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-It is usually named Minoan civilization after a legendary king named
Minos. -As early as 2600 BC, people in Crete were working with bronze and gold and developing a system of writing. -They built magnificent palaces which housed royal families, priests and govt. officials. -The palace was like a small city with 800 rooms. It painted with lively seen of athletes and fanciful animals and scenes from daily life. -The artisans made and decorated fine pottery, bronze daggers, tools and other objects. -The Minoan were seafaring traders, exporting wine, honey, and olive oil to Egypt, Asia Minor, Syria and Greece. -The Minoan Civilization began to decline about 1450 BC because of earthquake or volcanic eruption. The Greeks invaded Crete soon after. The palace at Knossos was destroyed about 1400 BC either by the invaders or by another earthquake.
The Mycenaeans rule Crete and Mainland Greece
-The invaders of Crete were Greek-speaking Indo-European tribes
who had moved into the mountainous Greek peninsula about 1900 BC. -Warrior-kings ruled the cities built around their palace in Mycenae, Thebes, and other places in southern Greece. -Their civilization is usually called Mycenaean, after the palace at Mycenae. Archaeologist claimed Mycenae to be the richest and important town in Greece. -The Myceneaens borrowed much from the Minoan Civilization like their pottery and jewelry were decorated with designs in the Minoan style, and Myceneaen kings probably hired Minoan artisans. Their system of writing were much like the Minoans. -The Myceneans took over the Minoans¶ sea trade sending ships to Egypt, Phoenicia, Sicily and southern Italy.
Greece enters a Dark Age
-Frequent warfare among the kingdoms led to the decline of the
Myceneaen civilization after 1200 BC. Their palaces were destroyed and many Myceneaens moved to other areas. -With the collapse of this civilization about 1100 BC, Greece entered a dark age which lasted until about 800 BC. -War were common, and trade, farming and arts were disrupted. During the early parts of the dark age, a tribe of Greeks called Dorians moved into the southern part of the peninsula. Though the Dorians spoke Greek but they were illiterate and the art of writing was forgotten. There are few written records from this time.
Hellenic civilization develops
-By about 800 BC, the great age of Greek civilization began to take shape. It is called the Hellenic Age, from Hellas, the Greeks¶ name for their country.
-From their Myceneaen ancestors the Hellenic Greeks inherited skills such as pottery-making and metal-working. They followed some of the same religious practices and told many of the same myths and legends. -Most Greeks were farmers who grew wheat, barley, olive trees and grapevines. On the dry slopes of the mountainous land, they raised sheep and goats. -Greek artisans worked in small workshops with simple hand tools. They produced fine woolen textiles, pottery, and metal tools and weapons. -Because the coastline had excellent harbors, Greeks became fishermen and traders. They shipped wool, wine, olive oil, marble and pottery all over the Mediterranean. -In exchange, they imported goods from other lands: GRAIN=Egypt & Italy, FRUITS= Phoenicia & Sicily, COPPER=Cyprus, TIN=England, GLASS=Egypt, DYES=Phoenicia and IVORY=Africa
-Trade also brought new ideas such the Greeks adopted the Phoenician alphabet for writing their own language.
-They also learned Lydian practice of using coins and gained knowledge of geometry from the Egyptians.
Greeks were polytheistic meaning they worshipped many gods/deities which associated with myths and stories.
HERA, wife of Zeus and queen of the gods. She also the goddess of women and marriage. The cow, the pomegranate and peacock are sacred to her.
ZEUS, supreme god of Olympus and king of the Greek gods and goddesses, god of lightning. The eagle and the oak tree are sacred to him. He usually seen with a thunderbolt in his hands.
HADES, god of the Underworld and Lord of the Dead. Brother of Zeus. Husband of Persephone. Cerberus, three-headed dog, guards his domain. The cypress tree is sacred to him.
POSEIDON, god of the sea and storms. Brother of Zeus. Horses, bull, fishes and dolphins are sacred to him. He usually seen
holding a trident
ARES, god of war and bloodshed.
Patron god of Sparta and Thrace. Lover of Aphrodite. The vulture, dog, and boar are sacred to him. He is usually seen during battles fully-armored with sword and spear. He often accompanied by his two sons: Phobos (fear) and Deimos (Terror).
ATHENA, goddess of wisdom, warfare and crafts. Patron goddess of Athens. The owl and olive tree are sacred to her. She is usually seen fully-armored with a shield and spear. She is often called the grey-eyed goddess. She is one of the virgin goddesses.
ARTEMIS, goddess of the hunt, moon, wilderness, forest, wild animals, virginity and youth. Twin sister of Apollo. She is one of the virgin goddesses. Wild animals especially the stag and hunting dogs are sacred to her. She is usually seen with a bow and arrow.
APOLLO, god of the light or sun, healing, plagues, music, poetry, truth/prophecy, and knowledge. Twin brother of Artemis. He often called the beardless youth. The lyre, laurel tree, and the raven are sacred to him. He is usually seen with a bow and arrow.
HEPHAESTUS, god of fire, blacksmiths, volcanoes, technology and metals. Husband of Aphrodite. He is often called the limping god or lame god which made him ugly in appearance. The hammer, anvil and tongs are sacred to him. He is the one who forged the thunderbolts of Zeus together with the Cyclops.
APHRODITE, goddess of Love, beauty and sexual pleasure. Wife of Hephaestus. Lover of Ares. The dove, roses, sparrows, swan, girdle, mirror and myrtle are sacred to her. She is one of the major characters who triggered the Trojan War.
DIONYSUS, god of wine, vine, theatre ecstacy, revelry and fertility. The grapevine, Thyrsus, wine, panther, leopard and tiger are sacred to him. He often accompanied by satyrs and nymphs .
DEMETER, goddess of agriculture, harvest , fertility and earth. Mother of Persephone. The torch, lion, cornucopia and sheaves of wheat are sacred to her. She is often called the Mother Earth.
HERMES, messenger of the gods, god of commerce, thieves, travelers and sports. Talaria, caduceus, tortoise and rooster are sacred to him. He often led the dead souls to the Underworld.
HESTIA, goddess of hearth/home and fire. She is one of the virgin goddesses. The hearth, pig, donkey, kettle and crane are sacred to her. She sat on a plain wooden throne with a white woolen cushion and did not trouble to choose an emblem for herself.
City-states are independent communities
-The Hellenic period was the time of frequent warfare, and the Greeks built forts on hills or mountaintops for protection. -A city-state or polis often grew up around such as fort. The polis was the center of Greek community life. People gathered in the agora to conduct businesses and discuss politics. Shrines or temples usually were built on a hilltop along the fortress. -The µ¶ideal¶¶ size of the polis was a population of about 5,000 male citizens, were only people counted in official record. -The Greek city-states were small but the largest was Sparta covering about 3,200 sq. miles. Athens was the largest in population, had about 35,000 male citizens in the middle of the 5th century BC.
Sparta trains its men to be fearless warriors
-The polis of Sparta was settled by the Dorians who occupied the southern part of Greece, the Peloponesus. -In 8th century BC., Spartans conquered nearby regions and forced many people to work as laborers or helots, they worked for the polis on the farms. They outnumbered the Spartans so the Spartans lived in constant fear of a revolt and established a strong military govt. to maintain order.
-The Spartan aim was to produce strong-bodied, fearless people, both men and women. -Every stage of a Spartan¶s life was planned. Sickly babies were left to die. At age of 7, a Spartan boy moved into a military barracks and there he lived until he became a full-fledged citizen at age 30, toughening his body, learning discipline and training for war. -Spartan women were also trained in gymnastics and physical endurance. -Spartans were expected to marry but the family was regarded less important. The polis gave each family land and helots to farm it. -Women had responsibilities of managing their farms and households. -Men spent most of their time fighting or practicing military skills. They spent leisure time at the soldier¶s club. -After retiring at age 60, Spartan men served the govt. or military schools of the polis. -In all of Greece there were no braver warriors than the men trained in Sparta.
The Athenians value the development of many abilities.
-Athens became the commercial and cultural center of Greece. They were proud of their political freedom; boasted of their artists, playwrights, poets and thinkers.
The Athenians developed new ideas of government
-The people of Athens took the lead in the creation of DEMOCRACY.
The Athenians laws are written
-621 BC., Draco drew up the first written code of laws for Athens.
Solon makes political reforms
In 594 BC, He cancelled debts of the poor, freed those who have been enslaved in debt and made slavery for debt illegal. He appealed many of Draco¶s Law. He also improved the farmer¶s prosperity. He ordered all citizens to teach their sons a skill or trade and granted Athenian citizenship to artisans from other cities.
Pisistratus promotes cultural life
560 B.C, He gave more land to the farmers, granted them loans to grow more grapes and olives for trade. He improved the water supply and build temples & fountains. He encouraged sculptors & painters and sponsored drama festivals. He had Homer¶s epics collected and gave prizes for public readings of them. His promotion of the arts laid the foundation for Athens to become the cultural center of Greece.
Cleisthenes establishes more democratic practices
510 BC., He became head of a political party opposed to tyrant. He divided Athens into 10 areas called demes. 50 men from each demes served on an advisory council. All males could vote in the Assembly whether they own land or not. They practiced Ostracism, meaning votes were written in a broken pottery.
Alexander¶s conquest inspire new learning Alexandria is the center of Hellenistic culture Hellenistic scientists discover important principles
-Euclid, a mathematician that organized earlier knowledge of geometry into a logical system. -Erastosthenes, knew that the earth was round. Using geometry, he estimated its circumference with remarkable accuracy. He also correctly declared that the oceans of the earth were connected, and he made accurate maps of the world he knew. -Aristarchus, a mathematician and astronomer form the island of Samos, argued that the sun was the center of the universe. -Archimedes, discovered the principles of the lever and the pulley as well as the natural laws for calculating the weight of an object in water. He also invented the catapult.