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• The national flag of Japan, officially called Nisshōki (日章旗),
is a white rectangular flag with a stylized sun as a red disk
in the center

• According to tradition, the Sun Goddess Amaterasu founded
Japan about 2700 years ago. Sun Goddess Amaterasu is also
believed to be the ancestor of Jimmu, the first emperor of
Japan. Emperor Mommu used a sun flag in his court in 701.
So, Sun symbolizes Japan and its Emperor.
• Red Sun Disk represents sun goddess 'Amaterasu', founder of Japan
and ancestor of its emperors. It symbolizes bright future for Japan

• White represents honesty, integrity, and purity of Japanese people

• The Rising Sun Flag is a white field with a sun disc with 16 red rays in
a Siemens star formation. On May 15, 1870, it was adopted as the war
flag of the Imperial Japanese Army. The flag with 16 rays is today the
ensign of the Maritime Self-Defense Force while the Ground Self-
Defense Force uses an 8-ray version.
Jomon period (10,000–300BC)

• Named after the cord-markings (jomon) on the pottery they

• The inhabitants of Japan lived by fishing, hunting, and

• Wheel-made pottery and wet rice cultivation arrive from
China and Korea.
Kofun Period (ca. AD 300-710)

• Unification of Japan under Yamato Court. Period of Chinese

• Manufactured articles, weapons, and agricultural tools were
introduced from China and Korea.
Nara Period (710-794)
• Introduction of Buddhism from China, became the national
• Imperial Court established at Nara.
• Poetry called Man'yoshu was celebrated
• Provincial temples called kokubunji were set up throughout
• The Todaiji temple in Nara was built.
Heian Period (794-1185)
• Imperial Court moves to Heian-kyo (Kyoto)

• The Chinese-style culture that had dominated

• The Fujiwara family, gained control of the government,
ruling on behalf of the emperor
Kamakura Period (1185-1333)

• Yoritomo Minamoto becomes first shogun.

• This time samurai started to emerged
Muromachi Period (1333-1568)

• Sengoku period - a period of "warring states."

• In time the shogunate weakened, losing its centralized control
over local warlords

• The pursuits of tea ceremony and flower arrangement were born.

• The shoin-zukuri style, with elegant tatami-matted rooms,
featuring an alcove where paintings were hung.
Azuchi-Momoyama Period
• Arrival of Portuguese explorers and Jesuit missionaries.

• This new style reached its height in Nobunaga's Azuchi
Castle and Hideyoshi's Momoyama and Osaka castles.

• Sen no Rikyu developed the tea ceremony into an esthetic
discipline that is known as the Way of Tea.
Edo Period (1600-1868)

• Isolation of Japan from rest of world begins.

• Chikamatsu Monzaemon portrayed tragic relationships
between men and women in his puppet plays, and Matsuo
Basho raised the comic haiku verse form to the level of a
literary art.
Meiji Period (1868-1912)

• Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War.

• The emperor Meiji was moved from Kyoto to Tokyo which
became the new capital
Taisho Period (1912-1926)

• The second Sino-Japanese War broke out.

• The political power shifted from the oligarchic clique (genro)
to the parliament and the democratic parties.

• Japan joins Axis powers in World War II.

• Japan bombs Pearl Harbor.
Showa Period (1926-1989)

• Atom bombs are dropped on Hiroshima (6 August) and Nagasaki
(9 August); Japan surrenders.

• Emperor Showa finally decided to surrender unconditionally.

• Tokyo hosts the Olympic Games: a turning point in its economy,
marking Japan’s re-entry into the international community.
Heisei Period
(1989 to present)
• Rapid growth and industrialisation make Japan the world’s second-
richest nation.

• Kobe earthquake.

• Death cult Aum Shinrikyo unleash sarin gas in the Tokyo subway

• A powerful earthquake and tsunami devastates the Pacific coast north
of Tokyo, damaging the Fukushima nuclear power station.

• Mount Fuji is added to the list of Unesco World Heritage sites.
• Healthy international demand for Japanese goods sent the
manufacturing PMI to multi-year highs, and boosted capital

• Robust economic activity is increasing job creation, with the
unemployment rate hitting a 25-year low in November.

• Japan, along with another 10 countries, agreed on 23 January to
sign a new version of the Trans-Pacific Partnership trade deal
• Japan’s stellar growth trajectory could, however, be clouded
by a disorderly slowdown in China, higher trade barriers and
an appreciation of the JPY due to mounting geopolitical
• Strong policy making
• Famous for being efficient
• Strong place in automobile industry
• Gave world many business management best practices
• Popularity of animation, comic, and game industry
• 10th world’s largest population = 127 million people
• 3rd largest economy

• Frequent natural disasters

• Aging population

• High public debt

• High production costs and prices

• 2016 = $605B

• 4th largest exporter in the world

• Increased its annualized rate of 3.01%, from $605B to $847B
in 2016
Top export products

• Cars ($90.3B)

• Unspecified products ($36.1B)

• Vehicle parts ($31.3B)

• Integrated circuits ($18.8B)

• Passenger and Cargo Ships ($12.2B)
Trading Partners

• United States ($103B)

• China ($113B)

• South Korea ($46.2B)

• Hong Kong ($33.6B)

• Thailand ($27.4B)
• 2016 = $583B

• 5th largest importer in the world

• Decreased its annualized rate of -3.042%, from $786B in
2011 to $583B in 2016
Top import products
• Crude petroleum ($50.8B)

• Petroleum gas ($34.3B)

• Packaged medicaments ($17B)

• Computers ($15.5B)

• Coal briquettes ($15.2B)
Trading Partners

• China ($129B)

• United States ($63.2B)

• South Korea ($24.4B)

• Germany ($20.7B)

• Australia ($18.9B)
Social and
Cultural Aspect
• Buddhism, along with Shinto, has had a large impact on Japanese culture

• Temples and monuments of the religion still dot Japans landscape, and
Buddhist Rites of Passage are still practiced in some parts of the country

• Although there are a wide variety of different belief systems in Japan,
Shintoism and Buddhism are two of the most predominant in the nation

• One of the most prominent and protruding sacred sites in Japan would have
to be that of Mount Fuji, located on Honshu Island. Mount Fuji is specifically
unique as it shares religious significance to both Buddhists and Shintoists
• Sushi is a very popular dish that is served all throughout
Asia. Although it is said to have originated in China, sushi is
a staple for Japanese cuisine, and is one of the most widely
consumed meals in the nation.
• Rice wine, more commonly known as sake, is another staple
in the Japanese dining experience. Produced using
fermented rice, this beverage is highly popular and is
consumed both hot and cold.
• Japan greatly differs from Western culture in how it goes about consuming food.

• Restaurants and homes have tables that are low to the ground, with individuals

sitting on small cushions instead of traditional chairs

• When serving alcoholic drinks, it is generally polite to serve others before

yourself. It is respectful to refill others drinking glasses if they are empty

• Silverware is typically absent on Japanese tables. Instead, individuals use


• Also, many of the behaviors that are appropriate in the West are considered

disrespectful in Japan
• There are typically 2 types of clothing which the Japanese
wear. While the traditional ethnic garments of Japan like
kimons are still in use, they are mainly worn for ceremonies
ad special events like funerals and festivals. More recently,
western clothing is worn often in day-today life. While the
westernization of fashions has continued at a rapid pace, the
kimono lives on in Japanese culture.
• Be on time

• Pay attention to hierarchy

• Treat business cards (meishi) with care and always be
sure to have enough

• Express gratitude and apologize

• Learn about gift-giving (omiyage) rituals
• Try to do or say something Japanese; the effort goes a long

• Remember that the group is more important than the

• Summarize key points in writing and use visual

• Be well-groomed and on the formal, conservative side with

• Don’t say “sayonara” with a Japanese customer or Japanese
business customer

• Don’t directly challenge a senior person, especially in front of others.

• Don’t outwardly express negative (angry, frustrated, etc.) emotions.

• Don’t refer to a Japanese person by first name unless instructed to
do so. Use last name + ‘san’ (but never use ‘san’ for yourself)
• Don’t decline an invitation to socialize.

• Don’t self-aggrandize; modesty is a virtue.

• Don’t pour your own drink.

• Don’t engage in direct confrontation or aggressive tactics.

• Don’t pass food with chopsticks or stick chopsticks in your

• Don’t make excuses.
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