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Digestion in the Stomach

 Temporary storage of food


 Mixing of food with gastric juices
 Regulation of a slow, controlled emptying of
food into the intestine
 Secretion of the intrinsic factor for vitamin B 12.
 Destruction of most bacteria that were
inadvertently consumed.
CHYME
 the food mass as it has been mixed with gastric juices

GASTRIN
 hormone released by the stomach (continues)
3-1
(continued)

Stomach
 Gastric juices are digestive secretions of the
stomach
 Hydrochloric acid prepares the gastric area for
enzyme action.
 As the hydrochloric acid is released, a thick mucus is
also secreted to protect the stomach from this harsh acid.
 Pepsin breaks down proteins.
 In children, rennin breaks down milk proteins, and
gastric lipase breaks down the butterfat molecules
of milk.

3-2
Functions of the stomach
 Temporary storage of food
 Mixing of food with gastric juices
 Regulation of a slow, controlled emptying of
food into the intestine
 Secretion of the intrinsic factor for vitamin B12
 Destruction of most bacteria inadvertently
consumed

3-3
• You are preparing a teaching plan for the
nursing staff working on a gastrointestinal
floor.
• You plan to review the anatomy and
physiology of the stomach.

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• You are preparing a teaching plan for the
nursing staff working on a gastrointestinal
floor.
• You plan to review the anatomy and
physiology of the stomach.

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• Complete the following objectives to prepare
for your class:
 Identify the three parts of the stomach.
 Define chyme.
 Identify the condition that results from lack of the
intrinsic factor in the stomach.

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• Fundus: upper portion of the stomach
• Body of the stomach: middle area
• Pylorus: end of stomach near small intestines
• Chyme: semiliquid mass of food and gastric
juices
• Pernicious anemia: lack of intrinsic factor

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Small Intestine
 Hormones released
 Secretin causes pancreas to release sodium
bicarbonate to neutralize acidity of chyme.
 Cholecystokinin (CCK) triggers gallbladder
to release bile.
 Bile
 Emulsifies fat after it is secreted into small
intestine
 Produced in liver; stored in gallbladder

(continues)
3-8
(continued)

Small Intestine
 Enzymes are found in the pancreatic juice
that is secreted into small intestine:
 Pancreatic proteases (trypsin,
chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidases): split
proteins
 Pancreatic amylase: converts starches
(polysaccharides) to simple sugars
 Pancreatic lipase: reduces fats to fatty acids
and glycerol

(continues)
3-9
(continued)

Small Intestine
 Prepares foods for absorption
 Produces enzymes
 Lactase, maltase, sucrase convert lactose,
maltose, sucrose to simple sugars.
 Peptidases reduce proteins to amino acids.

3-10
• A client with a duodenal ulcer asks you where
the ulcer is located.
 How do you respond?

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• A client with a duodenal ulcer asks you where
the ulcer is located.
 How do you respond?

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• The small intestine is divided into three
sections.
• The duodenum is the first section of the small
intestine.
• The jejunum is the middle section and the
ileum is the last section.

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Large Intestine
 Colon walls secrete mucus to protect it
against acidic digestive juices in chyme.
 Major tasks of the large intestine:
 Absorb water
 Synthesize some B vitamins and vitamin K
 Collect food residue

3-14
• You are providing preoperative teaching to a
client who is going to have intestinal surgery.
• The client asks you to explain the structure of
the large intestine.
• How do you respond?

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Copyright © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
• You are providing preoperative teaching to a
client who is going to have intestinal surgery.
• The client asks you to explain the structure of
the large intestine.
• How do you respond?

3-20 3-16

Copyright © 2007 Thomson Delmar Learning, a division of Thomson Learning Inc. All rights reserved.
• The cecum (blind pocket), colon, and rectum
make up the large intestine. Contents travel
through:
 Ascending colon
 Transverse colon
 Descending colon
 Sigmoid colon
 Rectum
 Anal canal

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