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pressure : normal component of force per unit area.

 Fnormal 
p  lim/  
A A
 A 
The pressure P at a point in a fluid in equilibrium is the
same in all directions.
1 Pa  1 N / m2
1 kPa  103 N / m2
1 bar  105 N / m2
1 MPa  106 N / m2
1 bar  100 kPa  0.1MPa
1 kgf/cm2 =??bar =0.9807bar
1 psi=lbf/in2
Absolute, gage (gauge), and vacuum pressures


Pvacuum =Patm-Pabs
Pressure Measurement

Bourdon Gage (French engineer and inventor Eugene Bourdon (1808–1884))
•When fluid under pressure fills the tube,
the elliptical section tends to become
circular, and the tube straightens. This
motion is transmitted by the mechanism
to the pointer. By calibrating the deflection
of the pointer for known pressures, a
graduated scale can be determined from
which any applied pressure can be read in
suitable units.
•Bourdon tube measures the pressure
relative to the pressure of the
surroundings existing at the instrument.
• Accordingly, the dial reads zero when the
inside and outside of the tube are at the
same pressure.
Pressure Transducers
Piezoelectric transducers: An
important class of sensors utilize
the piezoelectric effect: A charge is
generated within certain solid
materials (crystalline substance)
when they are deformed.

Strain-gage pressure transducers:

Another important type of sensor
employs a diaphragm that deflects
when a force is applied, altering an
inductance, resistance, or
Fig. shows a tank within a tank, each containing air. The absolute
pressure in tank A is 267.7 kPa. Pressure gage A is located inside tank
B and reads 140 kPa. The U tube manometer connected to tank B
contains mercury. Using data on the diagram, determine the
absolute pressure inside tank B, in kPa, and the column length L , in


Two cylinders are connected by a piston, as shown in Fig. Cylinder
A is used as a hydraulic lift and pumped up to 500 kPa. The piston
mass is 25 kg, and there is standard gravity. What is the gas
pressure in cylinder B?

Force Balance:

AA=0.00785m2; AB=0.000491m2

A 5-kg piston in a cylinder with diameter of 100 mm is loaded with a
linear spring and the outside atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa, as
shown in Fig. The spring exerts no force on the piston when it is at
the bottom of the cylinder, and for the state shown, the pressure is
400 kPa with volume 0.4 L. The valve is opened to let some air in,
causing the piston to rise 2 cm. Find the new pressure.

Force Balance:

P= P0+ (mpg/Ap)+ k(x-x0)/Ap + Fext/Ap

P=A+B(V-V0) if Fext=0

Where, A= P0+ (mpg/Ap); B=k/A2p