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A PRESENTATION ON

Presented To: PowerpointProf. T. S. Shibin Templates

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Population: Aggregate of all the elements that share some common set of characteristics. Census: Complete population. involvement of elements of a

Sample: Subgroup of the population selected for the participation in the study.

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Budget Time available Population size Variance in characteristics Cost of sampling errors Cost of nonsampling errors Nature of measurement Attention to individual cases

Small Short Large Small Low High Destructive Yes

Large Long Small Large High Low Nondestructive No

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Define the Target Population
Determine the Sampling Frame Select a Sampling Technique Determine the Sample Size Execute the Sampling Process

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Target population is the collection of elements or objects that possess the information sought by the researcher. Defining the target population involves translating the problem definition into a precise statement of who should and should not be included in the sample. Target population should be defined in terms of Elements, Sampling units, Extent and Time.

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Sampling frame is a representation of the elements of the target population. It consists of a list or set of directions for identifying the target population. e.g. Telephone directory, Yellow pages, Customer list etc. Sampling frame error.

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Bayesian Approach: Elements are selected sequentially and it incorporates prior information about population parameters, costs and probabilities associated with making wrong decisions. Traditional Approach: Most commonly used. Sampling with replacement: After obtaining data from the element, it is placed back in the sampling frame, so it has chance of getting selected again. Sampling without replacement: After collecting data from element, it is removed from the sampling frame and hence it cannot be selected again. Probability or Nonprobability sampling.
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Sample Size: Number of elements to be included in the study.

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It requires a detailed specification of how the sampling design decisions with respect to the population, sampling frame, sampling unit, sampling technique and sample size are to be implemented.

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Sampling methods

Probability samples

onprobability samples

Systematic

Stratified

Convenience

Snowball

Cluster

Simple Judgement random Powerpoint Templates

Quota Page 13

Disadvantages of Nonprobability Samples
1. Sampling error cannot be computed 2. Representativeness of the sample is not known 3. Results cannot be projected to the population.

Advantages of Nonprobability Samples
1. Cost less than probability 2. Can be conducted more quickly 3. Produces samples that are reasonably representative
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Convenience sampling attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements. Often, respondents are selected because they happen to be in the right place at the right time. Use of students, organizations. Olympic Convenience. and members of social

³People on the street´ interviews.

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A 1 2 3 4 5

B 6 7 8 9 10

C 11 12 13 14 15

D

E 21 22 23 24 25

16 17 18 19 20

Group D happens to assemble at a convenient time and place. So all the elements in this Group are selected. The resulting sample consists of elements 16, 17, 18, 19 and 20. Note, no elements are selected from group A, B, C and E.
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Judgmental sampling is a form of convenience sampling in which the population elements are selected based on the judgment of the researcher. Purchase engineers selected in industrial marketing research. Expert witnesses used in court. Department store study in Metropolitan.

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A 1 2 3 4 5

B 6 7 8 9 10

C 11 12 13 14 15

D 16 17 18 19 20

E 21 22 23 24 25

The researcher considers groups B, C and E to be typical and convenient. Within each of these groups one or two elements are selected based on typicality and convenience. The resulting sample consists of elements 8, 10, 11, 13, and 24. Note, no elements are selected from groups A and D.
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uota sampling may be viewed as two-stage restricted judgmental sampling. The first stage consists of developing control categories, or quotas, of population elements. In the second stage, sample elements are selected based on convenience or judgment.
Population composition Control Characteristic Sex Male Female Percentage Sample composition Percentage Number 480 520 ____ 1000

48 48 52 52 ____ ____ 100 Powerpoint Templates 100

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A 1 2 3 4 5

B 6 7 8 9 10

C 11 12 13 14 15

D 16 17 18 19 20

E 21 22 23 24 25

A quota of one element from each group, A to E, is imposed. Within each group, one element is selected based on judgment or convenience. The resulting sample consists of elements 3, 6, 13, 20 and 22. Note, one element is selected from each column or group.
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In snowball sampling, an initial group of respondents is selected, usually at random. After being interviewed, these respondents are asked to identify others who belong to the target population of interest. Subsequent respondents are selected based on the referrals.

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A 1 2 3 4 5

B 6 7 8 9 10

C 11 12 13 14 15

D 16 17 18 19 20

E 21 22 23 24 25

Elements 2 and 9 are selected randomly from groups A and B. Element 2 refers elements 12 and 13. Element 9 refers element 18. The resulting sample consists of elements 2, 9, 12, 13, and 18. Note, there are no element from group E.

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Each elements in population has a known and probability of selection.

equal

Each possible sample of a given size (n) has a known and equal probability of being the sample actually selected. This implies that every element is selected independently of every other element. Sampling Frame or lottery system.
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Limitations:
Difficult to construct sampling frame. Results in large geographical areas- data collection is costly. Lower precision with highest standard error. May not result in representative sample.

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A 1 2 3 4 5

B 6 7 8 9 10

C 11 12 13 14 15

D 16 17 18 19 20

E 21 22 23 24 25

Select five random numbers from 1 to 25. The resulting sample consists of population elements 3, 7, 9, 16, and 24. Note, there is no element from Group C.

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Sample is chosen by selecting a random starting point then every ith element is selected. Sampling interval is selected by N/n. When the ordering of the elements is related to the characteristic of interest, systematic sampling increases the representativeness of the sample. If the ordering of the elements produces a cyclical pattern, systematic sampling may decrease the representativeness of the sample. Powerpoint Templates
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A 1 2 3 4 5

B 6 7 8 9 10

C 11 12 13 14 15

D 16 17 18 19 20

E 21 22 23 24 25

Select a random number between 1 to 5, say 2. The resulting sample consists of population 2, (2+5=) 7, (2+5x2=) 12, (2+5x3=)17, and (2+5x4=) 22. Note, all the elements are selected from a single row.

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Two step process in which population is partitioned in to sub population or strata. Strata will be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. Samples or elements are selected from each stratum. Objective of stratified sampling is to increase precision without increasing cost.

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The variables used in partition the population in to strata is known as stratification variables. The criteria for selecting variables heterogeneity, relatedness and cost. are homogeneity,

Elements within strata should be homogeneous but in strata should be heterogeneous as possible. The stratification variables should also be costly.

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In proportionate stratified sampling, the size of the sample drawn from each stratum is proportionate to the relative size of that stratum in the total population. In disproportionate stratified sampling, the size of the sample from each stratum is proportionate to the relative size of that stratum and to the standard deviation of the distribution of the characteristic of interest among all the elements in that stratum. Both are identical if characteristics of interest has same standard deviation within each stratum.
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A 1 2 3 4 5

B 6 7 8 9 10

C 11 12 13 14 15

D 16 17 18 19 20

E 21 22 23 24 25

Randomly select a number from 1 to 5 for each stratum, A to E. The resulting sample consists of population elements 4, 7, 13, 19 and 21. Note, one element is selected from each column.

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The target population is first divided into mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive subpopulations, or clusters. Then a random sample of clusters is selected, based on a probability sampling technique such as Simple Random Sampling. For each selected cluster, either all the elements are included in the sample or a sample of elements is drawn probabilistically.

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Elements within a cluster should be as heterogeneous as possible, but clusters themselves should be as homogeneous as possible. Ideally, each cluster should be a small-scale representation of the population. In probability proportionate to size sampling, the clusters are sampled with probability proportional to size and the probability of selecting a sampling unit in a selected cluster varies inversely with the size of the cluster.

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A 1 2 3 4 5

B 6 7 8 9 10

C 11 12 13 14 15

D 16 17 18 19 20

E 21 22 23 24 25

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Sequential Sampling: A probability sampling technique in which the population elements are sampled sequentially, data collection and analysis are done at each stage, and a decision is made as to whether additional population elements should be sampled. Double Sampling: A sampling technique in which certain population elements are sampled twice.

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Factors

Conditions Favoring the Use of Non probability Probability sampling sampling Exploratory Conclusive Sampling errors are larger Heterogeneous (high) Favorable Unfavorable
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Nature of research

Relative magnitude of Nonsampling errors sampling and are larger nonsampling errors Variability in the Homogeneous (low) population Statistical considerations Unfavorable Operational Favorable Powerpoint Templates considerations

Nonprobability Sampling: Projection to population not needed. Probability Sampling: Projection to population required.

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Internet Sampling

Online Intercept Sampling

Recruited Online Sampling

Other Techniques

Non Random

Random Panel Non Panel

Recruited Panels

Opt in Opt in list Panels Rentals Powerpoint Templates

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Advantages of Internet sampling:
Target respondents can complete the survey at their convenience. Data collection is inexpensive. The interview can be administered under software control. The survey can be completed quickly.

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Disadvantages of Internet Interviewing
Users of the internet are not representative of the general population. No comprehensive and reliable source of email addresses exists.
EXAMPLE-

Customer evaluation Online purchase evaluation Student course evaluation
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Ethics of the Sponsor
Overt and covert purposes Dishonesty in dealing with suppliers Misuse of research information

Ethics of the Supplier
Violating client confidentiality Improper execution of research

Abuse of Respondents
Falsifying answers
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