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In science, the ability to do work Energy = force x distance Measured in Joules 1J = 1N x 1m 1 kJ = 1000J

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Kinetic contraction of muscle fibres Chemical energy stored in food Heat energy lost to surroundings Sound vibrations of vocal cords Light energy trapped by photosynthesis Electrical impulses transmitted along a neurone

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Energy is transferred from one form to another Energy is never created or destroyed (the law of conservation of energy) All chemicals contain energy within their bonds This energy is transferred during a chemical reaction

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C2H5OH + 3O2 2CO2 +3H2O Products contain less energy than reactants 1400kJ per mole released as heat Exergonic reaction releases energy Exothermic reaction releases heat Many metabolic processes are Endergonic and need energy to drive them, e.g. protein synthesis Respiration releases energy for processes which require it.

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Combustion reactions release energy as heat Too much heat would damage cells Intermediate source of chemical energy. ATP Adenosine triphosphate Phosphorylated nucleotide Has universal role of immediate energy source in cells Cannot be transported or stored Must be made continuously .


ATP + H2O ADP + Pi Hydrolysis releases 30.6 kJ per mole A metabolically active cell may require up to 2 million ATP molecules every second .

ƒ ƒ ATP Animation Formation of ATP .

protein synthesis .ciliary action .formation of polysaccharides .spindle movement in cell division .muscle contraction .1) Anabolic processes (building macromolecules from components) .DNA replication 2) Movement .

3) Active transport (movement of molecules against the concentration gradient) .formation of vesicles 5) Activation of chemicals chemicals(making chemicals more reactive) .ion pumps 4) Secretion .phosphorylation of glucose at start of glycolysis .

ƒ ƒ ƒ A series of reactions in a cell Product of one reaction is substrate for next Each reaction catalysed by a specific enzyme A enzyme 1 B enzyme 2 C enzyme 3 D enzyme 4 E ƒ ƒ Enzymes often arranged close to one another bound to membranes in cells MultiMulti-enzyme complex .

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Direct conversion may require a large amount of energy Intermediates may be useful products or form the start of other metabolic pathways Final products may act as inhibitors feedback or end product inhibition Allosteric inhibitor .

break down of large molecules into smaller ones . simple molecules into larger ones .involve build up of small.release energy .Anabolic reactions .require energy input .protein synthesis and photosynthesis Catabolic Reactions .hydrolysis of starch .

g.g. catalase has organic haem group CoCo-enzymes small non protein organic molecules which binds temporarily with enzymes when it forms E-S complex and acts as a carrier e. salivary amylase and Cl.ions Prosthetic groups non protein organic co-factors permanently attached to an enzyme e. NAD (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) .Inorganic ions combine with enzyme or substrate making E-S complex form more easily e.g.

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Works with dehydrogenase enzymes which catalyse removal of hydrogen Accepts H atoms and passes to another carrier In cell exists as NAD+ Carries hydrogen as NADH and a proton 2H 2H+ + eNADH + H+ NAD+ + 2H+ +2e- .


Oxidation Addition of oxygen Removal of hydrogen Removal of electrons Reduction Removal of oxygen Addition of hydrogen Addition of electrons .

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Four stages 1) Glycolysis 6C glucose 2 x 3C pyruvate 2) Links Reaction 3C pyruvate 2C acetyl CoA 3) Kreb s Cycle 2C acetyl CoA CO2 4) Electron Transport Chain Most ATP made here .


ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Sugar splitting Takes place in cytosol Glucose is phosphorylated (requires ATP) Phosphorylated glucose split into 2 triose phosphate molecules Triose phosphate loses phosphate group to ADP making ATP Triose oxidised by losing H atoms to co-enzyme NAD .


ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Pyruvate (pyruvic acid) formed ATP produced Reduced NAD made (NADH + H+) 2ATP used for phosphorylation 4 ATP made during glycolysis Net gain of 2ATP Reduced NAD passes into electron transport chain and can generate 6ATP per glucose Glycolysis .


If oxygen available pyruvate enters matrix of mitochondria ƒ Each pyruvate is decarboxylated and loses C as CO2 ƒ 2C fragment = acetyl group ƒ Picked up by coenzyme A ƒ Oxidised by NAD 2C +CoA + NAD+ acetyl CoA + CO2 + NADH + H+ ƒ Acetyl Co A enters Kreb s cycle ƒ .




Matrix mixture of enzymes for ATP production. ions. folds on inner surface which increase surface area for ATP production. tRNA and DNA. mitochondrial ribosomes. O2 and H2O. Cristae.ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Rod shaped structure with double membrane Outer membrane .permeable to nutrient molecules. . ADP and ATP due to presence of porins Inner membrane site of electron transport chain and permeable only to CO2.

catalysed by dehydrogenase enzymes ƒ Hydrogen taken up by acceptor molecules NAD and FAD (flavinadenine dinucleotide) ƒ ƒ .Tricarboxylic acid or citric acid cycle Involves 2 types of reaction Decarboxylation ƒ Catalysed by decarboxylase enzymes ƒ Involves removal of C atoms from intermediates and formation of CO2 Dehydrogenation ƒ Oxidation of intermediate followed by removal of H atoms.

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ 2C Acetyl CoA combines with a 4C compound to form a 6C compound 6C compound undergoes a series of reactions eventually losing 2C to regenerate the 4C compound The C atoms are lost as CO2 The 6C compound is oxidised by removal of H atoms H atoms pass to hydrogen acceptor molecules 3 molecules of reduced NAD and 1 molecule of reduced FAD (FADH2) 1 ATP synthesised .


C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O The story so far: ƒ Glucose has been used up in glycolysis ƒ CO2 was produced in the Link Reaction and Kreb s cycle ƒ But we have not yet seen the use of O2 or production of water ƒ These happen in the electron transport chain (ETC) .

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Electrons from NADH or FADH2 are passed through a chain of carrier molecules At the end of the chain molecular oxygen is reduced to water Electron transport is coupled to the formation of ATP from ADP and Pi The 2 processes occur simultaneously Electron carriers are large protein complexes on the inner membranes of mitochondria arranged in order of electron affinity flavoproteins. quinones and cytochromes .

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Start of chain NADH + H+ NAD+ + 2H+ + 2eElectrons are passed from carrier to carrier down the chain At the end of the chain molecular oxygen accepts electrons and protons produced from oxidation of NADH at the start 1/2O2 + 2H+ + 2eH2O This takes places at the final electron carrier cytochrome oxidase .

As protons re-enter ATP synthases use their energy to make ATP from ADP and Pi. Mitchell s chemiosmotic theory Oxidative phosphorylation .ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ As electrons pass along the chain they lose energy This energy is used to pump protons through the inner mitochondrial membrane setting up a concentration gradient gradient.


Source of ATP How Many Molecules? Glycolysis 2 2 x NADH + H+ (glycolysis) 6 (or 4) 2 x ATP in Kreb s 2 2 x NADH + H+ (Link) 6 6 x NADH + H= (Kreb s) 18 2 x FADH2 (Kreb s) 4 Total 38 (or 36) ƒ Overview of Respiration .

6 = 1162.8/2870 x 100 = 40% efficiency .ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Car engine 20% efficient Complete combustion of o2 releases 2870 kJ 38 moles ATP = 38 x 30.8 kJ 1162.

ATP produced CO2 formed 6C into 3C Mitochondria NAD reduced to NADH + H+ ƒ ETC animation and quiz .

.g muscles during continuous exercise Different processes in yeast and mammals.g bacteria in stagnant water e.ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Used by organisms in O2 deficient environments or to maintain supplies of ATP when temporarily deprived of O2 e.

ƒ Single celled fungus found on surface of fruits C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 Glycolysis takes place as normal 2ATP 2ADP + Pi ƒ Glucose NAD NADH + H + 2 x pyruvate .

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Pyruvate is then decarboxylated forming CO2 and ethanal Ethanal is reduced to ethanol by NADH + H+ Regeneration of NAD+ enables glycolysis to continue Only 2 ATP produced as NADH + H+ doesn t enter mitochondria for oxidative phosphorylation .

During vigorous exercise not enough O2 for anaerobic respiration ƒ Pyruvate is converted to lactate CH3COCOO.+ NADH + H+ CH3CHOHCOO. ƒ After exercise oxidised in liver to pyruvate then respired aerobically to CO2 and H2O ƒ .+NAD+ ƒ Lactate is 3C compound ƒ No decarboxylation ƒ CO2 not produced ƒ Build up causes muscle fatigue.

ƒ Oxygen needed to fully oxidise the lactate produced during anaerobic repiration .


g. starch/glycogen into glucose Fructose/galactose chemically modified to enter glycolysis Lipids/proteins also oxidised to yield energy Substrate Carbohydrate Lipid Protein Energy (kJ/g) 17 39 23 .ƒ ƒ ƒ Hydrolysis of polymers e.

phosphate an intermediate in glycolysis Produces 19 ATP per molecule .ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ When energy demands are great or carbohydrates in short supply triglycerides stored in fatty tissue are respired Hydrolysed to glycerol and fatty acids Glycerol (3C) converted to triose sugar dihydroxyacetone phosphate which is converted to glyceraldehdye 3.

ƒ ƒ ƒ Fatty acids are oxidised and fed into Kreb s cycle as Acetyl Co A Energy yield depends on length of hydrocarbon chains Up to 150 ATP per molecule .

ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Only respired in cases of severe starvation Hydrolysed to amino acids Amino acids deaminated Amino group converted to urea and excreted Carbon backbone fed into glycolysis or Kreb s cycle directly or after modification .


RQ = Volume of CO2 produced Volume of O2 used C6H12O6 + 6O2 RQ = 6/6 = 1 6CO2 + 6H2O (as one mole of any gas occupies the same volume) .

18CO2 + 18H2O + ATP .Respiration of stearic acid C18H36O2 + 26O2 Calculate the RQ value.

0 Organisms rarely respire just one type of substrate Can be calculated by measuring volume CO2 produced and volume O2 used over period of time using a respirometer .9 Carbohydrates 1.7 Proteins 0.ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ ƒ Lipids 0.8/0.



ƒ ƒ Questions 1 Questions 2 .