTAS. BRITISH. EARLY CALUKYA.

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LED TO ADDITION OF NUMEROUS LAYERS OF CULTURE . THEN CAME THE BHOSLAS LATER THE COLONIAL ERA AND POST INDEPENDENCE TO PRESENT DAY THE GEOGRAPHICAL LOCATION: PEOPLE FROM ALL OVER THE COUNTRY SETTLED HERE THE SOCIAL SCENE HAS ALWAYS BEEN VARIED.PRESENT DAY CONTEXT: NAGPUR: SMALL CLUSTER TO A BIG CITY THE GOND RULERS ACCEPTED ISLAM AND THIS INITIATED THE INFLOW OF MUSLIM COMMUNITY IN THE REGION. EACH COMMUNITY ADDED ITS OWN SET OF RITUALS AND ETHNICITY TO THE SOCIAL STRUCTURE OF NAGPUR.

THIS EXPANDED SETTLEMENTS BEYOND THE BOUNDARIES ECONOMY: AN ASPECT OF THE SOCIETY THAT INFLUENCES THE ARCHITECTURE .ECONOMICAL CONTEXT: NAGPUR: IN THE OLDEN DAYS. ECONOMY WAS PRIMARILY AGRARIAN COTTON WAS THE MAJOR CROP LED TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF MILLS WHICH IMPROVED THE ECONOMY THE BRITISH CONSTRUCTED THE RAILWAY LINE FACILITATING TRADE AND TRANSPORT.

.LOTS OF ENGINEERING COLLEGES AND MANAGEMENT SCHOOLS HAVE ALSO COME UP IN THE CITY.

N A G P U R INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT AND AN INTERNATIONAL CARGO HUB BEING SET UP AT NAGPUR. . (MIHAN) STUDENTS FROM ALL CORNERS COME TO NAGPUR AT STUDY. IT IS A FAIRLY LARGE CENTRE FOR COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL ACTIVITY AND IS TODAY DEVELOPING AT A VERY FAST RATE. NAGPUR IS ALSO KNOWN FOR ITS GREENERY. NAGPUR IS ALSO THE MAJOR COMMERCIAL AND POLITICAL CENTRE OF THE VIDHARBA REGION OF MAHARASHTRA. INTER AND INTRA CITY CONNECTIVITY. IS VERY GOOD. ADEQUATE NATURAL RESOURCES. WHICH IS ESSENTIAL FOR INDUSTRIAL GROWTH.

‡ THE FACTORS THAT MAKE NAGPUR AN IDEAL INVESTMENT AND BUSINESS DESTINATION ARE: o AVAILABILITY OF AFFORDABLE LAND. . o THE EASILY AVAILABLE ABUNDANT NATURAL RESOURCES LIKE FOREST AND MINERALS AND THE FACT THAT THE CITY HAS WONDERFUL WEATHER. o AVAILABILITY OF QUALIFIED MANPOWER AT COMPETITIVE PRICES. o THE UPCOMING INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. o CONNECTIVITY TO THE REST OF THE COUNTRY. o THE HISTORY OF CORDIAL INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS.

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.STONE Dry stone is a building method by which structures are constructed from stones without any mortar to bind them together. Crushed stone or angular rock is a form of construction aggregate.

CONCRETE .

STEEL .

BRICK .

THEY ARE CLIMATE RESPONSIVE.WOOD: MAINLY USED FOR FRAMEWORK AND ORNAMENTATION MARBLE MAINLY USED FOR THE BASE OF COLUMNS AND FLOORING OTEMPLES CLAY TILES: USED FOR ROOFING MATERIAL IN MOST TOWERS. .

GLASS .

ALUMINIUM COMPOSITE PANEL .

EXTRUDED BORAD BAMBOO SLATE .

TECHNOLOGY CONSTRUCTION TECHNOLOGY IN HIGH RISE BUILDING .

FOUNDATIONS I) PILE FOUNDATIONS a)Prefabricated concrete piles (reinforced) and pre stressed concrete piles b) Driven and cast-in-place concrete piles .

GROUP PILES .

II) DIAGPHRAM WALLS .

Façade .

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Tube in tube or Hull core structure 8.In filled Frame Structure 4.Rigid Frame Structure 3.LOAD BEARING STRUCTURES Type of High-Rise Structure 1.Hybrid structure .Flat Plate and Flat Slab Structure 5.Core and Outriggers system 9.Shear wall structure 6.The trussed tube 7.Braced Frame 2.

ACT Tower. OSAKA . JAPAN Rigid Frame Structure Braced Frame . Himatsu Japan WTC.

Infilled Frame Structure Flat Plate and Flat Slab Structure .

HONGKONG . Las Vegas BANK OF CHINA.Shear wall structure The trussed tube structure WYNN LAS VEGAS The Sears Tower New Trump Tower .

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Core and Outriggers system .

Hybrid System .

S E R V I C E S .

design of the service core CORE DESIGN VERTICAL CIRCULATION CONFIGURATION FUNCTION OF SERVICE CORE SERVICE CORE TYPES & PLACEMENT ELEVATOR DESIGN & CONFIGURATION SERVICE-CORE LAYOUT & SPACE REQUIREMENTS .

VERTICAL CIRCULATION CORES = SERVICE CORES = RISERS CONTAINS: ELEVATOR SHAFTS ELEVATOR LOBBIES MAIN & ESCAPE STAIRWAYS RISER-DUCTS OF TOILETS OTHER SERVICE ROOMS ELEVATORS = MAIN VERTICAL CIRCULATION SYSTEM BENEFITS OF A PERIPHERAL CORE POSITION: NO FIRE-FIGHTING PRESSURIZATION DUCT IS NEEDED GOOD VIEW OUT NATURAL VENTILATION NATURAL SUNLIGHT A SAFER BUILDING IN THE EVENT OF TOTAL POWER FAILURE SOLAR-BUFFERS & ENERGY SAVINGS .

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V E R T I C A L TRANSPORT R T VERTICAL T R A N S P O ‡ ELEVATORS ‡ ESCALATORS ‡ STAIRCASE other means of transport‡ MOVING SIDEWALK ‡ SKYWALKS ( interconnecting buildings) .

LOAD CAR INSIDE ELEVATOR SHAFT ENTRANC E MACHINE ROOM Perso ns 6 8 8 10 13 16 20 Kg.5 M/S SPEED OVER HEAD ROOM HEIGHT= 4800 MM FOR 1 M/S AND 1. . A B C D E K L M 408 544 544 680 884 1088 1360 1100 1300 1430 1350 2000 2000 2000 1000 1100 1000 1300 1100 1300 1550 1800 1800 1900 1850 2500 2500 2500 1680 1780 1680 2000 1850 2025 2325 800 800 800 800 900 1000 1000 2800 2800 2900 2850 3500 3500 3500 3675 3675 3675 4000 3850 4000 4250 2700 2700 2700 2700 2700 2700 2700 PIT DEPTH= 1600 MM FOR 1 M/S AND 1.5 M/S SPEED NOTE: THE ELEVATOR SHAFT DIMENSIONS ARE FOR CENTRE OPENING AUTOMATIC DOORS ALL DIMENSIONS IN MM. ELEVATOR SHAFT DIMENSIONS ARE MINIMUM FINISHED DIMENSIONS.

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MUST BE AT LEAST THE SAME AS THE DEPTH OF THE LIFT CAR ITSELF. SHOULD BE AT LEAST THE SAME AS THE DEPTH OF THE DEEPEST LIFT CAR.L O DESIGN LOBBY B B Y D E S I GN ‡ FOR LOBBY IN FRONT OF A SINGLE LIFT 1. . 3. 2. MEASURED IN THE DIRECTION OF THE LIFT CAR DEPTH. THE AVAILABLE MINIMUM DEPTH BETWEEN THE WALL OF THE LIFE SHAFT DOOR AND THE OPPOSITE WALL. FOR A LOBBY IN FRONT OF LIFTS WITH ADJACENT DOORS THE AVAILABLE MINIMUM DEPTH BETWEEN THE SHAFT DOOR WALL AND THE OPPOSITE WALL. MEASURED IN THE DIRECTION OF THE LIFT CAR. THE MINIMUM AREA AVAILABLE SHOULD BE AT LEAST THE SAME AS THE PRODUCT OF THE DEPTH OF THE LIFT CAR DEPTH AND THE WIDTH OF SHAFT.

over nine floors. In buildings of four to eight floors. a service elevator is virtually required.DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR ELEVATORS 1. the ratio of the number of floors to the number of elevators should be two to one or two and a half to one. depending on the occupancy of the building. One elevator is required for every 45. the more dense the population. 3. The number of elevators in a single group should not exceed eight and no single group should serve more than 16 levels.000 net usable square feet. a separate service elevator should be considered. 2. the more elevators needed. .

2m. 2. And maximum height of riser shall be 15cm. .NORMS FOR STAIRCASE FROM DCR 1. 3. Minimum width of each step of an internal staircase shall be 150cm. The minimum unobstructed headroom in a passage under the landing of a staircase and under the staircase shall be 2. Interior staircase shall be constructed as a self contained unit with at least one side adjacent to an external wall and shall be completely enclosed. 4. And shall be limited to 12 per flight. 5. Handrails shall be provided with a minimum height of 90cm from the centre if the tread. 6. The minimum width of tread without nosing shall be 30cm. A staircases shall not be arranged round a lift shaft unless the latter is entirely enclosed by a material of fire resistance rating as that for type of construction itself.

E S CALAT O R S .

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. ANGLE OF 27-28 DEGREE SHOULD BE PROVIDED FROM THE POINT OF VIEW OF SAFETY. ‡ AT PUBLIC BUILDINGS.ANGLE OF ESCALATOR ‡ ESCALATORS AT DEPARTMENTAL STORES RISES AT AN ANGLE BETWEEN 30-35 DEGREE. ESCALATOR.732X STOREY HEIGHT WITH 35 DEG. FUNCTION AND DESIGN. ‡ LENGTH OF ESCALATOR IN PLANWITH 30 DEG. ‡ ESCALATOR AT AN ANGLE OF 35 DEGREE IS ECONOMICAL BUT 30 DEGREE IS PREFERRED ON BOTH SAFETY AND PSYCHOLOGICAL GROUND.1.428X STOREY HEIGHT. ESCALATOR.1.

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A AUTOO W A L K S U T WALKWAYS .

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SKY WALK .

BUT WE CAN ENSURE THAT AT LEAST THE BUILDING WILL CONTRIBUTE TO OCCUPANT SAFETY . WE CAN T PREVENT PEOPLE FROM BEING CARELESS WITH FIRE.FI RE SAF ETY AS BUILDING DESIGNERS.

Fire escape stairway shall be directly connected with public or common areas on all floors and shall lead to the ground. 5.FIRE SAFETY REQUIREMENTS 1. with 20 cm treads and risers not more than 19 am. of risers shall be limited to 16 per flight. 3. 2. Every high rise shall be provided with a fire escape stairway. . Atleast one side of the stairway shall be an external wall either with large openings or with break open glass to facilitate rescue operations during an emergency. the no. 7. 6. The height of handrails shall be not less than 100 cm and not more than 120 cm. The use of spiral staircase as external fire escape stairway shall be limited to buildings with height not exceeding 10 metres. A spiral fire escape stairway shall not be less than 150 cm in diameter and shall be designed so as to give adequate headroom. External fire escape staircase shall have a straight flight not less than 75 cm wide. 4.

automatic sprinklers
ASSISTS IN LIMITING THE SPREAD OF FIRE AND SMOKE IN THE INITIAL STAGES ITSELF. - IN BASEMENTS USED AS CAR PARKS. IF THE AREA EXCEEDS 500 SQ. M - IN MULTI-STOREYED BASEMENTS USED AS CAR PARKS, AND FOR HOUSING ESSENTIAL SERVICES ANCILLARY TO A PARTICULAR OCCUPANCY - ANY ROOM OR OTHER COMPARTMENT OF BUILDING EXCEEDING 500 SQ. M - DEPARTMENTAL STORES OR SHPOS THAT EXCEED 750 SQ. M - ALL NON- DOMESTIC FLOORS OF MIXED OCCUPANCY CONSIDERED TO CONSTITUTE A HAZARD

IN NAGPUR «
BUILDINGS ABOVE 15M SHALL BE PROTECTED BY WET RISER, WET RISER CUM DOWN COMER, AUTOMATIC SPRINKLER INSTALLATION, HIGH PRESSURE WATER SPRAY OF FOAM GENERATING SYSTEM ETC.

STATIC WATER STORAGE TANK : A SATISFACTORY SUPPLY OF WATER FOR FIRE FIGHTING SHOULD BE AVAILABLE IN THE FORM OF UNDER GROUND STATIC STORAGE TANK WITH CAPACITY SPECIFIED FOR EACH BUILDING WITH ARRANGEMENTS OF REPLENISHMENT BY MAIN OR ALTERNATIVE SOURCE OF SUPPLY @ 1000L/M

TO PREVENT STAGNATION OF WATER IN THE STATIC WATER STORAGE TANK, THE SUCTION TANK OF THE DOMESTIC WATER SUPPLY SHALL BE FED ONLY THROUGH AN OVERFLOW ARRANGEMENT TO MAINTAIN THE LEVEL THEREIN AT THE MINIMUM SPECIFIED CAPACITY.

TYPES OF FIRE STAIRS

.EMERGENCY STRAIGHT STAIRCASE THE BUILDING CODES REQUIREMENTS REGARDING FIRE ESCAPE STAIRS. THE FIRE OR EMERGENCY STAIRS ARE BUILT WITH MATERIALS WHICH ARE ADAPTABLE TO BOTH INDOOR AND OUTDOOR FACILITIES.

.. THE COUNTERWEIGHT IS PUT INSIDE THESE STRINGERS.HALF-TURNFIRE-ESCAPE THE LOWER FLIGHT HAS TWO PROLONGED STRINGER SIDES WHICH PROJECT OVER THE ROTATION POINT. THANKS TO THE COUNTERWEIGHTS. THE FLIGHT IS IN EQUILIBRIUM AT ITS ROTATION POINT. .

SPIRAL FIRE-ESCAPE IN METAL CRESCENT STAIRS .

ON RELEASE. (4) THESLIDING LADDER CAN BE COMBINED WITH A SAFETY CAGE ON THE TOP PART OF THE LADDER. .SLIDING ATTIC STAIRCASE THE SLIDING LADDER IS COUNTERBALANCED BY COUNTERWEIGHTS IN A POST PARALLEL TO THE LADDER UPRIGHT. (5) THE MAXIMUM CLEARANCE HEIGHT IS 3 M. REMOUNTING THE LADDER AFTERWARDS REQUIRES A VERY LIMITED FORCE (1) FROM ABOVE (EVACUATION / BURGLAR PROOF INSTALLATION) (2) FROM BELOW (ACCESS) (3) FROM THE SIDE WITH 3/4 SAFETY CAGE (EVACUATION OR ACCESS ON MULTIPLE LEVELS). THE LADDER DESCENDS SOFTLY.

LOOKS LIKE A DRAINAGE PIPE DEPLOYS INSTANTLY FROM ANY NUMBER OF EVACUATION LEVELS BURGLAR PROOF DEPENDABLE NAD RELIABLE OPTIONAL FIXED LINE FOR SECURE ACCESS .RETRACTABLE LADDERS THE UNOBSTRUCTIVE. RELIABLE. BURGLAR PROOF SOLUTION FOR EVACUATION AND ACCESS UNOBSTRUCTIVE.

COUNTER BALANCED LOWER SLIDING LADDERS THE SLIDING LADDER IS COUNTER BALANCED BY COUNTER WEIGHTS IN A POST PARALLEL TO THE LADDER UPRIGHT THE SLIDING LADDER CAN BE COMBINED WITH A SAFETY CAGE ON THE TOP PART OF THE LADDER. . THE MAXIMUM CLEARANCE HEIGHT IS 3 M.

The duct shall be sealed at every alternative floor with noncombustible materials having the same fire resistance as that of the duct. 2. The doors provided for the service room shall have fire resistance of not less than two hours .electrical services 1. An independent and well ventilated service room shall be provided on the ground floor with direct access from outside or from the corridor for the purpose of termination of electric supply cable. gas pipes or any other service line shall not be laid in the duct for electric cables. telephone lines. intercom lines. 3.Water mains. 4.The electric distribution cables / wiring shall be laid in separate duct. The inspection panel doors and any other opening in the shaft shall be provided with air tight fire doors having the fire resistance of not less than two hours.

.transformer ‡ If the transformer is housed in the building below the ground level. The room should be at the periphery of the basement . It should not be on upper floors. it shall be necessarily in the first basement in separate fire resisting room of four hours rating. with steel door entrance.

Air ducts serving main floor areas. corridors shall not pass through the staircase enclosure . lift lobbies should not be used as return air passages. common corridors.AIR CONDITIONING Escape routes like staircases.

cm for each 900 sq.cm or 6. ‡ A permanent vent shall be provided at the top of the service shaft of cross sectional area not less than 460 sq.cm of the area of the shaft. Doors for inspection or access shall also have fire resistance of not less than two hours.25 sq.SERVICE DUCTS ‡ Service ducts and shafts for electrical conduits. cables etc. . The floor within the duct shall be pierced for any service pipe or ventilation trunk and shall fit as closely as possible around any such pipe or trunk. whichever is more. ‡ Refuse if the cross sectional area exceeds 1 sq. shall be enclosed by walls having a fire resistance of not less than two hours.m it shall be sealed where it passes a floor by carrying the duct through the floor. All such ducts /shafts shall be properly sealed and fire stopped at all floors levels.

REFUSE CHUTES AND REFUSE CHAMBERS Hoppers to refuse chutes shall be situated in well ventilated positions and the chutes shall be continued upwards with an outlet above roof level and with an enclosure wall of non-combustible material with fire resistance not less than two hours. Inspection panel and hopper (charging station) opening shall be fitted with tight fitting metal doors. air-conditioning shafts etc. Refuse chutes shall not be provided in staircase walls. They shall be located at a safe distance from exit routes . The hoppers shall not be located within the staircase enclosure. Refuse-chambers shall have walls and floors or roofs constructed of noncombustible and impervious material and shall have a fire resistance of not less than two hours. covers having a fire resistance of not less than one hour.

MAITREYI TUSHAR MRUNALI ARVIND KASTURI NAINA T H A N K Y O U .