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# Second law of thermodynamics

## 1st law of thermodynamics, which requires that energy

be conserved during a process

## •It is a matter of everyday experience that there is a

definite direction for spontaneous processes

## •A process cannot take place unless it satisfies both

the first and second laws of thermodynamics.
Aspects of the Second Law

## •Determining the best theoretical performance of cycles,

engines, and other devices.

## •Evaluating quantitatively the factors that preclude the

attainment of the best theoretical performance level.
First Law places no restrictions on the direction of flow
of heat and work
-W +W
Example 1

-Q +Q
not possible to complete
possible
the cycle by + Q and +W

## not possible to complete

Q Q the cycle by heat transfer
only
Low Temperature
These two examples lead us to a consideration of
the heat engine and refrigerator (heat pump)

## Heat engine: A device (system) that operates in a cycle

and performs net positive work and net positive heat
transfer. Most important for power cycles.

## Refrigerator/Heat Pump: A device (system) that

operates in a cycle and has heat transferred to it from a
low temperature body and heat transferred from it to a
high temperature body (though work is required to do
this). Most important for refrigeration cycles.
A simple heat engine
Thermal Energy Reservoir
Body of Infinite heat capacity to which or from which
heat can be transferred indefinitely without change
in the temperature

## Source: A reservoir that supplies

energy in the form of heat is
called a source

## Sink: A reservoir that absorbs

energy in the form of heat is
called a sink
A heat engine (steam power plant) involving

QH
Boiler
1
4
WP WT
Pump Turbine

2
3
Condenser

QL
Performance of Heat Engine

  Q   W TH
Qnet  QH  QL  QH
 WT  WP   Wnet Wnet
HE
Wnet
Efficiency , H .E  QL
QH
QH  QL TL

QH
QL Schematic diagram of
1 Heat engine
QH
A Simple Refrigerator/ Heat Pump

QH
Condenser
2
3
WE Expansion
WC
Compressor
device

4 1

Evaporator

QL
Performance of Refrigerator/Heat Pump

Coefficient of Performance
TH
QH
QL QL Wnet
C .O.PRef .   REF
Wnet QH  QL
QH QH QL
C .O.PHeat Pump  
Wnet QH  QL TL

Schematic diagram of
Refrigerator/ Heat Pump
Kelvin–Planck Statement of the Second Law

## It is impossible to construct a device that will operate in

a cycle and produce no effect other than the raising of a
weight and the exchange of heat with a single reservoir.

TH
Wnet
QH Efficiency , H .E 
QH
Wnet
HE  100% not possible
QL=0
TL Impossible
Clausius Statement of the Second Law
It is impossible to construct a device that operates in a
cycle and produces no effect other than the transfer of
heat from a cooler body to a hotter body.

TH
QL
C .O.PRef . 
QH Wnet
Wnet=0 C .O.PRef .   not possible
REF
QL
Impossible
TL
The equivalence of the Clausius and Kelvin–Planck
statements

## • Atfirst sight Clausius and Kelvin–Planck statements may

appear to be unconnected, but it can easily be shown that they
are virtually two parallel statements of the 2nd law and are
equivalent in all respect.

## •The equivalence of the Clausius and Kelvin–Planck statements

can be demonstrated by showing that the violation of each
statement implies the violation of the other. That a violation of
the Clausius statement implies a violation of the Kelvin–Planck
statement or vice versa