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Faryal Farooq
Maria Muzaffar Janjua
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 Biological Theories
 Behavioral and Reinforcement
 Psychoanalytical

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• Cross dressing is a form of behavior and personality expre
ssion characterized by a desire to wear the clothing of the
opposite sex (Docter, 2012).
• The current literature on cross dressing suggests that most
cross dressers are heterosexual, though they are commonly
perceived as homosexual (Kerkhof, 2013).
• Contemporary cross dressing may be a new way for a pers
on to express different forms of identity (Harris, 2005).

• Cross-dressing has been practiced throughout m

uch of recorded history and in many societies.
• There is a rich history of cross-dressing found in
folklore, literature, theater, and music.

Muxe (Economic Hindu
shamanism Spain (theaters;
Kabuki (classical Jap Balkans (Earning prosperity, high Mythology (idol
(belief in a female cross
anese dance-drama) purposes) status; male cross gods; male to
supreme God and dressers)
dressers) female)
supreme mind)
Difference between Cross Dressers and
• Individual personality expression
• Do not command
• Alternates personalities
• Can exhibit single role fully
Categories of
Cross Dressers

The Drag The The

The fetishist
Queen transvestite transsexual
Theoretical Perspective
• No single theory explains all of crossdressing.
• It's good to consider many different theories, as each contains a kernel of trut
h (Herrmann, 2018).
• Nearly all studies of cross dressers are the reality that it is described only in
conditions of male cross-dressing.
• There is an investigative lack of writing on feminine cross-dressing (Bullou
gh, 1974).
• survey results majority of the cross dressing aptitude is develop in the early
childhood age (Hasan, Subhani & Osman, 2012).
Biological Perspective

• No evidence of genetic transmission of cross dressing

• Evidence of Familial links.
• Most traits are share with hetrosexual group of their o
wn sex rather than opposite sex (Zucker & Blanchard,
• Family History(Croughan et al., 1981)
With regard to any family history of cross dress
ing, one study of 70 cross dresser individuals fo
und that 1% of fathers and 2% of brothers enga
ged in cross dressing behavior (Croughan et al.,
1981). Given that this rate is slightly lower than
the base rate of cross dressers that has been repo
rted more recently (approximately 3%; Langstro
m & Zucker, 2005), these data do not support a
genetic transmission of cross dressing (Laws, 2
Behavioral and Reinforcement Theories

• Accident exposure to the clothing of opposi

te sex (Strzyzewsky & Zierhoffer, 1967).
• Exposure to the clothing of opposite sex is
positively reinforced by the psychologically
comforting properties of the clothing and lat
e by pleasurable sensations related with sex
ual arousal (Laws, 2008)

• Cross dressing behavior may be negativel

y reinforced when it is used as a means of
self-soothing or coping during times of dis
tress by alleviating negative emotional stat

Psychoanalytic Theory
• Castration anxiety
• The individuals with cross dressing behavior feel in
adequate in their own self and requires clothing of
opposite sex in order to feel satisfied (Bentler, 1976
• To some extent, psychoanalytical theory is compati
ble with contemporary theories, as reinforcement p
rinciples would explain how behaviors of cross dre
ssing be maintained as a response to castration or a
ny other type of anxiety (Apter, 2018)
Sociological & Cultural
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Sociological Perspective

• Both sexes should be equally treated

• Highlighted as an issue for males only
• Society does not understand the motivations lying behind
this type of behavior in the male, however, and relates it
to and identifies it with homosexuality
• expression of a 'personal identity'.
Labeling Perspective

 non-normative behavior.
 Role of Media, peers and work group
 Secret identity
• Birth to sub cultures
Role of Socialization

Grant (1960) discussed how a small

child aged two years was in love an
d crazy about female high-heels sho
es. Though in appearance the guy w
as 29 years old but he was known to
sometimes be dressed like a girl. Th
e important point to understand is th
e bringing up of a child. In this case,
the boy child was brought up by his
mom and maids and his father was r
are to him and not much around.
Culture is learned from the people Culture is also taught by the
you interact with as you are explanations people receive for
socialized. It derives from one’s the natural and human events
social environment, not from
around them.
one’s genes.


A subculture is a group of people

with a culture which differentiates Subcultures can be perceived as
them from the larger culture to negative-nature of criticism to the
dominant societal standard.
which they belong.

• Focus has been on sexual ambiguity in the

theater and entertainment.
• Lacks research on cross dressing regarding
everyday life.

• Apart from binary classification of gender in different cult

ures across the world there is existence of third gender wh
ose identity is confusing (e.g., cross-dressers)
• The act of cross-dressing is a challenge to the status,
disrupting the gender norms so central to cultural hierarch
• It is done behind closet for fear of being caught and ridic-
• Society is generally unsympathetic to issues such as gend-
er identity
Pakistani Culture

• Derived from umbrella term “hijra”

• They are all men
• Behave like women
• Attain female identity
• “Zananay”
• Taboo
• As Drags
• Secret Lives
A study (Fatima, 2013) in Pakistan was conducted
on Pseudo Male-To Female Gender Dysphoric. Wh
o were born with physically male appearance and r
aised as males but joined the hijra community later
for financial reasons. Study showed that the pseudo
gender dysphoric of Pakistan present themselves as
real gender dysphoric to meet their financial needs.
These pseudo gender dysphorics wear female clothi
ng, take female names and use female pronouns but
are practical in their identification that they are not
really women. They prefer their ambiguous status t
o being men. Most of them belong to poor families;
they join Hijra community for their livelihood wher
e they live, cross-dress, dance, sing and beg or beco
me sex workers.
This combination of two images taken a posing for a picture in Rawal
pindi, Pakistan. By day, Akram sells mobile phone accessories from a
n alleyway shop in an old neighborhood of this Pakistani city. But by
night, Akram stands before a mirror, shaving away his beard and picki
ng through mascara and rouge to become Rani, a female wedding part
y dancer
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto Junior
Afghan Bucha Posh
Indian Culture
• Hindu god Krishna, dressed in female attire to
pose as his consort, the goddess Radha, as an a
ct of devotion (Duthel, 2013).
• The male cross-dressing is divine play (Lila)
• In media cross dresssing involve disguise,
comfort, and most importantly to generate
Religious Perspective

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Religious Perspective

• In Islam, the term Mukhannathun is used

to describe gender-variant people, usually
male-to-female transsexuals.
• “Mukhannath” is the one ("male") who c
arries in his movements, in his appearanc
e and in his language the characteristics o
f a woman.
Quranic Verses for Women

• In Islam, the sex/ gender is recognized as male and fema

le only. Islam has defined the dress codes for both males
and females. In Quran it is mentio-ned;

• “O Prophet! Tell your wives and daughters and the wom

en of believers that they should cast their outer garments
over them (when abroad); this is more proper, that they s
hould be known (recognized as such) and not molested.
And, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful” (Holy Quran
, 33:59).
• “O Prophet! Say unto your wives, and your daughters
and the women of the believers that they let down upon th
em their ‘Jilbab’ (robe which covers head, face and should
ers); so that they may be distinguished, so that they will no
t be troubled; Allah is oft-forgiving the most Merciful” (H
oly Quran, 33:59).
• “And say unto the believing women that they cast down their gaze

and guard their private parts, and they display not their “Zinat” (adorn
ment) except what becomes apparent of it; and they draw their “Khum
ur” (head covers) over their “Juyub” (neck-slits); and they display not
their “Zinat” except to their husbands, or their fathers or the father of t
heir husbands, or their brothers, or their sons, or the sons of their husb
ands, or their brothers, or their brother’s sons, or their sister’s sons, or t
heir women or those whom their right hands possesses, or the male ser
vant void of sexual desires, or the children who have not yet attained t
he knowledge of women’s secrets (or nakedness), and they should not
strike their feet so that what they hide of their “Zinat” becomes know
n; and turn you all unto Allah, O you believers, so that you may be suc
cessful” (Holy Quran, 33:59).
• “O Women of the Prophet! You are not like any other
women, if you fear (Allah); so be not soft in your speech,
lest lusts after you he in whose heart is disease; and speak
a good speech; “And stay in your houses and display not
yourselves like the display of the Ignorance of Yore” (Hol
y Quran, 33:32-33).
Quranic Verses for Men

• “Say unto the believer men that they cas

t down their gaze and guard their private pa
rts; that is purer for them. Verily, Allah is
well aware of all that you do” (Holy Quran
, 33:55).
For Both Men and Women

• “O children of Adam, take your adornment

at every masjid, and eat and drink, but be n
ot excessive. Indeed, He likes not those wh
o commit excess” (Holy Quran, 7:31).
• “verily they were a people given to evil and were the
Faiqun (disobedient)” (21:74)

“And we (Allah) rained down on them a rain (of stones). And

see what was the end of the Mujrimun (sinners)” (7:84)

• Prohibited men from Silk, velvet or shiny

• Prohibited from wearing Gold accessories
• Strongly prohibited the castration and forb
ade abstaining from marrying
On the Occasion of Hajj

• The Prophet (S.A.W) said that when a pers

on is in Ihram.
• “He should not wear a shirt, nor a turban,
nor pants, nor a cloak. He should not wear
cloth that has been dyed with wors or saffr
on” (Sahih al-Bukhari 134, Sahih Muslim,

• Cross-dressing in Hinduism is allowed and most

of their God and Goddess such as Ram and Sita
were used to wear the clothes of multi-colors.

• In Deuteronomy 22:5 we read, "A woman shall not w

ear a man's garment, nor shall a man put on a woman's cl
oak, for whoever does these things is an abomination to th
e LORD your God." According to this, cross-dressing wa
s clearly prohibited. Scholars on Deuteronomy note that c
ross-dressing would have likely been associated with hom
osexuality or would have been considered associated with
the practices of other religious groups.