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**Motor Arus Terus
**

1. Konsep penukaran kuasa elektrik kepada kuasa

mekanikal

2. Prinsip kendalian motor a.t.

3. Tindak balas angkir, menukar arah putaran

motor dan daya gerak elektrik balikan

4. Motor jenis siri, pirau dan gabungan

5. Perbandingan ciri-ciri motor a.t.

6. Persamaan voltan motor a.t.

7. Daya kilas angkir dan daya kilas aci

8. Mengawal kelajuan motor a.t.

9. Pengaturan kelajuan

10.Kehilangan dan kecekapan

11.Penghidup motor a.t.

12.Kegunaan motor a.t.

Introduction

Electromagnetic Energy Conversion:

**1. When armature conductors move in a magnetic field produced
**

by the current in stator field winding, voltage is induced in the

armature conductors.

2. When current carrying armature conductors are placed in a

magnetic field produced by the current in stator field winding,

the armature conductors experience a mechanical force.

**These two effects occur simultaneously in a DC machine
**

whenever energy conversion takes place from electrical to

mechanical or vice versa.

Flemming left hand rule .

which will distort the original magnetic field from the machine’s field poles. This current flow will produce a magnetic field of its own. a current will flow in its armature windings. . This distortion of the magnetic flux in a machine as the load is increased is called the armature reaction. If a load is connected to the terminals of the dc machine.

This can be achieved either by changing the terminals of the armature or the terminals of the field winding . we have to reverse the direction of force. And the direction of the force exerted on the armature winding depends on the direction of flux and the direction of armature current. Reversal of Direction of Rotation: The direction of the magnetic flux in the air gap depends on the direction of the field current. Thus in order to reverse the direction of dc motor.

.

the stator poles are supplied by dc excitation current. The interaction of the magnetic field and rotor current generates a force that drives the motor . which produces a dc magnetic field. The rotor is supplied by dc current through the brushes. commutator and coils. In a dc motor.

.

The armature circuit (the entire rotor structure) is represented by an ideal voltage source EA and a resistor RA. The resistor Radj represents an external variable resistor (sometimes lumped together with the field coil resistance) used to control the amount of current in the field circuit. The field coils producing the magnetic flux are represented by inductor LF and resistor RF. A battery Vbrush in the opposite to a current flow in the machine direction indicates brush voltage drop. .

DC Motor Equivalent Circuit. The armature is represented by an ideal voltage source EA and a resistor RA. are represented by inductor LF and RF. which produce the magnetic flux. The brush voltage drop is represented by a small battery Vbrush opposing the direction of the current flow in the machine. . The field coils. The separate resistor Radj represents an external variable resistor used to control the amount of current in the field circuit. Equivalent Circuit of a DC Motor.

Also. the brush drop voltage may be left out or approximately included in the value of RA. the internal resistance of the filed coils is sometimes lumped together with the variable resistor. and the total is called RF . Therefore. The brush drop voltage is often only a very tiny fraction of the generated voltage in the motor. in cases where it is not critical. . A Simplified Equivalent Circuit eliminating the Brush Voltage Drop and Combining Radj with the Field Resistance . Figure below.

The Equivalent Circuit of Separately Excited dc Motor. From the above figure. Separately excited DC motor: a field circuit is supplied from a separate constant voltage power source. VF IF VT E A I A RA RF IL IA .Motor types: Separately Excited DC motors.

Motor types: Shunt DC motors. Shunt DC motor: a field circuit gets its power from the armature terminals of the motor. From the above figure. VF IF RF VT E A I A RA IL IA IF . The Equivalent Circuit of a Shunt dc Motor.

Disadvantages: 1. these motors can be considerable smaller. Since permanent magnets produces weaker flux densities then externally supported shunt fields.Motor types: The permanent-magnet DC motor A permanent magnet DC (PMDC) motor is a motor whose poles are made out of permanent magnets. there are no field circuit copper losses. . such motors have lower induced torque. Advantages: 1. Since no external field circuit is needed. 2. 2. Since no field windings are needed. There is always a risk of demagnetization from extensive heating or from armature reaction effects (via armature mmf).

Therefore: VT E A I A RA RS .A series DC motor is a DC motor whose field windings consists of a relatively few turns connected in series with armature circuit.

A compounded DC motor is a motor with both a shunt and a series field. Long- shunt If current flows into the connectio dotted ends of both coils. If current flows into the dotted end of one coil and out of the dotted Short- end of another coil. Current flowing into a dotted end of a coil (shunt or series) produces a positive mmf. n . the resulting shunt mmfs subtract – differential connectio compounding. n the resulting mmfs add to produce a larger total mmf – cumulative compounding.

85.2 I A IL IF IF ) RF (5.1 ) The currents in a compounded DC motor are VT (5.5 ) NF NF Number of turns .85.The Kirchhoff’s voltage law equation for a compounded DC motor is VT E A I A RA RS (5.85.85.85.4 ) Differentially compounded The effective shunt field current in a compounded DC motor: N SE FAR I IF * F IA (5.3 ) Cumulatively compounded The mmf of a compounded DC motor: Fnet FF FSE FAR (5.

T k AI A T = torque of armature (N- m) kA = geometry constant = flux/pole (Wb) IA = armature current (A) .

pN pN kA (rad / s ). =2 for wave winding) . k A ' (rpm) 2M 60 M p = number of field poles N = number of active conductors on armature M = number of parallel paths in armature winding (=p for lap winding.

P EI A T P=power (W) – not counting losses E = EMF induced in armature (back EMF) IA = armature current (A) T = torque of armature (N-m) = speed of rotation (rad/s) Note that Pin = VLIL which will be higher than P because of loss in the field and armature windings as well as rotational (friction) losses. .

E k A k n ' A n 60 2 E = EMF induced in armature (V) kA = geometry constant = flux/pole (Wb) = speed of rotation (rad/s) n = speed of rotation of armature (rpm) .

RA + + E VT - - VT E I A RA VT = voltage at motor terminals E = EMF induced in armature (V) IA = armature current (A) RA = armature resistance .

VT I A R A n k A' (applies to shunt connected motor only) Note that can also be written as kfIf where kf is /If (normally a constant ratio) Ratio Equation n2 E 2 n1 E1 .

Speed Differential Compound Shunt Cumulative Compound Series Torque .

not all electrical power is converted to mechanical power by a motor and not all mechanical power is converted to electrical power by a generator… The efficiency of a DC machine is: Pout x100% Pin or Pin Ploss x100% Pin .Unfortunately.

. Electrical or copper losses – the resistive losses in the armature and field windings of the machine. Armature loss: PA I A2 RA Field loss: PF I RF 2 F Where IA and IF are armature and field currents and RA and RF are armature and field (winding) resistances usually measured at normal operating temperature.There are five categories of losses occurring in DC machines. 1.

2. Brush (drop) losses – the power lost across the contact potential at the brushes of the machine. PBD VBD I A Where IA is the armature current and VBD is the brush voltage drop. Other losses are exactly the same as in AC machines… . The voltage drop across the set of brushes is approximately constant over a large range of armature currents and it is usually assumed to be about 2 V.

For many machines. stray losses are assumed as 1% of full load.3. 4. Mechanical losses – losses associated with mechanical effects: friction (friction of the bearings) and windage (friction between the moving parts of the machine and the air inside the casing). 5.5 (speed of rotation of the magnetic field). Core losses – hysteresis losses and eddy current losses. They vary as B2 (square of flux density) and as n1. These losses vary as the cube of rotation speed n3. Stray (Miscellaneous) losses – losses that cannot be classified in any of the previous categories. They are usually due to inaccuracies in modeling. .

and the electrical and brush losses must be subtracted. On of the most convenient technique to account for power losses in a machine is the power-flow diagram. The remaining power is ideally converted from electrical to mechanical form at the point labeled as Pconv. For a DC motor: Electrical power is input to the machine. .

and the remaining mechanical power is output to the load. mechanical losses. and core losses are subtracted. .The electrical power that is converted is Pconv E A I A And the resulting mechanical power is Pconv indm After the power is converted to mechanical form. the stray losses.

field winding current is 1.8 A0. Armature resistance is 0. E K A 746W P 3hp E 102V 2.0 A from the supply at full load. It takes 25.75.24kW KA pN 6960 153 T 33. 3.5 N m 66.9rad / s hp K A 153 10 x10 3 I A I L I F 25 A 1.A 6 pole.8 A 60 n 638rpm 2 E VT I A RA 120V 23.0 mWb.0 hp 120V DC lap-wound shunt motor has 960 conductors in the armature. flux/pole=10.75 102V P 2.20A.9rad / s 2M 2 6 . Find the speed and torque.2 A 23.24kW 66.

115V Dc series motor takes 40A at its full load speed of 1800rpm.02530 A 22.46kW T 39.46kW T K AKF I A 2 hp T 39. What is the torque at 30A? 2n 2 1800 T K AI A K A K F I F I A 188rad / s 60 60 IF I A 746W P 10hp 7.6 N m Tnew K A K F I Anew 0.025 P T IA 2 40 A 2 P 7.6 N m K AKF 0.A 10hp.2 N m 2 2 188rad / s .

5 A 9.0 N m 188rad / s E VT I A RA 220V 9.5 A RF 440 2n 2 1800 188rad / s 60 60 I A I L I F 10 A 0.5 A 2.2 and field winding resistance is 440.5 A0.A 220V DC shunt motor draws 10A at 1800rpm. The armature resistance is 0.2 218V P EI A 218V 9.07kW .5 A P 2. (a) What is the torque? VT 220V IF 0.07kW T 11.

16 E VT I A RA 220V 17.8 A K A E 218V 1.16 2 (shunt is constant speed) .3 A n 1.30.79 x103 rpm K A 1.5 A 17.A 220V DC shunt motor draws 10A at 1800rpm.2 and field winding resistance is 440.3A 0. The armature resistance is 0. (b) What will be the speed and line current at a torque of 20 N- m (if field current is constant)? E K A I L I A I F 17.2 217V 188rad / s E 217V 187rad / s T K AI A K A 1.16 T 20 N m 60 IA 17.

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