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CONCRETE MASONRY

PREPARED BY :

MARY GRACE MANIPON


DESIGN MT

OCTOBER 23, 2017

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OBJECTIVES

1. TO LEARN SPECIFICATIONS AND CODES FOR


CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS

2. TO KNOW THE MANUFACTURING PROCESS OF


CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS

3. TO DETERMINE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CONCRETE


MASONRY UNITS

4. TO BE FAMILIRIZED WITH THE ARCHITECTURAL


CHARACTERISTICS OF CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS

REFERENCE MATERIAL
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HISTORY
• People have used concrete since ancient • This cast-iron machine constructed hollow
times, but the concrete block was not concrete blocks and made widespread
invented until the 1830s. production possible. Harmon Palmer obtained his
patent in 1900, and within 10 years, over a
• Widespread manufacture of concrete blocks thousand companies and individual contractors
began in the early 1900s. were making hollow concrete block.

• Since then, they have been used in residential


up to industrial projects.

• In 1868, the Frear Stone Manufacturing Co. of


Chicago began manufacturing G.A. Frear’s
patented concrete blocks with decorative trim,
less expensive than carved stone.

• This was the first commercial manufacture of


concrete block, and many of these blocks
survived the 1871 Chicago fire.

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REFERENCE: GULF Cement Industries Factory
CHAPTER 1: GENERAL INFORMATION ON CONCRETE
MASONRY UNITS
CONCRETE MASONRY UNITS (CMU) – “A block or brick cast of portland
cement and suitable aggregate, with or without admixtures, and
intended for laying up with other units as in normal stone masonry
construction.” Also, the units can be made to various dimensions,

CONCRETE BLOCK is usually large unit with hollow cores. Typical nominal
size: 8x8x16-in. (203x203x406-mm)

CONCRETE BRICK matches the size and scale of regular clay brick.
Typical size 4x3x9-in. (106x73x222-mm)

ADVANTAGES OF CMU:
• Provides effective barrier to sound and reduces internal temperature.

• It resists weathering.

• Durable and low maintenance

• Special architectural units require no costly additional architectural


treatments
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USES OF CMU:

• Fire Walls, Party Wall


• Partitions
• Backing For Brick, Stone,
Stucco, Exterior Insulation
• Veneer Or Non- Structural
Facing For Wood, Steel,
Concrete Or Masonry
• Fire Protection For Structural
Steel Members
• Fire Safe Enclosures Of
Stairwell
• Columns, Pilasters
• Bond Beam, Lintels, Sills
• Retaining Wall
• Chimney , Fire Place
• Catch Basin
• Paving, Turf Block

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SPECIFICATIONS AND CODES
• Masonry Standards Joint Committee Building Code
Requirements for Masonry Structures, (MSJC Code)
• Specification for Masonry Structures (MSJC Specification)
• International Building Code
• International Residential Code

GENERAL REQUIREMENTS GRADE SW / MW


• CMU are manufactured to conform to American Society GRADE N
for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

• Previous edition of ASTM classified CMU by grade and


type;
Grade: intended use GRADE S
• “Grade N” - greater in strength, lower absorption,
greater resistance to severe weathering, appropriate
for facing applications
• “Grade S” – moderate strength and resistance to
weathering
• “Grade SW” – severe weathering exposure
• “Grade MW” – moderate weathering exposure
Type: moisture content condition at time of delivery
• Type I – moisture controlled
• Type II – non-moisture controlled dmcihomes.com Feels Real Good To Be Home
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
STRENGTH AND ABSORPTION REQUIREMENTS
• Compressive strength is an
important property of
concrete masonry.

• High-strength Block – has


higher strength than
required by ASTM C90 and
not yet defined by national
specification

• The amount of water


absorption affects
construction, insulation,
acoustics, appearance,
porosity, painting.

• The absorption
characteristics of CMU
affect the quality of mortar
needed.

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MANUFACTURING PROCESS
• Concrete masonry units consist of mainly Portland
cement, graded aggregates and water AUTOCLAVING OR HIGH-PRESSURE STEAM CURING
(AAC Structures)
• May contain other ingredients (air-entraining
agents, coloring pigments, siliceous and
pozzolanic materials, and water repellents)

4 BASIC PROCESS
1. MIXING – Mixture carefully proportioned to
attain texture, color and other physical
properties
2. MOLDING – Machine Molding of dry, no
slump into desired shape subjected to
accelerated curing procedure. Machine
compacts the concrete by vibration and
pressure. (1,000 units / hr.)
3. CURING – Through low pressure (49-82 deg.
Celsius for 18 hrs.) or high pressure steam
curing
4. CUBING – For storage, CMU are placed in
small stacks or cubes consisting of layers with
15 to 18 units per layer.
• CMU are subjected to steam at 163 to 191 deg.
Celsius and .55 Mpa to 1.17 Mpa
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TYPES OF CMU
• Units are available in variety of weights, sizes, shapes,
and faces for architectural or structural function.
• Normal Weight Masonry Unit – derived from the
normal weight aggregates used such as sand,
gravel, and crushed stone. Structural masonry units
have normal weight. (density = more than 125 pcf /
2000 kg/m3)
• Light Weight Masonry Unit – derived from shale, clay,
slate, and sintered fly ash. ( density= 105 pcf / 1680
kg/m3 ) For non-load bearing conditions or as
veneers.

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Veener
TYPES OF CMU
• Hollow Units –the concrete cross sectional area in every plane
parallel to the bearing surface is less than 75% of the gross cross
sectional area measured in the same plane.

• Solid Units – units having net concrete cross sectional areas of


75% or more. They are used for special needs such as for
structures having higher than usual design stresses, load bearing
walls, increased fire protection, for catch basin, or manhole
construction.

• Modular Sizes of CMU – 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 in. (51, 102, 152, 203,


254, and 305 mm) with 10 mm mortar joint

• Core Types – Two core or three core. Some core designs include
a degree of flaring of the shape or web to give a broader base
for mortar bedding and for better gripping

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TYPES OF CMU
Shape Variations
• Corner Blocks – have one flush end for use in pilaster or exposed corner construction.
• Bullnose Blocks – have one or more small radius-rounded corner and used instead of square edged corner units
to minimize chipping
• Jamb or Sash Blocks – used to facilitate the installation of windows or other openings.
• Capping Blocks – have solid tops for use as bearing surface in walls
• Header Blocks – have a recess to receive the header unit in composite masonry wall.
• Return or corner-angle blocks – used in 6, 10, 12 in. thick walls at corner
• Solid cap or paving units – for capping units for parapet and garden walls
• Slump units – squeezed to give bulging effect and resemble handmade adobe.
• Split brick – used as veneering or facing material

Corner Blocks Bullnose Block Sash Block

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Capping Block Slump units
TYPES OF CMU
• Units made for construction of pilasters, columns and
chimneys.
• Units made for sewer manhole, catch basins, valve
vaults, and other underground structures.

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TYPES OF CMU
• Screen wall units

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PREFACING
• Prefaced masonry concrete masonry units are standard,
modular concrete blocks with permanent glazed facing on
one or more sides.

• Maybe lightweight or normal weight, load bearing or non-


load bearing

• Offer design opportunities – scale, color, pattern, and texture


for interior and exterior use.

• Smooth and satin finish

• Standard width of blocks (2-12 in.)

• The height and length of molded facing is (3mm) greater


than of modular concrete block. (Mortar joint will be 6mm)

• Ribbed, recessed, curved and angular faces

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SURFACE TEXTURE
• Surface texture of concrete may be varied to satisfy
aesthetic requirements.

• Degrees of smoothness can be achieved by making


changes in aggregate grading, mixture proportion, and
amount of compaction in molding.

• Textures are classified as open, tight, fine, medium and


coarse.

• Open texture – large voids between aggregates particle.

• Tight texture – spaces between aggregates are well filled


with cement paste; has few pores.

• Fine Texture – small, very closely spaced granular particles;


preferred for ease painting

• Medium – intermediate between fine and coarse

• Coarse – large grained and rough; desirable for good bond;


provide sound absorption

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COLOR
• The natural color of CMU from light to dark grey to tints of
buff, red, brown, depending upon the color of aggregate,
cement, and other mixture ingredients.

• The method of curing may affect the color.

• Colored surfaces are more vivid and darker when wet than
when dry.

• Use of colored mortar joint for laying concrete masonry

• Integrally colored CMU are manufactured by adding


mineral oxide pigments to the concrete before molding.

• Concrete brick, paving and patio block, screen block and


architectural concrete masonry units.

• Integrally colored CMU are tan, buff, red, brown pink, yellow,
black and grey.

• Keep CMU stored at jobsites covered and on pallets placed


in well drained locations.

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APPLICATION

PARAPET INTERIOR WALL ACCENT WALL


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APPLICATION

EXTERIOR PARTITION

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INTERIOR (COMMON TOILET) INTERIOR PARTITION
THANK YOU! 

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