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Pre-introduction

History of Computer

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Generations of Computer
There are five generations of computer and have begun about
fifty years ago.
Along, long time ago…
Acient Egypt invented the abacus to compute by sort-made of
wood, wire, and beads. In 1822, Charles Babbage (father of
computing) continued to work on the computing machine.
In 1924, Tabulating Machine Company (founded in 1896)
merged with two other companies to form the International
Business Machines Corporation (IBM) by Thomas J. Watson.

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Computer Generations
First Second Third Fourth
1940-1956 1956-1963 1964-1971 1971-Present

Vacuum Tubes Transistor Integrated Very Large Scale


Circuit(IC) Integration (VLSI)

Magnetic Drum Magnetic Core Silicon (Solid State) Silicon

Punched Card Magnetic Tape More Flexible I/O Greater Versatility of


Orientation Orientation Disk Orientation I/O Devices

Low-Level Symbolic High-Level Greater Use of High Special Program for


Language or Language Level Program Special Application-
Machine Language (Assembler, Cobol, Language Packages
Fortran…)

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Vacuum Tubes

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Transistor

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Integrated Circuit(IC)

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Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI)

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Magnetic Drum

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Magnetic Core

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Silicon (Solid State)

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Punched Card Orientation

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Magnetic Tape Orientation

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Chapter 1

Introduction to the Personal


Computer

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Chapter 1 Objectives
 Explain the IT industry Certification
 Describe a computer System
 Identify the names, purposes, and Characteristics of Cases and
power supplies
 Identify the names, purposes, and Characteristics of Internal
components
 Identify the names, purposes, and Characteristics of ports and
cables
 Identify the names, purposes, and Characteristics of Input and
Output Devices
 Explain system resources and their purposes

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Information Technology (IT)

Information technology (IT) is the design, development,


implementation, support, and management of computer
hardware and software applications.

An IT professional is knowledgeable about computer


systems and operating systems

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Identify education and certifications

Information Technology (IT) is a term that encompasses


the relationship between hardware, software, networks,
and technical assistance provided to users.

IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software covers the


information that a technician needs to be successful in IT.

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Describe the A+ certification

Computing Technology Industry Association (CompTIA)


developed the A+ Certification program.

CompTIA A+ certifications are known throughout the IT


community as one of the best ways to enter the
information technology field and build a solid career.

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Identify education and certifications (cont.)

The IT Essentials course focuses on two hardware and


software skills-based industry certifications: CompTIA A+
and EUCIP.

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Describe the A+ certification

An A+ Certification candidate must pass two exams. The


first exam is CompTIA A+ Essentials. The second
advanced exam depends on the type of certification
desired. Each advanced exam assesses specialized
skills in one of the following areas:
 IT Technician
 Remote Support Technician
 Depot Technician

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IT Technician

An Information Technology (IT) Technician is a person


who repairs and maintains computers and servers. The
technician's responsibilities may extend to include
building or configuring new hardware, installing and
updating software packages, and creating and
maintaining computer networks.
That technicians work in both mobile and corporate
technical environments

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Remote Technician

A remote technician will often work in a call center


environment where technicians resolve operating system
and connectivity issues over the telephone or Internet.

A remote support technician is also called a help-desk


technician, a call-center technician, a technical
specialist, or a technical representative.

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Depot Technician

The depot technician has limited interaction with the


customer and works primarily in a workshop or lab.
A depot technician is also called a bench technician.

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CompTIA A+ certification

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Describe the EUCIP certification
The EUCIP IT Administrator program offers a recognized certification
of competence in IT. The certification covers the standards
prescribed by the Council of European Professional Informatics
Societies (CEPIS). The EUCIP IT Administrator Certification
consists of five modules, with a corresponding exam for each
module.
• Module 1: Computer Hardware
• Module 2: Operating Systems
• Module 3: Local Area Network and Network Services
• Module 4: Expert Network Use
• Module 5: IT Security

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EUCIP certification

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Professional IT Certifications
 CCNA – Cisco Certified Networking Associate
 CCNP – Cisco Certified Networking Professional
 CCIE – Cisco Certified Internetworking Expert
 CISSP – Certified Information Systems Security Professional
 MCP – Microsoft Certified Professional
 MCSA – Microsoft Certified Systems Administrator
 MCSE – Microsoft Certified Systems Engineer
 Network+ – CompTIA Network Certification
 Linux+ – CompTIA Linux Certification

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Describe a computer system
A computer system consists of hardware and software
components.
Hardware is the physical equipment such as the case,
storage drives, keyboards, monitors, cables, speakers,
and printers.
Software includes the operating system and programs.
The operating system instructs the computer how to
operate. These operations may include identifying,
accessing, and processing information. Programs or
applications perform different functions.

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Computer Case

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Computer Case

Computer case is a metal box and provides protection


and support for the internal components of the computer.
Typically, it’s made of Plastic, steel and aluminum.

The size and layout of a case is called a form factor.

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Case Selection
Factor Rationale
Model Type The type of motherboard determines the type of case. Size and Shape
must match exactly
Size If a computer has many components, it will need more room for airflow to
keep the system cool
Available Desktop cases allow space conservation in tight areas because the
monitor can be placed on the top of the unit. The case design may limit
Space
the number and size of the components that can be added

Power Supply Match the power rating and connection type of the p0wer supply to the
type of motherboard chosen
Appearance There are many case designs to choose from if it is necessary to have a
case that is attractive
Status display LED indicators that are mounted on the front of the case can tell you if the
system is receiving power, when the hard drive is being used and the
computer is on standby or sleeping

Vents All cases have a vent on the power supply. Some cases have more vents
to dissipate an unusual amount of heat
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Power Supply

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Power Supply

 The power supply converts alternating-current(AC)


power coming form a wall outlet into direct-current(DC)
power, which is a lower voltage.
 DC power is required for all of the components inside
the computer.
 Cables, connectors and components are designed to fit
together snugly. Never force any connector or
component.

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Four Basic Units of Electricity
 Voltage(V) is a measure of the force required to push electrons
through a circuit. Voltage is measured in Volts.
 Current(I) is a measure of the amount of electrons going through a
circuit. Current is measured in amperes or amps(A). Computer
power supplies deliver different amperages for each output
voltage.
 Power(P) is voltage multiplied by current. The measurement is
called watts(W) . Computer power supplies are rated in watts.
 Resistance(R) is the opposition to the flow of current in a circuit.
Resistance is measured in ohms. Lower resistance allows more
current to flow through a circuit.

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Connectors from Power Supply
 A Molex connector is used to connect an optical drive or a hard
drive
 A Berg connector is used to connect to a floppy drive
 A 20-pin or 24-pin slotted connector is used to connect to a
motherboard
 A 4-pin to 8-pin auxiliary power connector is used to connect a
connector on the mother board to supplies power to all areas of the
motherboard
 A SATA Connector is used to connect a SATA hard drive
 Older standard power supplies used to two connectors called P8
and P9 used to connect the motherboard

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Molex connector

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Berg connector

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20-pin or 24-pin slotted connector

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4-pin to 8-pin auxiliary power connector

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SATA Power Connector

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P8 and P9 Connector

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Power Supply

CAUTION: Do not open


a power supply.
Electronic capacitors
located inside of a power
supply can hold a charge
for extended periods of
time.

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Computer Components

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Motherboard

The motherboard is the main printed circuit board and


contains the buses, or electrical pathways, found in a
computer. These buses allow data to travel between the
various components that comprise a computer. A
motherboard is also known as the system board, the
backplane, or the main board.
The motherboard accommodates the central processing
unit (CPU), RAM, expansion slots, heat sink/fan
assembly, BIOS chip, chip set, and the embedded
wires that interconnect the motherboard components.
Sockets, internal and external connectors, and
various ports are also placed on the motherboard.
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Chip Set
An important set of components on the motherboard is
the chip set. The chip set is composed of various
integrated circuits attached to the motherboard that
control how system hardware interacts with the CPU and
motherboard.
Most chip sets are divided into two distinct components,
Northbridge and Southbridge.
- Northbridge: controls access to the RAM, video card,
and the high speed devices at which the CPU can
communicate with them
- Southbridge: allows the CPU to communicate with the
hard drives, sound card, USB ports, and other I/O ports
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Motherboard Form Factor
The form factor of motherboards pertains to the size and shape of
the board. It also describes the physical layout of the different
components and devices on the motherboard. Various form factors
exist for motherboards.
Other Various form factors exist for motherboards:
• AT (Advanced Technology)
• ATX (Advanced Technology Extended) 
• Mini-ATX (Small Footprint of ATX)
• Micro-ATX (Small Footprint of ATX)
• LPX (Low-Profile Extended)
• NLX (New Low-Profile Extended)

Chapter 1
• BTX (Balanced Technology Extended) 
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Motherboard

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Motherboard

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Central Processing Unit (CPU)

The central processing unit (CPU) is considered the


brain of the computer. It is sometimes referred to as the
processor. Most calculations take place in the CPU. In
terms of computing power, the CPU is the most important
element of a computer system. CPUs come in different
form factors, each style requiring a particular slot or
socket on the motherboard. Common CPU
manufacturers include Intel and AMD.
The speed of current CPUs is measured in millions of
cycles per second, called megahertz (MHz), or billions of
cycles per second, called gigahertz (GHz).

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CPU

Most CPU sockets and processors in use today


are built around the pin grid array (PGA)
architecture, in which the pins on the underside
of the processor are inserted into the socket,
usually with zero insertion force (ZIF).

ZIF: refers to the amount of force needed to


install a CPU into the motherboard socket or slot.

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CPU

PGA Socket CPU

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CPU Architectures

There are two major CPU architectures related to


instruction sets
 Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) –
Architectures use a relatively small set of
instructions, and RISC chips are designed to
execute these instructions very rapidly.
 Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) –
Architectures use a broad set of instructions,
resulting in fewer steps per operation.
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Cooling System

 Case Fan

 A heat Sink

 Graphics-Processing Unit(GPU)
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CPU Technologies

 Overclocking
 MMX
 Single Core CPU
 Dual Core CPU
 Triple Core CPU
 Quad Core CPU
 Core i-3,i-5 and i-7
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Read-Only Memory(ROM)
Read-only memory (ROM) chips are located on the
motherboard. ROM chips contain instructions that can be
directly accessed by the CPU. Basic instructions for
booting the computer and loading the operating system
are stored in ROM.

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ROM Types
ROM ROM Types Description
Types
ROM Read-Only Information is written to a ROM chip when it is
Memory manufactured. A ROM chip cannot be erased or re-
written and can become obsolete
PROM Programmable Information is written to a PROM chip after it is
ROM manufactured. A PROM chip cannot be erased or re-
written
EPROM Erasable PROM Info. is written to an EPROM chip after it is manufactured.
An EPROM chip can be erased with exposure to UV
light. Special equipment is required
EEPROM Electrically Info. Is written to an EEPROM chip after it is
EPROM manufactured. EEPROM chips are also called Flash
ROMs. An EEPROM chip can be erased or re-written
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Random-Access Memory (RAM)

Random access memory (RAM) is the temporary


storage for data and programs that are being accessed
by the CPU. RAM is volatile memory, which means that
the contents are erased when the computer is powered
off. The more RAM in a computer, the more capacity the
computer has to hold and process large programs and
files, as well as enhance system performance.

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RAM Types

 DRAM (Dynamic Random Access Memory)


 SRAM (Static Random Access Memory)
 FPM Memory (Fast Page Mode DRAM)
 EDO Memory (Extended Data Out RAM)
 SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM)
 DDR SDRAM (Double Data Rate DRAM)
 DDR2 SDRAM (Double Data Rate 2 DRAM)
 RDRAM (RAMBus DRAM)

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Memory Modules
 Dual Inline Package (DIP) is an individual memory
chip. A DIP had dual rows of pin used to attach it to the
motherboard
 Single Inline Memory Module (SIMM) is a small circuit
board that holds several memory chips. SIMMs have
30-pin and 72-pin configuration
 Dual Inline Memory Module (DIMM) is a circuit board
that holds SDRAM, DDR SDRAM, and DDR2 SDRAM
chips. There are 168-pin SDRAM DIMMS, 184-pin DDR
DIMMS, and 240-pin DDR2 DIMMS
 RAM Bus Inline Memory Module (RIMM) is a circuit
board that holds RDRAM chips. A typical RIMM has a
184-pin configuration
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Cache

SRAM is used as cache memory to store the


most frequently used data. SRAM provides the
processor with faster access to the data than
retrieving it from the slower DRAM, or main
memory.

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Coach Memory

 L1 cache: is internal cache and it integrated


into CPU
 L2 cache: is external cache and was originally
mounted on the motherboard near the CPU. L2
cache is now integrated into the CPU
 L3 cache: is used to on some high-end
workstations and server CPUs

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Error Checking

Memory errors occur when the data is not stored


correctly in the RAM chips. The computer uses different
methods to detect and correct data errors in memory.
 Non Parity: do not check for errors in memory
 Parity: contains 8 bits for data and one bit for error
checking. The error-checking bit is called a parity bit
 ECC (Error Correction Code): can detect multiple bit
error bit errors in memory and correct single bit errors
in memory

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Adapter cards

Adapter cards increase the functionality of a computer


by adding controllers for specific devices or by replacing
malfunctioning ports.

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Examples of Adapter Cards
 NIC – Connects a computer to a network using a network cable
 Wireless NIC – Connects a computer to a network using radio
frequencies
 Sound adapter – Provides audio capability
 Video adapter – Provides graphic capability
 Modem adapter – Connects a computer to the Internet using a phone line
 SCSI adapter – Connects SCSI devices, such as hard drives or tape
drives, to a computer
 RAID adapter – Connects multiple hard drives to a computer to provide
redundancy and to improve performance
 USB port – Connects a computer to peripheral devices
 Parallel port – Connects a computer to peripheral devices
 Serial port – Connects a computer to peripheral devices
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NIC

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Wireless NIC

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Sound adapter

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Video adapter

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Modem adapter

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SCSI adapter

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RAID adapter

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USB port Adapter

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Parallel port Adapter

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Serial port Adapter

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Types of expansion slots

 ISA (Industry Standard Architecture)


 EISA (Extended Industry Standard Architecture)
 MCA (Micro Channel Architecture)
 PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect)
 AGP (Advanced Graphics Ports)
 PCI-Express

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ISA, PCI and AGP

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EISA

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MCA

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PCI, AGP and PCI Express

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Storage Drive

Storage Drive reads or writes information to magnetic or


optical storage media. The drive can be used to store
data permanently or to retrieve information from a media
disk. Storage drives can be installed inside the computer
case, such as a hard drive.

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Types of Storage Drives

 Floppy drive = 720 KB or 1.44 MB


 Hard drive
 Optical drive
–CD storage capacity = 700 MB
–DVD storage Capacity= 8.5 GB
–Blue-Ray Disk= 25 GB per layer

 Flash drive= thumb drive


 Network drive

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Storage Drives

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Types of Drive Interfaces
 IDE – Integrated Drive Electronics, Advanced
Technology Attachment (ATA) => 40-pin connector
 PATA(IDE/EIDE) – Enhanced Integrated Drive
Electronics => a 40-pin connector
 PATA (EIDE)– Parallel ATA => 80 pin connector
 SATA – Serial ATA => 7-pin connector
 SCSI – Small Computer System Interface => 50-pin,
68-pin, or 80-pin connector

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Internal Data Cables

NOTE: A colored stripe on a


cable identifies Pin 1 on the
cable. When installing a data
cable, always ensure that Pin 1
on the cable aligns with Pin 1
on the drive or drive controller.
Some cables may be keyed and
therefore they can only be
connected one way to the drive
and drive controller.

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Types of RAID
 Arrays, such as a redundant array of independent
disks (RAID), improve fault tolerance when connecting
multiple hard drives.
 Install RAID using hardware or software.
Hardware installations are usually more dependable, but more
expensive.

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Serial Ports and Cables

Serial ports connect a serial device, such as a modem


or printer, a serial cable must be used. A serial cable has
a maximum length of 50 feet (15.2 m). Serial ports
transmit one bit of data at a time.

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Serial Ports and Cables

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Parallel Ports and Cables

The parallel connector on a printer is a standard Type B


36-pin Centronics connector. Some newer printers may
use a Type C high-density 36-pin connector. Parallel
ports can transmit 8 bits of data at one time and use the
IEEE 1284 standard. To connect a parallel device, such
as a printer, a parallel cable must be used

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Parallel Ports and Cables

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USB Ports and Cables

The Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a standard interface


that connects peripheral devices to a computer. It was
originally designed to replace serial and parallel
connections.

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USB Ports and Cables

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FireWire Ports and Cables

FireWire is a high-speed, hot-swappable interface that


connects peripheral devices to a computer. A single
FireWire port in a computer can support up to 63 devices.
Some devices can also be powered through the FireWire
port, eliminating the need for an external power source.
FireWire uses the IEEE 1394 standard and is also known
as i.Link.
The IEEE 1394a standard supports data rates up to 400
Mbps and cable lengths up to 15 feet (4.5 m).

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FireWire Connectors

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SCSI Connectors

A SCSI port can transmit parallel data at rates in excess


of 320 Mbps and can support up to 15 devices. If a single
SCSI device is connected to an SCSI port, the cable can
be up to 80 feet (24.4 m) in length. If multiple SCSI
devices are connected to an SCSI port, the cable can be
up to 40 (12.2 m) feet in length.

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SCSI Connectors

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SCSI Types
Also Maximum
SCSI Type Connector
Called Throughput
50-pin
SCSI-1 5 MBps
Centronics 50-pin
50-pin
Fast SCSI Plain SCSI 10 MBps
Centronics 50-pin
50-pin
Fast Wide SCSI 20 MBps
68-pin
Ultra SCSI Fast-20 50-pin 20 MBps
Ultra Wide SCSI 68-pin 40 MBps
Ultra2 SCSI Fast-40 50-pin 40 MBps
68-pin
Ultra2 Wide SCSI 80 MBps
80-pin
68-pin
Ultra3 SCSI Ultra-160 160 MBps
80-pin
68-pin
Ultra320 SCSI 320 MBps
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Network Connectors

A network port, also known as an RJ-45 port, connects


a computer to a network. The connection speed depends
on the type of network port. Standard Ethernet can
transmit up to 10 Mbps, Fast Ethernet can transmit up to
100 Mbps, and Gigabit Ethernet can transmit up to 1000
Mbps. The maximum length of network cable is 328 feet
(100 m).

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Network Connectors

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PS/2 Ports

A PS/2 port connects a keyboard or a mouse to a


computer. The PS/2 port is a 6-pin mini-DIN female
connector.

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PS/2 Ports

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Video Ports

A video port connects a monitor cable to a computer.


There are several video port and connector types:
 Video Graphics Array (VGA)
 Digital Visual Interface (DVI)
 High-Definition Multimedia Interface (HDMi)
 S-Video
 Component/RGB

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Video Ports

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Audio Ports

An audio port connects audio devices to the computer

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Audio Ports

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Input Device

An input device is used to enter data or instructions into


a computer. Here are some examples of input devices:
 Mouse and keyboard
 Digital camera and digital video camera
 Biometric authentication device
 Touch screen
 Scanner

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Fingerprint Scanner

Fingerprint

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Output Device

An output device is used to present information to the


user from a computer. Here are some examples of output
devices:
 Monitors and projectors
 Printers, scanners, and fax machines
 Speakers and headphones

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Monitors and projectors
Monitors and projectors are primary output devices for a
computer. The most important difference between these
monitor types is the technology used to create an image:
- CRT (Cathode-ray tube) - Most televisions also use this
technology
- LCD (Liquid crystal display) - is commonly used in
laptops and some projectors
- DLP (Digital light processing) is another technology
used in projectors

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Factors Involved in Monitor Resolution
 Pixels – The term pixel is an abbreviation for picture
element. Pixels are the tiny dots that comprise a
screen. Each pixel consists of red, green, and blue.
 Dot Pitch – Dot pitch is the distance between pixels on
the screen. A lower dot pitch number produces a better
image.
 Refresh Rate – The refresh rate is how often per
second the image is rebuilt. A higher refresh rate
produces a better image and reduces the level of
flicker.

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Pixels

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Factors Involved in Monitor Resolution
 Interlace/Non-Interlace – Interlaced monitors create the image by scanning
the screen two times. The first scan covers the odd lines, top to bottom, and
the second scan covers the even lines. Non-interlaced monitors create the
image by scanning the screen, one line at a time from top to bottom. Most
CRT monitors today are non-interlaced.
 Horizontal Vertical Colors (HVC) – The number of pixels in a line is the
horizontal resolution. The number of lines in a screen is the vertical resolution.
The number of colors that can be reproduced is the color resolution.
 Aspect Ratio – Aspect ratio is the horizontal to vertical measurement of the
viewing area of a monitor. For example, a 4:3 aspect ratio would apply to a
viewing area that is 16 inches wide by 12 inches high. A 4:3 aspect radio
would also apply to a viewing area that is 24 inches wide by 18 inches high. A
viewing area that is 22 inches wide by 12 inches high has an aspect ratio of
11:6.

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Aspect Ratio

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System resources

System resources are used for communication


purposes between the CPU and other components in a
computer. There are three common system resources:
 Interrupt Requests (IRQ)
 Input/Output (I/O) Port Addresses
 Direct Memory Access (DMA)

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Interrupt Requests

IRQs are used by computer components to request


information from the CPU. The IRQ travels along a wire
on the motherboard to the CPU.
Older computers only had eight IRQs to assign to
devices. Newer computers have 16 IRQs, which are
numbered 0 to 15

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IRQs

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Input/output (I/O) port addresses

Input/output (I/O) port addresses are used to


communicate between devices and software. The I/O
port address is used to send and receive data for a
component. As with IRQs, each component will have a
unique I/O port assigned. There are 65,535 I/O ports in a
computer, and they are referenced by a hexadecimal
address in the range of 0000h to FFFFh.

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Input/output (I/O) port addresses

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Direct Memory Access

DMA channels are used by high-speed devices to


communicate directly with main memory. These channels
allow the device to bypass interaction with the CPU and
directly store and retrieve information from memory. Only
certain devices can be assigned a DMA channel, such as
SCSI host adapters and sound cards

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Direct Memory Access

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Q and A

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Chapter 2: Safe
Lab Procedures
and Tool Use

IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software v4.0

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Chapter 2 Objectives
 2.1 Explain the purpose of
safe working conditions and
procedures
 2.2 Identify tools and
software used with personal
computer components and
their purposes
 2.3 Implement proper tool
use

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Chapter 2 Worksheets and Labs
 2.2.2 Worksheet: Security and Diagnostic Software
 2.3.4 Lab: Computer Disassembly

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Safe Lab Procedures and Tool Use
The workplace should have safety guidelines to follow to:
 Protect people from injury
 Protect equipment from damage
 Protect the environment from contamination

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Recognize Safe Working Conditions
Some things to look for:
 Clean, organized, and properly lit workspace
 Proper procedures for handling equipment
 Proper disposal or
recycling of components
containing hazardous
materials

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General Safety Guidelines
 Most companies require reporting any
injuries, including description of safety
procedures not followed.
 Damage to equipment may result in
claims for damages from the customer.
 CAUTION: Power supplies and
monitors contain very high voltage.
Do not wear the antistatic wrist strap when repairing power
supplies or monitors.
 CAUTION: Some printer parts may become very hot when
in use and other parts may contain very high voltages.

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Fire Safety Guidelines
Have a fire plan before you begin work:
 Know the location of fire extinguishers, how to use
them, and which to use for electrical fires and for
combustible fires
 Have an escape route in case
a fire gets out of control
 Know how to contact
emergency services quickly
 Keep the workspace clean
 Keep most solvents in a
separate area
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Electrostatic Discharge (ESD)
 Static electricity is the buildup of an electric
charge resting on a surface. This buildup
may zap a component and cause damage.
 At least 3,000 volts of static electricity must
build up before a person can feel ESD, but
less than 30 volts of static electricity can
damage a computer component.
Preventing ESD Damage
 Use antistatic bags to store components
 Use grounded mats on workbenches
 Use grounded floor mats in work areas
 Use antistatic wrist straps when working on
computers
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EMI(Electro Magnetic Inference)

It is the intrusion of outside electromagnetic signals in


transmission media such as copper cabling.
Examples of EMI:
 Any source designed to generate electromagnetic
energy
 Man-made source like power lines and motors
 Natural events such as electrical storms or solar and
interstellar radiations

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RFI(Radio Frequency Interference)

RFI is the interference caused by radio transmitters and


other devices transmitting in the same frequency.
Examples of Radio Frequency Devices
- Radio Stations
- Microwares
- Wireless Access Points

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AC power fluctuations
 Blackout – complete loss of AC power. A blown fuse, damaged transformer,
or downed power line can cause a blackout.
 Brownout – reduced voltage level of AC power that lasts for a period of time.
Brownouts occur when the power line voltage drops below 80% of the normal
voltage level. Overloading electrical circuits can cause a brownout.
 Noise – interference from generators and lightning. Noise results in unclean
power, which can cause errors in a computer system.
 Spike – sudden increase in voltage that lasts for a very short period and
exceeds 100% of the normal voltage on a line. Spikes can be caused by
lightning strikes, but can also occur when the electrical system comes back on
after a blackout.
 Power surge – dramatic increase in voltage above the normal flow of
electrical current. A power surge lasts for a few nanoseconds, or one-billionth
of a second.

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Power Protection Devices
 Surge Suppressor – helps protect against damage from surges
and spikes. A surge suppressor diverts extra electrical voltage on
the line to the ground.
 Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) – helps protect against
potential electrical power problems by supplying electrical power to
a computer or other device. The battery is constantly recharging
while the UPS is in use.
 Standby Power Supply (SPS) – helps protect against potential
electrical power problems by providing a backup battery to supply
power when the incoming voltage drops below the normal level.
This device is not as reliable as a UPS because of the time it takes
to switch over to the battery
CAUTION: Never plug a printer into a UPS device. UPS manufacturers
suggest not plugging a printer into a UPS for fear of burning up the printer
motor.
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Surge Suppressor

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UPS

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Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)
 The name of the material
 The physical properties of the material
 Any hazardous ingredients contained in the material
 Reactivity data, such as fire and explosion data
 Special protection requirements
 Procedures for spills
or leaks
 Special precautions
 Health hazards

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Proper Disposal
 Batteries from portable computer systems
may contain lead, cadmium, lithium, alkaline
manganese, and mercury. Recycling batteries should
be a standard practice for a technician.
 Monitors contain up to 4 pounds of lead, as well as rare
earth metals. Monitors must be disposed of in
compliance with environmental regulations.
 Used printer toner kits and printer cartridges must be
disposed of properly or recycled.
 Contact the local sanitation company to learn how and
where to dispose of the chemicals and solvents used to
clean computers.
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Tools for the Job
Skilled use of tools and software makes the
job less difficult and ensures that tasks
are performed properly and safely.
 ESD Tools
antistatic wrist strap, mat

 Hand Tools
screwdrivers, needle-nose pliers

 Cleaning Tools
soft cloth, compressed air can

 Diagnostic Tools
digital multimeter, loopback adapter
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Software Tools
Disk management tools
 Fdisk - create and delete disk partitions
 Format - prepare a hard drive prior to use
 Scandisk or Chkdsk - check for physical errors on the disk
surface
 Defrag - optimize use of space on a disk
 Disk Cleanup - remove unused files
 Disk Management - creates partitions and formats disks
(GUI interface)
 System File Checker (SFC) – scans the operating system
critical files and replaces any files that are corrupt

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Protection Software Tools
 Windows XP Security Center – allows you to check the status of
essential security settings on the computer. The Security Center
continuously checks to make sure that the software firewall and
antivirus programs are running. It also ensures that automatic
updates are set to download and install automatically.
 Antivirus Program – protects a computer against virus attacks.
 Spyware Remover – protects against software that sends
information about web surfing habits to an attacker. Spyware can
be installed without the knowledge or consent of the user.
 Firewall – a program that runs continuously to protect against
unauthorized communications to and from your computer.

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Organizational Tools

 Personal reference tools


Notes, journal, history of repairs

 Internet reference tools


Search engines, news groups,
manufacturer FAQs, online
computer manuals, online forums
and chats, technical websites

 Miscellaneous tools
Spare parts, a working laptop

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Proper Use of Antistatic Wrist Strap
Can prevent ESD damage to computer components.
 Connect the cable to the metal chassis of
the computer
 Wrap the strap around your wrist
 The connection will keep your body at the
same voltage (potential) as the computer
 Attach the wire on the same side of the equipment as
the arm wearing the antistatic wrist strap to keep the
wire out of the way while you are working.
CAUTION: Never wear an antistatic wrist strap if you are
repairing a monitor or CRT.
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Proper Use of Antistatic Mat
 Lay the computer on the mat.
 Connect the computer to the mat with the cable.
 Connect the mat to a reliable electrical ground with its
cable.
 Now, you and the computer are at ground potential.

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Proper Use of Hand Tools
 Use the proper type and size of screwdriver by
matching it to the screw.
Phillips, Flat Head and Hex are the most common types.
 Do not over tighten screws because the threads
may become stripped.
 Caution: If excessive force is needed to remove
or add a component, something may be wrong.
 Caution: Magnetized tools should not be used
around electronic devices.
 Caution: Pencils should not be used inside the
computer because the pencil lead can act as a
conductor and may damage the computer
components.
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Proper Use of Cleaning Materials
To clean computers and accessories:
 Use mild cleaning solution and lint-free cloth to clean
computer cases, outside of monitor, LCD screen, CRT
screen, and mouse.
 Use compressed air to clean heat sinks.
 Use Isopropyl alcohol and lint-free swabs to clean
RAM.
 Use hand-held vacuum cleaner
with a brush attachment to clean
a keyboard.
 CAUTION: Before cleaning any
device, turn it off and unplug the
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Chapter 2 Summary
Safe Lab Procedures and Tool Use
 Follow safety procedures for personal protection,
equipment protection, and environmental protection.
 Know what tools and software to use in working with
computers and computer components.
 Follow proper use of tools.
Anti-static wrist strap, anti-static mat, various hand tools, and
cleaning materials

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Q and A

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Chapter 3

Computer Assembly

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Chapter 3 Objectives
 3.1 Open the case
 3.2 Install the power supply
 3.3 Attach the components to the motherboard and
install the motherboard
 3.4 Install internal drives
 3.5 Install drives in external bays
 3.6 Install adapter cards
 3.7 Connect all internal cables
 3.8 Re-attach the side panels and connect external
cables to the computer
 3.9 Boot the computer for the first time
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Chapter 3 Labs
 3.2 Lab: Install the Power Supply
 3.3.3 Lab: Install the Motherboard
 3.5.2 Lab: Install the Drives
 3.6.3 Lab: Install Adapter Cards
 3.7.2 Lab: Install Internal Cables
 3.8.2 Lab: Complete the Computer Assembly
 3.9.2 Lab: Boot the Computer

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Optional Virtual Desktop Activities
 3.2 Virtual Desktop Power Supply
 3.3.3 Virtual Desktop Motherboard
 3.4 Virtual Desktop Internal Drives
 3.5.2 Virtual Desktop External Bay Drives
 3.6.3 Virtual Desktop Adapter Card
 3.7.2 Virtual Desktop Internal Cables
 3.8.2 Virtual Desktop External Cables

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Introduction
 Computer assembly is a large part of a technician's job.
Work in a logical, methodical manner when working with
computer components
Improve computer assembly skills dramatically with practice

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Open the Case
 Prepare the workspace before opening the computer
case:
Adequate lighting
Good ventilation
Comfortable room temperature
Workbench accessible from all sides
Avoid cluttering workbench
An antistatic mat on the table
Small containers to hold screws and other small parts
 There are different methods for opening cases. To
learn how, consult the user manual or manufacturer's
website.
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Install the Power Supply
Power supply installation steps include the following:
1. Insert the power supply into the case
2. Align the holes in the power supply with the holes in
the case
3. Secure the power
supply to the case
using the proper
screws

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Attach Components to the Motherboard
 As part of an upgrade or repair, a technician may need
to attach components to the motherboard, and then
install the motherboard.

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CPU on Motherboard
 The CPU and motherboard are sensitive to electrostatic
discharge so use a grounded antistatic mat and wear an
antistatic wrist strap. CAUTION: When handling a CPU,
do not touch the CPU contacts.
 The CPU is secured to the socket on the motherboard
with a locking assembly.

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Thermal Compound
 Thermal compound helps to keep the CPU cool.
 To install a used CPU, clean it and the base of the heat
sink with isopropyl alcohol to remove the old thermal
compound.
 Follow manufacturer’s
recommendations
about applying the
thermal compound.

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Heat Sink/Fan Assembly
 The Heat Sink/Fan Assembly is a two-part cooling
device.
 The heat sink draws heat
away from the CPU.
 The fan moves the heat
away from the heat sink.
 The heat sink/fan
assembly usually has a 3-
pin power connector.

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Install CPU and Heat Sink/Fan Assembly
1. Align the CPU so that the Connection 1 indicator is lined up with Pin 1 on
the CPU socket.
2. Place the CPU gently into the socket.
3. Close the CPU load plate and secure it by closing the load lever and
moving it under the load lever retention tab.
4. Apply a small amount of thermal compound to the CPU and spread it
evenly. Follow the application instructions provided by the manufacturer.
5. Line up the heat sink/fan assembly retainers to the holes on the
motherboard.
6. Place the heat sink/fan assembly onto the CPU socket, being careful not
to pinch the CPU fan wires.
7. Tighten the heat sink/fan assembly retainers to secure the assembly in
place.
8. Connect the heat sink/fan assembly power cable to the header on the
motherboard.
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Install RAM
 RAM provides temporary data storage for the CPU
while the computer is operating.
 RAM should be installed in the motherboard before
the motherboard is placed in the computer case.
 RAM installation steps:
1. Align the notches on the RAM module to the keys in the slot
and press down until the side tabs click into place.
2. Make sure that the side tabs have locked the RAM module
and visually check for exposed contacts.

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The Motherboard
 The motherboard is now ready to install in the
computer case.
 Plastic and metal standoffs are used to mount the
motherboard and to prevent it from touching the metal
portions of the case.
 Install only the standoffs that align with the holes in the
motherboard.
 Installing any additional standoffs may prevent the
motherboard from being seated properly in the
computer case.

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Install Motherboard
1. Install standoffs in the computer
case.
2. Align the I/O connectors on the
back of the motherboard with the
openings in the back of the
case.
3. Align the screw holes of the
motherboard with the standoffs.
4. Insert all of the motherboard
screws.
5. Tighten all of the motherboard
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Install Internal Drives
 Drives that are installed in internal bays are called
internal drives.
 A hard disk drive (HDD) is an example of an internal
drive.
 HDD installation steps:
1. Position the HDD so that it aligns
with the 3.5-inch drive bay.
2. Insert the HDD into the drive bay so
that the screw holes in the drive line
up with the screw holes in the case.
3. Secure the HDD to the case using
the proper screws.

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Install Drives in External Bays
 Drives, such as optical drives (CD
and DVD) and floppy drives, are
installed in drive bays that are
accessed from the front of the case.
 Optical drives and floppy drives
store data on removable media.
 Drives in external bays allow
access to the media without
opening the case.

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Install Optical Drive
 An optical drive is a storage device that reads and
writes information to CDs or DVDs.
 Optical drive installation steps:
1. Position the optical drive to align with the 5.25 inch drive bay.
2. Insert the optical drive into the drive bay so that the optical
drive screw holes align with the screw holes in the case.
3. Secure the optical drive to the case using the proper screws.

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Install Floppy Drive
 A floppy disk drive (FDD) is a storage device that reads
and writes information to a floppy disk.
 FDD installation steps:
1. Position the FDD so that it aligns with the 3.5 inch drive bay.
2. Insert the FDD into the drive bay so that the FDD screw holes
align with the screw holes in the case.
3. Secure the FDD to the case using the proper screws.

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Install Adapter Cards
 Adapter cards are installed to add functionality to a
computer.
 Adapter cards must be compatible with the expansion
slot.
 Some adapter cards:
PCIe x1 NIC
PCI Wireless NIC
PCIe x16 video adapter card

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Install the Network Interface Card (NIC)
 A NIC enables a computer to connect to a network.
 NICs use PCI and PCIe expansion slots on the
motherboard.
 NIC installation steps:
1. Align the NIC to the appropriate slot on
the motherboard.
2. Press down gently on the NIC until the
card is seated.
3. Secure the NIC PC mounting bracket to
the case with the appropriate screw.

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Install the Wireless NIC
 A wireless NIC enables a computer
to connect to a wireless network.
 Some wireless NICs are installed
externally with a USB connector.
 Wireless NIC installation steps:
1. Align the wireless NIC to the appropriate expansion slot on
the motherboard.
2. Press down gently on the wireless NIC until the card is
fully seated.
3. Secure the mounting bracket to the case with the appropriate
screw.

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Install the Video Adapter Card
 A video adapter card is the interface between a
computer and a display monitor.
 An upgraded video adapter card can provide better
graphic capabilities for games and graphic programs.
 Video adapter card installation steps:
1. Align the video adapter card to the appropriate expansion
slot on the motherboard.
2. Press down gently on the video
adapter card until the card is fully
seated.
3. Secure the video adapter card
PC mounting bracket to the case
with the appropriate screw.
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Connect Internal Cables
 Power cables are used to distribute
electricity from the power supply to
the motherboard and other
components.
 Data cables transmit data between
the motherboard and storage devices,
such as hard drives.
 Additional cables connect the buttons
and link lights on the front of the
computer case to the motherboard.

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Connect Power Cables
Motherboard Power Connections
 The Advanced Technology Extended
(ATX) main power connector has either
20 or 24 pins.

 The power supply may also have a 4-pin


or 6-pin Auxiliary (AUX) power connector
that connects to the motherboard.
 A 20-pin connector will work in a
motherboard with a 24-pin socket.

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Connect Power Cables
 SATA Power Connectors use a 15-pin
connector to connect to hard disk drives,
optical drives, or any devices that have a SATA
power socket. SATA
 Molex Power Connectors are used by hard
disk drives and optical drives that do not have
SATA power sockets.
Berg  CAUTION: Do not use a Molex connector and
a SATA power connector on the same drive at
the same time.
 4-pin Berg Power Connector supplies power to Molex
a floppy drive.
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Power Connector Installation Steps
1. Plug the SATA power connector into the HDD.
2. Plug the Molex power connector into the optical drive.
3. Plug the 4-pin Berg power connector into the FDD.
4. Connect the 3-pin fan power connector into the
appropriate fan header on the motherboard,
according to the motherboard manual.
5. Plug the additional cables from the case into the
appropriate connectors according to the motherboard
manual.

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PATA Cables
 Drives connect to the motherboard using data cables.
Types of data cables are PATA, SATA, and floppy disk.
 The PATA cable (sometimes called a ribbon cable) is
wide and flat and can have either 40 or 80 conductors.
A PATA cable usually has three 40-pin connectors.
If multiple hard drives are installed, the master drive will
connect to the end connector. The slave drive will connect to
the middle connector.
 Many motherboards have two PATA cable sockets,
which provides support for a maximum of four PATA
drives.

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SATA Cables
 The SATA data cable has a 7-pin connector.
One end of the cable is connected to the motherboard.
The other end is connected to any drive that has a SATA data
connector.

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Floppy Drive Cables
 The floppy drive data cable has a 34-pin connector and
it has a stripe to denote the location of pin 1.
One connector at the end of the cable connects to the
motherboard. The other two connectors connect to drives.
If multiple floppy drives are installed, the A: drive will connect to
the end connector. The B: drive will connect to the middle
connector.

 Motherboards have one floppy drive controller which


provides support for a maximum of two floppy drives.

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Install Data Cables
1. Plug the motherboard end of the PATA cable into the
motherboard socket.
2. Plug the connector at the far end of the PATA cable
into the optical drive.
3. Plug one end of the SATA cable into the motherboard
socket.
4. Plug the other end of the SATA cable into the HDD.
5. Plug the motherboard end of the FDD cable into the
motherboard socket.
6. Plug the connector at the far end of the FDD cable
into the floppy drive.
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Re-attach Panels, Connect External Cables
 Now that all the internal components have been
installed and connected to the motherboard and power
supply, the side panels are re-attached to the computer
case.
 The next step is to connect the cables for all computer
peripherals and the power cable.

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Re-attach Side Panels
 Most computer cases have two panels, one on each
side.
 Once the cover is in place, make sure that it is secured
at all screw locations.
 Refer to the documentation or manufacturer’s website if
you are unsure about how to remove or replace your
computer case.
 CAUTION: Handle case parts
with care. Some computer case
covers have sharp or jagged
edges.

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Connect External Cables
 After the case panels have been re-attached, connect
the external cables to the back of the computer.
 External cable connections include:
Monitor USB
Keyboard Power
Mouse Ethernet
 CAUTION: When attaching cables, never force a
connection.
 NOTE: Plug in the power cable after you have
connected all other cables.

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Connect External Cables
1. Attach the monitor cable to the video port.
2. Secure the cable by tightening the screws on the
connector.
3. Plug the keyboard cable into the PS/2 keyboard
port.
4. Plug the mouse cable into the PS/2 mouse port.
5. Plug the USB cable into a USB port.
6. Plug the network cable into the network port.
7. Connect the wireless antenna to the antenna
connector.
8. Plug the power cable into the power supply.
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Boot Computer for the First Time
 The BIOS is a set of instructions stored in a nonvolatile
memory chip.
 When the computer is booted, the basic input/output system
(BIOS) will perform a power-on self test (POST) to check on
all of the internal components.

 A special key or combination of keys on the keyboard is


used to enter the BIOS setup program.
 The BIOS setup program displays information about all of
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Identify Beep Codes
 POST checks to see that all of the hardware in the
computer is operating correctly.
 If a device is malfunctioning, an error or a beep code
alerts the technician that there is a problem.
 Typically, a single beep denotes that the computer is
functioning properly.
 If there is a hardware problem, the computer may emit
a series of beeps.
 Each BIOS manufacturer uses different codes to
indicate hardware problems.
 Consult the motherboard documentation to view beep
codes for your computer.
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BIOS Setup
 The BIOS contains a setup program used to configure
settings for hardware devices.
 The configuration data is saved to a special memory
chip called a complementary metal-oxide
semiconductor (CMOS).
 CMOS is maintained by the battery in the computer.
 If this battery dies, all BIOS setup configuration data
will be lost.
 Replace the battery and reconfigure the BIOS settings.

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BIOS Setup Program
BIOS settings are configured in the BIOS setup program.

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Chapter 3 Summary
Computer Assembly
 Installation of all computer components
 Connection of all cables
 Description of BIOS
 Description of POST

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Additional Resources
 Whatis?com: IT Encyclopedia and Learning Center
http://whatis.com
 TechTarget: The Most Targeted IT Media http://techtarget.com
 ZDNet: Tech News, Blogs and White Papers for IT Professionals
http://www.zdnet.com
 HowStuffWorks: It's Good to Know
http://computer.howstuffworks.com
 CNET.com http://www.cnet.com
 PC World http://www.pcworld.com
 ComputerWorld http://www.computerworld.com
 WIRED NEWS http://www.wired.com
 eWEEK.com http://www.eweek.com
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Q and A

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Chapter 4
Basics of Preventive
Maintenance and Trouble Shooting

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Chapter 4 Objectives
 4.1 Explain the purpose of preventive maintenance
 4.2 Identify the steps of the troubleshooting process

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Chapter 4 Worksheets, Labs, and Activities
 4.2.7 Activity: Troubleshooting Process

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The Purpose of Preventive Maintenance

 Reduce the likelihood of hardware or software


problems by systematically and periodically checking
hardware and software to ensure proper operation.
 Reduce computer down time and repair costs.

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Hardware Maintenance
Make sure that the hardware is operating properly.
 Check the condition of parts.
 Repair or replace worn parts.
 Keep components clean.
 Create a hardware maintenance program.

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Software Maintenance
 Review updates
 Follow policies of
your organization
 Create a schedule

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Preventive Maintenance Benefits
 Reduce computer down time.
 Reduce repair costs.
 Reduce loss of worker productivity.

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The Troubleshooting Process
 Follow an organized and
logical procedure.
 Eliminate variables one at a
time.
 Troubleshooting is a skill
that is refined over time.
 The first and last steps
involve effectively
communicating with the
customer.

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Data Protection
Check with customer
 Date of the last backup
 Contents of the backup
 Data integrity of the
backup
 Availability of media for
data restore
If no backup can be created, ask customer to sign a
release form

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Gather Data from the Customer
 Communicate respectfully
with the customer
 Start with open-ended
questions
“What types of problems are
you having with your computer
or network?”

 Then, ask closed-ended


(yes/no) questions
“Have you changed your
password recently?”

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Verify Obvious Issues

 Problem may be simpler than the customer thinks.


 Checking for obvious issues can save time.
 If this step turns up nothing, continue to the next step
of the troubleshooting process.
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Try Quick Solutions
 May provide additional
information, even if they
do not solve the problem.
 Document each solution
you try.
 May need to gather more
information from the customer.
 If you find the problem at this stage, document it and
proceed to the end of the troubleshooting process.

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Gather Data from the Computer
 When system, user, or software errors occur on a
computer, the Event Viewer is updated with information
about the errors: Event Viewer

What problem occurred


The date and time of the
problem
The severity of the problem
The source of the problem
Event ID number
Which user was logged in when the problem occurred

 Although this utility lists details about the error, you may
still need to research the solution.
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Gather Data from the Computer
Device Manager
 A flag of ! indicates the device is acting incorrectly.
 A flag of X indicates the device is disabled.

Device Manager

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Gather Data from the Computer
 When troubleshooting, power on the computer and listen to
the beep code sequence. Document the beep code
sequence and research the code to determine the specific
hardware failure.
 If the computer boots and stops after the POST, investigate
the BIOS settings to determine where to find the problem.
Refer to the motherboard manual to make sure that the
BIOS settings are accurate.
 Conduct research to find software to use to diagnose and
solve problems. Often, manufacturers of system hardware
provide diagnostic tools of their own.
 What third-party tools are you aware of to use in computer
troubleshooting?
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Evaluate the Problem, Implement the
Solution
 Research possible solutions:

 Prioritize solutions to try.


 Try easiest solutions first.
 After an unsuccessful try,
undo any changes you have
made.
Unnecessary changes could
complicate finding the solution.

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Close with the Customer
 Discuss the solution with the customer
 Have the customer confirm that the problem has been
solved
 Document the process
Problem description
Solution
Components used
Amount of time spent in solving the problem

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Completed Work Order
The gratifying results
of a day’s work

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Chapter 4 Summary
 Regular preventive maintenance reduces hardware and
software problems.
 Before beginning any
repair, back up the data
on a computer.
 The troubleshooting
process is a guideline
to help you solve
computer problems
in an efficient manner.
 Document everything that you try, even if it fails. The
documentation that you create will become a useful resource
for you and other technicians.
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Q and A

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Chapter 5
Operating Systems

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Chapter 5 Objectives
 5.1 Explain the purpose of an operating system
 5.2 Describe and compare operating systems to include
purpose, limitations, and compatibilities
 5.3 Determine operating system based on customer
needs
 5.4 Install an operating system
 5.5 Navigate a GUI (Windows)
 5.6 Identify and apply common preventive maintenance
techniques for operating systems
 5.7 Troubleshoot operating systems

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Chapter 5 Worksheets and Labs
 5.2.2 Worksheet: NOS Certifications and Jobs
 5.3.2 Worksheet: Upgrade Components
 5.4.2 Lab: Install Windows XP
 5.4.5 Lab: Windows XP User Accounts and Updates
 5.4.9 Worksheet: FAT32 and NTFS
 5.5.1 Lab: Run Commands
 5.5.4 Lab: Install Third-Party Software
 5.6.2 Lab: Restore Point
 5.6.3 Lab: Windows Backup and Recovery

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The Purpose of an Operating System
The operating system (OS) controls almost all functions
on a computer.
 Learn about the components, functions, and
terminology related to
the Windows 2000 and
Windows XP operating
systems.

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Roles of an Operating System
 All computers rely on an operating system (OS) to
provide the interface for interaction between users,
applications, and hardware.
 The operating system boots the computer and
manages the file system.
 Almost all modern operating systems can support more
than one user, task, or CPU.
 The operating system has four main roles:
Control hardware access
Manage files and folders
Provide user interface
Manage applications
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Characteristics of Operating Systems
 Control hardware access
OS automatically discovers and configures PnP hardware
 File and folder management
 User interface
Command line interface (CLI)
Graphical user interface (GUI)
 Application management
Open Graphics Library (OpenGL)
DirectX

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The Types of Operating Systems
 Command Line Interface  Graphical User Interface
(CLI): The user types (GUI): The user interacts
commands at a prompt. with menus and icons.

Most operating systems include both a GUI and a CLI.


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Compare Operating Systems
Terms often used when comparing operating systems:
 Multi-user – Two or more users can work with programs
and share peripheral devices, such as printers, at the same
time.
 Multi-tasking – The computer is capable of operating
multiple applications at the same time.
 Multi-processing – The computer can have two or more
central processing units (CPUs) that programs share.
 Multi-threading – A program can be broken into smaller
parts that can be loaded as needed by the operating system.
Multi-threading allows individual programs to be multi-
tasked.
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Real Mode
 Executes only one program at a time
 Addresses only 1 MB of system memory at a time
 Directly accesses memory and hardware
 Subject to crashes
 Available to all modern processors
 Only used by DOS and DOS applications

Program Code PC hardware can be


directly controls PC interrupted by bad
hardware. code.

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Protected Mode
 Has access to all memory
 Can manage multiple programs simultaneously
 Allows the system to use virtual memory
 Provides 32-bit access to memory, drivers, and I/O transfers
 Each program is assigned a space in memory
 Computer is protected from program errors

Program HAL controls


talks to hardware
HAL and stops PC
Hardware errors.
Program Code hardware
Abstraction
directly controls cannot be
Layer
PC hardware. interrupted
(HAL)
by bad code.
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Virtual Real Mode
 Allows a real-mode application to run within a protected-mode
operating system
 Creates virtual machines for each program that runs in real mode
 Each virtual machine receives 1 MB of memory and access to
hardware
 In the event of a program error, only the virtual machine is
affected

OS provides virtual machine to host the code and protect the PC


Program operates in PC hardware
virtual machine controlled by
virtual machine;
Program Code errors are
stopped
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Compare Operating Systems
Desktop Operating Network Operating
System System
• Supports a single user • Supports multiple users

• Runs single-user • Runs multi-user


applications applications

• Shares files and folders • Is robust and redundant

• Shares peripherals • Provides increased security

• Used on a small network • Used on a network

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Compare Operating Systems
 Desktop operating systems:
Microsoft Windows: Windows XP
Macintosh: Mac OS X
Linux: Fedora, Ubuntu, and others
UNIX

 A desktop OS has the following


characteristics:
Supports a single user
Runs single-user applications
Shares files and folders on a small
network with limited security
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Network Operating Systems (NOS)
 Common NOS include:
Novell Netware
Microsoft Windows Server
Linux
UNIX

 A network OS has the following


characteristics:
Supports multiple users
Runs multi-user applications
Is robust and redundant
Provides increased security compared to
desktop operating systems
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Determine Proper Operating System
To select the proper operating system:
 Create an accurate profile of your customer by
analyzing the daily, weekly, and monthly computer
activities
 Select appropriate software and hardware to satisfy
existing and future requirements

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What Does Your Customer Require?
 Office applications
word processing, spreadsheets, or
presentation software
 Graphics applications
Photoshop or Illustrator
 Animation applications
Flash
 Business applications
accounting, contact management,
sales tracking or database

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Identify Minimum Hardware Requirements
 Customer may need to upgrade or purchase additional
hardware to support the required applications and OS.
 A cost analysis will indicate if purchasing new
equipment is a better idea than upgrading.
 Common hardware upgrades:
RAM capacity
Hard drive size
Processor speed
Video card memory and speed

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Hardware Compatibility List (HCL)
 Most operating systems have an HCL.
 HCLs can be found on the manufacturer's website.
 HCL includes list of hardware that is known to work with
the operating system.

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Installing the Operating System
Reasons to perform a clean installation of an OS:
 When a computer is passed from one employee to another
 When the operating system is corrupted
 When a new replacement hard drive is installed in a
computer
Before performing a clean installation:
 Back up all data first
 Explain to the customer that existing data will be erased
 Confirm that all needed data has been successfully
transferred

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Hard Drive Setup Procedures
Operating system setup methods:
 Install an OS over a network from a server
 Install from a copy of the OS files stored on the hard
drive
 Install from OS files stored on CDs or DVDs
Partitioning and Formatting
 Hard drive must be logically divided (partitioned)
 File system must be created on the hard drive
 During the installation phase, most operating systems
will automatically partition and format the hard drive

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Prepare the Hard Drive
 The first portion of the installation process deals with
formatting and partitioning the hard drive.
 The second portion prepares the disk to accept the file
system.
 The file system provides the directory structure that
organizes the user's operating system, application,
configuration, and data files.
 Examples of file systems:
The FAT32 file system
The New Technology File System (NTFS)

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File System
File System is a method for storing and organizing computer
files and data.
 File Allocation Table, 32-bit (FAT32) – A file system that
can support partition sizes up to 2 TB or 2,048 GB. The
FAT32 file system is supported by Windows 9.x, Windows
Me, Windows 2000, and Windows XP.
 New Technology File System (NTFS) – A file system that
can support partition sizes up to 16 exabytes, in theory.
NTFS incorporates more file system security features and
extended attributes than the FAT file system

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Hard Drive Setup Procedures
A technician should understand the process related to
hard drive setup.

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Terms are used when referring to hard drive
setup:
 Primary partition – This partition is usually the first partition. A primary partition cannot be subdivided into
smaller sections. There can be up to four partitions per hard drive.
 Active partition – This partition is the partition used by the operating system to boot the computer. Only one
primary partition can be marked active.
 Extended partition – This partition normally uses the remaining free space on a hard drive or takes the place
of a primary partition. There can be only one extended partition per hard drive, and it can be subdivided into
smaller sections called logical drives.
 Logical drive – This drive is a section of an extended partition that can be used to separate information for
administrative purposes.
 Formatting – This process prepares a file system in a partition for files to be stored.
 Sector – A sector contains a fixed number of bytes, generally at least 512.
 Cluster – A cluster is also called a file allocation unit. It is the smallest unit of space used for storing data. It is
made up of one or more sectors.
 Track – A track is one complete circle of data on one side of a hard drive platter. A track is broken into groups
of sectors.
 Cylinder – A cylinder is a stack of tracks lined up one on top of another to form a cylinder shape.
 Drive mapping – Drive mapping is a letter assigned to a physical or logical drive.

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Install the Operating System
During the Windows XP installation the user must provide:
 Define currency and numerals
 Text input language
 Name of user
 Name of company
 Product key
 Computer name
 Administrator password
 Date and time settings
 Network settings
 Domain or workgroup information
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Create Administrator Account
 Setup creates the administrator account with the user
name “administrator”
Change this name to keep the administrator account secure
Only use the administrator account occasionally for critical
system changes

 Create a fictitious user account to use as a template


 Use secure passwords
These should be a minimum of 7 characters, containing at least
one of each (letter, number, and symbol)

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Complete the Installation
 When Windows XP installation
completes:
Computer will reboot
Log in for the first time
Register Windows XP and verify that you are
using a legal copy of the OS
 Verification enables you to download
patches and service packs
 Use Microsoft Update Manager to
scan for new software and to:
Install all service packs
Install all patches
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Check Device Manager for Conflicts

 Look for warning icons (yellow exclamation points)


 Double-click to learn about the problem
 Click the plus (+) sign to expand the category
 May be able to ignore an error
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Custom Installation Options
With Microsoft System Preparation
 Follow these steps for disk cloning:
Create a master installation on one computer
Run Sysprep
Create a disk image of the configured computer using third-
party disk-cloning software
Copy the disk image onto a server
 When the destination computer is booted,
A shortened version of the Windows setup program runs
Setup configures only user-specific and computer-specific
settings
An answer file provides data normally required during set up
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The Boot Sequence for Windows XP
 Power On Self Test (POST)
 POST for each adapter card that has a BIOS
 BIOS reads the Master Boot Record (MBR)
 MBR takes over control of the boot process and starts NT Loader
(NTLDR)
 NTLDR reads the BOOT.INI file to know which OS to load and where
to find the OS on the boot partition
 NTLDR uses NTDETECT.COM to detect any installed hardware
 NTLDR loads the NTOSKRNL.EXE file and HAL.DLL
 NTLDR reads the registry files and loads device drivers
 NTOSKRNL.EXE starts the WINLOGON.EXE program and displays
the Windows login screen
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NTLDR and the Windows Boot Menu
 If more than one OS is present on the
disk, BOOT.INI gives the user a
chance to select which to use.
 Otherwise:
NTLDR runs NTDETECT.COM to get
information about installed hardware
NTLDR then uses the path specified in the
BOOT.INI to find the boot partition
NTLDR loads two files that make up the
core of XP: NTOSKRNL.EXE and HAL.DLL
NTLDR reads the Registry files, chooses a
hardware profile, and loads device drivers.

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The Windows Registry
 Recognized by distinctive names, beginning with
HKEY_
 Every setting in Windows is stored in the registry
 Changes to the Control Panel settings, File
Associations, System Policies, or installed software are
stored in the registry
 Each user has their own section of the registry
 The Windows logon process uses the registry to set the
system to the state that it was in the last time the user
logged in

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The Windows Registry Files

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The NT Kernel and Security Authority
 Next, the NT kernel, NTOSKRNL.EXE, takes over
It starts the login file, WINLOGON.EXE
That program starts the Local Security Administration file,
LSASS.EXE (Local Security Administration)
LSASS.EXE is the program that displays the XP welcome
screen
 There are few differences between the Windows XP
and the Windows 2000 boot process

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Manipulating Operating System Files
 After you have installed Windows XP, you can use
MSCONFIG for post-installation modifications:
This boot configuration utility allows you to set programs that
will run at startup, and to edit configuration files

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Manipulating Operating System Files
 The registry is a database that contains information and
settings for all of the hardware, software, users and
preferences. REGEDIT allows users to edit the registry.

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Manipulating Operating System Files
Pressing the F8 key during the boot process opens the
Windows Advanced Startup Options menu, which allows
you to select how to boot Windows.
 Safe Mode – Starts Windows but only loads drivers for basic
components, such as the keyboard and display.
 Safe Mode with Networking Support – Starts Windows
identically to Safe Mode and also loads the drivers for network
components.
 Safe Mode with Command Prompt – Starts Windows and loads
the command prompt instead of the GUI interface.
 Last Known Good Configuration – Enables a user to load the
configurations settings of Windows that was used the last time that
Windows successfully started. It does this by accessing a copy of
the registry that is created for this purpose.
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Describing Directory Structures
 Windows file system naming conventions:
Maximum of 255 characters may be used
Characters such as a period (.) or a slash (\ /) are not allowed
An extension of three or four letters is added to the filename to
identify the file type
Filenames are not case sensitive
 Windows filename extension examples:
.doc - Microsoft Word
.txt - ASCII text only
.jpg - graphics format
.ppt - Microsoft PowerPoint
.zip - compression format
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Describing Directory Structures
 Each file has a set of attributes that control how the file
may be viewed or altered.
 The following are the most common file attributes:
R - The file is read-only
A - The file will be archived the next backup
S - The file is marked as a system file and a warning is given if
an attempt is made to delete or modify the file
H - The file is hidden in the directory display

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The ATTRIB Command

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NTFS and FAT32
 FAT32 is used where files need to be accessed by
multiple versions of Windows. FAT32 is not as secure
as NTFS
 NTFS can support more and larger files than FAT32,
and provides more flexible security features for folders,
files, and sizes
 Partitions can be converted from FAT32 to NTFS using
the CONVERT.EXE utility, but not in the reverse
direction

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Navigating a Graphical User Interface (GUI)
 A GUI provides graphical representations of all the files,
folders, and programs on a computer.

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Customizing the Desktop
To customize any of these, simply right-click the item and
then select Properties.
 Taskbar
 Recycle Bin
 Desktop background
 Window appearance

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The Start Menu
 Customized to two styles, XP and
Classic
 Accessed by clicking the Start button
 The Start menu includes:
A nested list of all installed applications
A list of recently opened documents
A list of other elements, including; a
search feature, a help center, and system
settings

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My Computer
 When you right-click My Computer and
select Properties, there are several
settings that can be customized:
Computer name
Hardware settings
Virtual memory
Automatic updates
Remote access
 Files can also be moved and copied using
My Computer

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Launching Applications
Applications can be launched in several ways:
 Click the application on the Start menu
 Double-click the application shortcut icon on the desktop
 Double-click the application executable file in My Computer
 Launch the application from the Run window or command line

To view and configure network connections, right-click the


My Network Places icon.
 Connect to or disconnect from a network drive
 Right-click Properties to configure existing network
connections, such as a wired or wireless LAN connection
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Control Panel Applets

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Display Settings
 Change the resolution
and color quality
 Change wallpaper,
screen saver, power
settings, and other
options, by clicking the
Advanced button

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Device Manager
 Used to view settings for
devices in the computer
 An exclamation mark
indicates a problem with a
device

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Task Manager
 View all applications that
are currently running
 Close any applications that
have stopped responding
 Monitor the performance of
the CPU and virtual
memory
 View all processes that are
currently running
 View information about the
network connections
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Event Viewer and Remote Desktop
Event Viewer
 Logs a history of events regarding applications,
security, and the system.
 These log files are a valuable troubleshooting tool.
Remote Desktop
 Allows one computer to remotely take control of
another computer.
 This troubleshooting feature is only available with
Windows XP Professional.

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Performance Settings
Settings for advanced visuals and for virtual memory

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Add or Remove an Application
 Utility to install or uninstall applications
 Tracks installation files for future thorough uninstall, if
desired

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Upgrading an Operating System
Upgrade Paths

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Upgrading to Windows XP
1. Insert the Windows XP CD. Select Start > Run.
2. In the Run box, where D is the drive letter for the CD-
ROM, type D:\i386\winnt32 and press Enter. The
Welcome to the Windows XP Setup Wizard displays.
3. Choose Upgrade to Windows XP and click Next. The
License Agreement page displays.
4. Read the license agreement and click the button to
accept this agreement.
5. Click Next. The Upgrading to the Windows XP NTFS
File System page displays.
6. Follow the prompts and complete the upgrade. When
the install is complete, the computer will restart.
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Preventive Maintenance Planning
Components of a preventive maintenance plan:
 Updates to the operating system and applications
 Updates to anti-virus and other protective software
 Hard drive error checking
 Hard drive backup
 Hard drive defragmentation

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Schedule Tasks
 The DOS AT command launches tasks at a specified time using
the command line interface
Information about the AT command is available at this path: Start >
Run > cmd Then type AT /? at the command line.
 The Windows Task Scheduler launches tasks at a specified time
using a graphical interface
Access the Windows Task Scheduler by following this path: Start > All
Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Scheduled Tasks
 Examples of scheduled tasks to run
ScanDisk (Windows 2000) and CHKDSK (Windows XP) check the
integrity of files and folders and scan the hard disk surface for physical
errors.
Defrag: Gathers the noncontiguous data into one place, making files
run faster

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Automatic Updates
 An automatic update service scans the system for
needed updates, and recommends what should be
downloaded and installed.
 Automatic update services can setup to download and
install updates as soon as they are available or as
required, and install them when the computer is next
rebooted.

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Restore Point
An image of the current computer settings. If the computer
crashes, the OS can roll back to a restore point.
 The restore point utility only operates on OS and
application files.
 Anti-virus software should be run to remove malware
before creating a restore point.
When to create a restore point:
 Before updating or replacing the OS
 When an application or driver is installed
 Manually at any time

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Backup the Hard Drive
 Backup tools allow for recovery of data.
 Use the Microsoft Backup Tool to perform backups.
 Establish a backup strategy that will allow for the
recovery of data.
 Decide how often the data must be backed up and the
type of backup to perform.
 Windows XP uses Volume Shadow Copying, which
allows users to continue to work even as a backup is
taking place.
 It is only necessary to make copies of the files that
have changed since the last backup.
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Types of Backups
Clear
Description
marker
Normal Selected files and folders Yes

Copy Selected files and folders No

Selected files and folders that


Differential changed since the last backup
No

Selected files and folders that


Incremental changed since the last backup
Yes

Selected files and folders that


Daily changed during the day
No
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Troubleshooting Process
Step 1 Gather data from the customer
Step 2 Verify the obvious issues
Step 3 Try quick solutions first
Step 4 Gather data from the computer
Step 5 Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
Step 6 Close with the customer

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1. Gather Data from the Customer
 Customer information
Company name, contact name, address, phone number

 Computer configuration
Operating system, patches and updates, network environment,
connection type

 Use a work order to collect information


 Description of problem
Open-ended questions
What were you doing when the problem was identified?
Closed-ended questions
Are you currently logged into your network?
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2. Verify the Obvious Issues
Examine the most obvious causes of a problem.
 Is the caps lock key set to ON?
 Is there a non-bootable disk in the floppy drive?
 Are the drive settings and boot order configured correctly in
BIOS?
 Can you log on as another user?
 Was the computer turned off without being shut down properly?
 Has the password changed?
 Does the monitor have power?
 Does the display have the correct settings?

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3. Try Quick Solutions First
 Use the Last Known Good Configuration settings
 Enter Safe Mode to troubleshoot video problems
 Uninstall an application that was recently added
 Roll back the system using a System Restore point
 Examine the Device Manager for device conflicts
 Run cleanmgr to clean up temp files
 Run chkdsk/f to repair problems with the hard drive
 Run defrag to speed up the hard drive
 Reboot the computer
 Login as a different user
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4. Gather Data from the Computer
 Examine system files.
 Run diagnostic software.
 Refer to the computer user manual or BIOS website for
the meaning of beep codes.
 Examine the event logs to determine the cause of
computer problems.

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5. Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution
You may need to conduct further research
 Refer to repair manuals
 Study the product documentation
 Visit the manufacturer’s website
 Consult repair journals
 Talk to technicians who may have repaired similar problems.
Implement the most likely solution first
 Return the computer to the original state before trying the
next solution
 It may be necessary to test many potential solutions before
the problem is resolved
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6. Close with the Customer
When you are confident that the problem is resolved:
 Document the customer information, problem description,
and steps to resolve the issue in the work order.
 Explain to the customer how you solved the problem .
 Let the customer verify that the problem has been solved.
 Complete all documentation including sales orders, time
logs, and receipts.
 Complete the work order.
 Update the repair journal. You can use the notes from the
journal for future reference.

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Common Problems and Solutions
Problem Symptom Possible Solution

Use the “Roll Back Driver” option to


The computer displays the remove the new video driver.
desktop in 16 color VGA mode Remove any unnecessary programs
after updating the video drivers. from the Startup tab and reboot the
computer.

The computer will no longer boot Remove any floppies and CDs from the
to Windows and gives the error computer and verify that the HDD is set
“Invalid systems disk” as a bootable device in the BIOS setup.
Boot the computer in safe mode and
The computer will not finish
uninstall any recently installed
loading Windows.
applications.

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Chapter 5 Summary
 Consider the customer's needs when selecting an OS.
 The main steps in setting up a customer's computer include
preparing the hard drive, installing an operating system,
creating user accounts, and configuring installation options.
 A GUI shows icons of all files, folders, and applications on the
computer.
 Establish a backup strategy that allows for the recovery of
data.
 Preventive maintenance helps to ensure optimal operation of
the OS.
 Tools for troubleshooting an OS problem include Windows
Advanced Options menu, event logs, device manager, and
system files.
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Q and A

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Chapter 6

Laptops and Portable Devices

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Chapter 6 Objectives
 6.1 Describe laptops and other portable devices
 6.2 Identify and describe the components of a laptop
 6.3 Compare and contrast desktop and laptop
components
 6.4 Explain how to configure laptops
 6.5 Compare the different mobile phone standards
 6.6 Identify common preventive maintenance
techniques used for laptops and portable devices
 6.7 Describe how to troubleshoot laptops and portable
devices
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Chapter 6 Worksheets
 6.1.2 Worksheet: Research Laptops, Smart Phones,
and PDAs
 6.2.3 Worksheet: Laptop Docking Stations
 6.3.4 Worksheet: Laptop Expansion
 6.4.1 Worksheet: ACPI Standards
 6.7.2 Worksheet: Research Laptop Problems

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Optional Virtual Laptop Activities
 6.2.1 Explore the different views of the virtual laptop
 6.2.2 Explore the virtual laptop keyboard
 6.2.3 Explore the different views of the docking station
 6.4.2 Replace components and devices in the virtual
laptop

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Introduction
 Do you know when the first laptops were developed?
 Who do you think used the early laptops?
 One of the original laptops was the GRiD Compass
1101. It was used by astronauts on space missions in the
early 1980s.
 It weighed 11 lb (5 kg) and cost US $8,000 - $10,000!
 This chapter focuses on the differences between laptops
and desktops and describes the features of PDAs and
Smartphones.

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Laptops and Portable Devices
 Notebooks, laptops, and tablets are types of portable
computers.
 For clarity and consistency in this course, all portable
computers will be called "laptops".
 Today, laptops are very popular because advances in
technology have resulted in laptops that cost less, weigh
less, and have improved capabilities.
 PDAs offer features such as games, web surfing, e-mail,
instant messaging, and many other features offered by
PCs.
 Smartphones are cell phones with many built-in PDA
capabilities.
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Common Uses of Laptops
 Taking notes in school or researching
papers
 Presenting information in business
meetings
 Accessing data away from home or the
office
 Playing games while traveling
 Watching movies while traveling
 Accessing the Internet in a public place
 Sending and receiving email in a public
place
 Can you think of other uses for laptops?
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Common Uses of PDAs and Smartphones
 The PDA is an electronic personal
organizer with tools to help organize
information
 The Smartphone is a mobile phone with
PDA capabilities.
 Other uses of PDAs and Smartphones are
to take phone calls, voice memos, taking
notes, text messaging, browsing the
internet, reading eBooks, playing games,
internet chat, music, contacts, calendar
and GPS.

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The Components of a Laptop
Common laptop features:
 Small and portable
 Integrated display screen in lid
 Integrated keyboard
 AC power source or rechargeable battery
 Hot-swappable drives and peripherals
 Some type of docking station or port replicator to
connect to peripherals

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Components Outside of a Laptop
 Top view of virtual laptop

Bluetooth
status LED

Standby
Battery LED
status LED

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Components Outside of a Laptop
 Rear view of virtual laptop

Parallel port
AC power
Battery bay connector

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Components Outside of a Laptop
 Left side view of virtual laptop
Ventilation grill
RJ-11 modem Network LEDs

USB Ethernet Microphone PC card


port port jack slot

Security S-video Headphone


keyhole port jack

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Components Outside of a Laptop
 Front view of virtual laptop

Latch
Infrared Speakers
port
Ventilation grill

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Components Outside of a Laptop
 Right side view of virtual laptop

Optical drive VGA


port
Optical drive
indicator Drive bay
indicator

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Components Outside of a Laptop
 Underside view of virtual laptop

Battery Docking
latches connector

RAM
access
panel

Hard drive
access panel
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Components Inside of a Laptop
 Open laptop
Volume controls Power button

Pointer controller

Keyboard Fingerprint
reader

Touchpad
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Components Inside of a Laptop
 LEDs inside laptop

Hard
Num lock drive Battery

Wireless Bluetooth Caps lock


Power Standby
on

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Components on a Docking Station
 Top view of docking station
Power
button

Eject
button
Docking
connector

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Components on a Docking Station
 Rear view of docking station Headphone
connector
USB
PC card VGA DVI
Line In port
AC power connector
connector slot port port

Exhaust Ethernet RJ-11 Serial Parallel Keyboard


port
fan port port port port
Mouse
External-diskette-drive port
connector

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Components on a Docking Station
 Right side view of docking station

Key lock

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Compare Laptop Components and
Desktop Components
 Desktop components tend to be standardized. They
usually meet universal form factors.
 Laptop manufacturers focus on refining laptop
components to make them more efficient and compact
as a result, laptop components are proprietary.
 You may not be able to use components made by one
laptop manufacturer to repair a laptop made by another
manufacturer.

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Compare Motherboards

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Base Stations
A base station is a device that attaches to AC power and to
desktop peripherals. There are two types of base stations:
docking stations and port replicators. Docking stations and
port replicators are used for the same purpose. Port
replicators are usually smaller than docking stations and do
not have speakers or PCI slots.

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Compare CPUs

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Configure Laptops
 To allow applications and processes to run smoothly:
Configure and allocate system resources
Install additional components and plug-ins
Change environmental settings to match software requirements.

 A laptop can be customized for specific purposes by


adding external components.
 Adding external components is usually accomplished
through the use of Plug and Play, but occasionally
driver installation and additional configuration may be
required.
 Follow safe removal procedures when disconnecting
hot-swappable and non-hot-swappable devices.
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Configure Laptop Power Settings
ACPI Standards
S0 The computer is on and the CPU is running.

The CPU is not running. However, the CPU and RAM are still
S1 receiving power.
The CPU is off, but the RAM is refreshed. The system is in a
S2 lower power mode than S1.

The CPU is off, and the RAM is set to a slow refresh rate.
S3 This mode is often called “Save to RAM”. In Windows XP, this
state is known as the Standby mode.

The CPU and RAM are off. The contents of RAM have been
saved to a temporary file on the hard disk. This mode is also
S4 called “Saved to Disk”. In Windows XP, this state is known as
the Hibernate mode.

S5 The computer is off and nothing has been saved.


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Power Management

Power management controls the flow of electricity to the


components of a computer. There are two methods of
power management:
 Advanced Power Management (APM)
 Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI)
APM is an earlier version of power management. With APM, the BIOS was
used to control the settings for power management.

ACPI has replaced APM. ACPI offers additional power management


features. With ACPI, the operating system controls power management.

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Compare Power Options

Laptop Power Options Desktop Power Options

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Checking the ACPI Settings in the BIOS
Here are the steps to check the ACPI settings in the
BIOS:
1. Enter BIOS setup by pressing the appropriate key or
key combination while the computer is booting.
Typically this is the Delete key or the F2 key, but there
are several other options.
2. Locate and enter the “Power Management settings”
menu item.
3. Use the appropriate keys to enable ACPI mode.
4. Save and Exit BIOS setup.

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Power Settings in Windows XP
To configure your power settings, click:
Start > Control Panel > Power Options

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Laptop Processors

Laptop processors are designed to use less power and


create less heat than desktop processors. As a result,
laptop processors do not require cooling devices that are
as large as those found in desktops. Laptop processors
also use CPU throttling to modify the clock speed as
needed to reduce power consumption and heat.

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Mobile Phone Standards

Internet
Purpose
Standard

• Short Message • Used for text


Service (SMS) messaging
• Multimedia • Used for sending and
Message Service receiving photos and
(MMS) videos
• Packet Switching • Used for accessing
the Internet
• Global Positioning • Used to tell where you
System(GPS) are

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Mobile Phone Generations

 First-Generation(1G)=> Voice only


 Second-Generation(G2)=>Voice, SMS, Internet access
with low bandwidth
 Third-Generation(G3)=>Voice, SMS, MMS, internet
Access with higher bandwidth, GPS
 Fourth-Generation(G4)=>standards have been
championed by many users, in response to the
availability of increased data rates

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Proper Cleaning Procedures
 Follow proper cleaning procedures to clean a laptop.
 Keyboard  Floppy drive
 Ventilation  Optical disk drive
 LCD display  CD or DVD disc
 Touch pad

 CAUTION:
Do not spray cleaning solution directly onto the LCD display.
Use products specifically designed for cleaning LCD displays.
Use a soft, lint-free cloth with an approved cleaning solution to
avoid damaging laptop surfaces.
Apply the cleaning solution to the lint-free cloth, not directly to
the laptop.
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Optimal Operating Environments
 Pack for transport
 Clean properly
 Ventilate
 Air temperature
 Humidity

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Troubleshooting

 Determine if a repair is
cost-effective.
 The cost of the repair
should be compared to
the replacement cost
minus the salvage value.

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Troubleshooting Process
Step 1 Gather data from the customer
Step 2 Verify the obvious issues
Step 3 Try quick solutions first
Step 4 Gather data from the computer
Step 5 Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
Step 6 Close with the customer

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1. Gather Data from the Customer
 Customer information
Company name, contact name, address, phone number

 Laptop information
Manufacturer, model, OS, network environment, connection
type

 Description of problem
Open-ended questions
What was happening when you first experienced the
problem?
Closed-ended questions
Is the laptop currently using the battery as the power
source?
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2. Verify the Obvious Issues
Examine the most obvious causes of a problem.
 Loose or improper connections
Check the Device Manager; remove and reinsert components

 Power issues
Check power LEDs and power source

 Wireless network issues


Check network LEDs, Network Connections and wireless signal
strength

 Sound and audio issues


 Stylus issues
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3. Try Quick Solutions First

A quick solution can save time and money.


 Reboot the computer.
 Verify BIOS settings.
 Remove or unplug unnecessary peripherals.
 Use the Last Known Good Configuration option.

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4. Gather Data from the Computer
Data gathered from the laptop can be used to confirm
the problem description given by the customer.

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5. Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution
1. Evaluate the information gathered from the customer
and from the laptop
2. Determine possible solutions
 Previous experience of  Manufacturer FAQs
solving problems with
computers  Computer manuals

 Other technicians  Device manuals

 Internet search engines  Online forums and chat

 News groups  Technical websites

3. Implement the best solution

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6. Close with the Customer
 Discuss with customer the solution implemented.
 Have customer verify problem is solved.
 Provide all paperwork to customer.
 Document steps of solution.
 Document components used in repair.
 Document time spent to resolve the problem.

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Common Problems and Solutions
Problem Symptom Possible Solution

Disconnect any external monitors


LCD laptop screen is not
and use Fn key sequence to
displaying anything
activate the LCD

Swap laptop to AC power and


Image on the LCD screen is too
adjust brightness controls for the
dim
LCD

Image on the LCD screen contains


Adjust display resolution setting
a black border

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Chapter 6 Summary
Laptops and Portable Devices
 Description of portable devices
 Laptop components
 Configuration procedures
 Preventive maintenance techniques

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Additional Resources
 Whatis?com: IT Encyclopedia and Learning Center
http://whatis.com
 TechTarget: The Most Targeted IT Media http://techtarget.com
 ZDNet: Tech News, Blogs and White Papers for IT Professionals
http://www.zdnet.com
 HowStuffWorks: It's Good to Know
http://computer.howstuffworks.com
 CNET.com http://www.cnet.com
 PC World http://www.pcworld.com
 ComputerWorld http://www.computerworld.com
 WIRED NEWS http://www.wired.com
 eWEEK.com http://www.eweek.com
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Q and A

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Chapter 7
Printers and Scanners

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Chapter 7 Objectives
 7.1 Describe the types of printers currently available
 7.2 Describe the installation and configuration process
for printers
 7.3 Describe the types of scanners currently available
 7.4 Describe the installation and configuration process
for scanners
 7.5 Identify and apply common preventive maintenance
techniques for printers and scanners
 7.6 Troubleshoot printers and scanners

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Chapter 7 Labs

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Introduction
 Printers produce paper copies of electronic files.
Hard copies of computer documents remain important today.
 Scanners allow users to convert paper documents into
electronic files.

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Types of Printers
 Computer technicians should know how to purchase,
repair, or maintain a printer.
 A customer may request a technician to:
Select a printer
Install and configure a printer
Troubleshoot a printer

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Printers: Speed and Capacity
Printers available today are:
 Laser printers using electrophotographic technology
 Inkjet printers using electrostatic spray technology
 Dot matrix printers using impact technology
Used in applications that require multiple (“carbon”) copies
 Printer speed is measured in pages per minute (ppm):
Inkjet Printer 2 - 6 ppm
Laser Printer 8 - 200 ppm
 Price of a printer reflects its capacity and speed

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Printers: Color and Quality
 The choice between a black-and-white printer and a
color printer depends on the needs of customers.
 A printer produces colors using subtractive mixing.
The eye sees a color that reflects from the combination of colors
on the paper.
Color wheel
The colors are cyan,
magenta, yellow,
and black (CMYK).
Quality is measured in
dots per inch (dpi).
 The more dpi,
the higher the resolution
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Printers: Reliability and Cost
 Factors of reliability include:
Warranty
Scheduled servicing
Mean time between failures (MTBF)
 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) includes:
Initial purchase price
Cost of supplies, such as paper and ink
Price per page
Maintenance costs
Warranty costs
The amount of material to be printed

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Printer to Computer Interfaces
To access a printer, a computer must have an interface with
it. The following are common interface types:
 Serial data transfer is the movement of single bits of information
in a single cycle.
Serial ports are D-shell and are either male or female ports
 Parallel data transfer is the movement of multiple bits of
information in a single cycle.
Parallel data transfer is faster than serial data transfer
 Small Computer System Interface (SCSI), pronounced “scuzzy”,
uses parallel communication to achieve high data-transfer rates.
 Universal Serial Bus (USB) is a common interface for printers and
other devices.

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More Interface Types
 Firewire is also known as i.LINK or IEEE 1394 and is a
high-speed, communication bus that is platform
independent. Firewire devices are hot-swappable.
 Ethernet is an interface for network printers, which are
usually a resource shared on a network.
 Wireless printing technology:
Infrared requires transmitters and receivers on both devices, a
clear line of sight between the transmitter and receiver, and a
maximum distance of 15 ft (4.5 m).
Bluetooth technology uses an unlicensed radio frequency for
short-range communication.
Wi-Fi or IEEE 802.11 is a standard for wireless communication.

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Laser Printers
 A laser printer is a high-quality, fast printer that uses a laser beam to
create an image.
 The main components contained within a laser printer:
Toner cartridge
Laser scanner
High-voltage power supply
Paper transport mechanism
Transfer corona
Fuser assembly
Control circuitry
Ozone filter

 NOTE: You should know the components of a laser printer and the
steps required to print a page.
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Laser Printing Process
 The laser printer process involves six steps to print
information onto a single sheet of paper

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WARNING
 The primary corona wire or grid, or the conditioning
roller, can be very dangerous.
 The voltage runs as high as -6000 volts.
 Only certified technicians should work on the unit.
 Before working inside a laser printer, you should make
sure that voltage is properly discharged.

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Impact Printers
 Impact printers form characters when the print head impacts
a printer tape or inked ribbon to create characters. (Daisy-
wheel and dot-matrix printers)
 Advantages:
Uses inexpensive consumables
Uses continuous feed paper
Has copy printing ability
(“carbon copies”)
 Disadvantages:
Noisy
Low resolution graphics
Limited color capability
Slow printing, normally 32 to 76 characters per second (cps)
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Inkjet Printers
 Use ink-filled cartridges that spray ink onto a page through tiny
holes, or nozzles. The ink is sprayed in a pattern on the page,
one column of dots at a time.
Produce high quality print
Easy to use
Inexpensive compared to laser printers
 Two types of inkjet nozzles:
Thermal - A pulse of electrical current is applied to heating chambers
around the nozzles. The heat creates a bubble of steam in the
chamber which forces ink out through the nozzle.
A charge is applied to piezoelectric crystals, located in the ink
reservoir at the back of each nozzle. This charge causes the crystals
to vibrate. The vibration controls the flow of ink onto the paper.

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Inkjet Printer Components
 A feeding mechanism draws paper in and the paper
passes by the print head where ink is sprayed onto it.
 Paper leaves the printer through the discharge
mechanism, and is wet for about 15 seconds.

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Solid-ink Printers
Use solid sticks of ink rather than toner or ink cartridges
 The printing process:
Step 1: Cleaning
Step 2: Spraying
Step 3: Transferring
 Advantages:
Produces vibrant color prints
Easy to use
Can use many different paper types

 Disadvantages:
Expensive (the printer and ink)
Slow to warm up
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Thermal Printers
 A thermal printer uses chemically-treated paper that
becomes black when heated.
 A thermal transfer printer uses heat-sensitive ribbon,
which the print head melts onto the paper.
 Thermal printers have a longer life because there are few
moving parts.
 Disadvantages:
Paper is expensive
Paper has a short shelf life
Images are poor quality
Paper must be stored at
room temperature
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Dye-Sublimation Printers
 Also called thermal dye printers
 Usually used in producing photo-quality images for graphic
printing
 Uses solid sheets of ink that change directly from solid to gas
when heated, in a process called sublimating
 Advantages:
Very high quality images
Overcoat layer reduces smearing, increases moisture resistance

 Disadvantages:
Media can be expensive
They are better for color than for
grayscale (black and white)
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Installation and Configuration of Printers
When purchasing a printer, the installation and
configuration information is usually supplied by the
manufacturer:

 An installation CD that
includes drivers, manuals,
and diagnostic software
 Also available as
downloads from the
manufacturer's website

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How to Set Up a Printer
1. Check the box to ensure all required cables are
provided.
2. Remove packing materials from the printer and plastic
inserts from the consumables.
3. Place printer in position. Ensure that the printer
location will not cause overheating.
4. Install paper trays.
5. Install paper.
6. Read and follow the instruction manual .
7. Connect cables.
8. Test print from computer.
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Power and Connect the Printer
1. Connect the appropriate data cable to the
communication port on the back of the printer.
2. Attach the power cable to the printer and the
other end to an available electrical outlet.
Warning: Never plug a printer into a UPS. The
power surge that occurs when the printer is
turned on will damage the UPS unit.

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Printer Driver
Printer driver is the software program that enables the
computer and the printer to communicate with each
other.
1. Find out if a newer driver is
available on the
manufacturer’s website
2. Download the driver files to
your computer
3. Install the driver
automatically or manually
4. Test the new printer driver

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Printer Firmware
 Firmware is a set of instructions stored on the printer
to control how the printer operates.
 If printing problems occur or you need new features,
consider upgrading the printer's firmware.
 Download the upgrade file from the manufacturer's
website and run a setup file to install it.

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Printer Memory
 Printer memory is used to buffer print jobs, create
pages, or draw images for documents.
Adding printer memory can improve printing speed and allow the
printer to handle more complex print jobs.
 Print-job buffering is the ability of the printer to capture
as much of the print job into its internal memory as
possible.
 Consult the documentation for memory requirements:
Memory specifications
Memory population and availability

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Upgrade Printer Memory
1. Turn off the printer.
2. Disconnect all cables.
3. Open the memory compartment.
4. Replace memory modules or add new modules.
5. Close the memory compartment.
6. Reconnect all cables.
7. Power on printer.
8. Run a self-test.
9. Print a test page.

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Configuration Options and Defaults
Common printer settings:
 Paper type
 Print quality
 Color printing
 Black-and-white printing
 Grayscale printing
 Paper size
 Paper orientation
 Print layout
 Duplex
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Optimize Printer Performance
 Print spool settings
You may store documents that are prepared for printing in a file
in RAM called the print spool.
Spooling programs allow the application you are printing from to
finish faster. You may also print directly to the printer.
 Printer calibration
You can adjust settings to match the colors seen on the screen
and the colors on printed sheet.
 Paper orientation
You can select landscape or portrait image layout.

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Print a Test Page
 Print a test page to verify the following:
The printer is operating properly
The driver software is installed and working correctly
The printer and computer are communicating
 To print a test page manually:
Start > Printers and Faxes
In the Printers and Faxes window, right-click the desired
printer and follow this path: Properties > General Tab >
Print Test Page
A dialog box will open, asking if the page printed correctly. If it
did not, then built-in Help will assist you in troubleshooting
the problem.

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Print from an Application
 To print from Notepad:
Start > Programs > Accessories > Notepad
A blank document will open.
Enter some text in the document.
File > Print

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Test a Printer from the Command Line
 Printing from the command line is limited to ASCII files
only, such as .txt and .bat files.
 To send a file to the printer from the command line, use
this path: Start > Run
 The Run box should pop up. Type cmd in the Run box,
and then click OK.
 At the command line prompt, enter the following
command: Print thefile.txt

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Test Printer from Printer Panel
 Most printers have a front
panel with controls to allow
you to generate test pages.
 This method of printing
enables you to verify the
printer operation separately
from the network or computer.
 Consult the printer manufacturer's website or
documentation to learn how to print a test page from the
front panel of the printer.

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Sharing a Printer
 Printer sharing enables multiple network users or clients
to access a printer. Windows 2000/XP installs the print
sharing capability in the basic setup.

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Printer Sharing
1. Click Start > Printers and
Faxes.
2. Right-click the printer and
choose Properties.
3. Select the Share tab.
4. Click the Share this printer
radio button.
5. Keep or change share name.
6. Click Apply.

 To connect to the shared printer from another computer:


Choose Start > Printers and Faxes > Add Printer
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Types of Scanners
 Technicians may be required to purchase, repair, or
maintain a scanner.
 The following are tasks
that a customer may
request:
Select a scanner
Install and configure a
scanner
Troubleshoot a scanner

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Types of Scanners
 Scanners convert printed data or images into an
electronic data format that a computer can store or
process as required.
A scanned image can be saved, modified, and even e-mailed as
you would with any other file.

Flatbed
scanner

Handheld
All-in-one scanner
scanner
Drum scanner
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Resolution and OCR
 Features, quality, and speed of scanners vary.
Scanners typically create an RGB image that can be converted
into image formats such as JPEG, TIFF, Bitmap, and PNG.
An RGB image has three channels: red, green, and blue.
 Some scanners can create text documents using
optical character recognition (OCR).
OCR software is used to convert a scanned printed page into
text that can be edited with a word processor.
Resolution of a scanner is measured in dots per inch (dpi).
Like printers, the higher the dpi, the better the quality of the
image.

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Interfaces and Cables
 To allow communication of data, the scanner and
computer must have compatible interfaces.
 Interfaces and cables used for printers are typically the
same as those used for scanners.

Serial

Parallel USB
Firewire
(Centronics
and DB-25)

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All-in-one Scanners
 An all-in-one device combines the
functionality of multiple devices into
one physical piece of hardware.
Scanner, Printer, Copier, and/or Fax

 Advantages:
All devices are built in
Low cost  Disadvantages:
One upgrade for all devices One problem effects all
Easy connection and setup devices
Uses one port for all devices Not designed for heavy use

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Flatbed Scanners
 Often used to scan books and photographs for archiving.
 Image is acquired by placing the document face down
on the glass. The scanner head lies beneath the glass
and moves along the item, capturing the image.
 Sheet feeders can be used with flatbed scanners to
scan multiple pages automatically.
 Maintenance:
Keep flatbed scanning glass clean.
Avoid placing items in the scanner that can scratch the glass.

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Handheld Scanners
 Pass the scanner head across the surface you want to
scan.
 When you want to scan an
item larger than the head of
the handheld scanner, you
must make more than one
pass to capture the full image
and then put the images back
together to form a single image
of the item that was scanned.

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Drum Scanners
 Produce a high-quality scanned image
 Usually used in commercial operations
 Being replaced by lower priced, high-quality flatbed scanners
 Still in use for high-end reproductions, such as archiving
photographs in museums
 To scan an image using a drum scanner:
Attach the image to a revolving drum or load it into a supporting
canister.
Drum is rotated at high speed across optical scanners. Optical
scanners move slowly across the drum surface until the entire
image is captured. The captured image is then reproduced by the
computer as a digital image file.

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Installation and Configuration
 An installation CD that includes drivers, manuals, and
diagnostic software will be included with the scanner.
The same tools may also be available as downloads from the
manufacturer's website.

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Power and Connect a Scanner
 Scanners can connect to a computer using a USB, FireWire,
network, or parallel port. Some scanners may connect using a
SCSI interface.
 Some scanners can draw all the power they need from the
USB or FireWire connector.
All-in-ones connect directly to AC power.
Scanners that do not include a printer can connect using an AC
power adapter.
 After unpacking the scanner, connect the appropriate power
and data cables.
CAUTION: Some scanners are packed for shipping with the
scanner assembly taped or blocked off to prevent damage in
transport.
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Install and Update Device Driver
 Once the scanner is connected and started, the computer
operating system may be able to discover the scanner
through the Plug and Play (PnP) process.

 Install the driver software from the manufacturer.


The manufacturer's website may provide more up-to-date
software.
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Configuration Options and Defaults
 A scanner may come with applications such as:
Graphic software for editing photographs and other images
OCR software that converts text in an image to a text
document
 Configurations may include:
Color, grayscale, or black-and-white scanning
One-touch scanning into your choice of software
Quality and resolution choices
Sheet feeders
 Color calibration between devices is important so
that you see true representations of color.
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Preventive Maintenance Techniques
 Printers and scanners have many moving parts that
can wear out over time or through extended use.
Moving parts can be affected by dust and other particles.
 Clean printers and scanners regularly to avoid
downtime, loss of productivity, and high repair costs.

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Printer Maintenance
 Printers have many moving parts and require more
maintenance than most electronic devices.
 CAUTION: Unplug the printer from the electrical source
before beginning maintenance.
 Techniques for maintaining printers:
Use manufacturer monitoring and diagnostic software.
Dot matrix printers have roller surfaces that you should clean
with a damp cloth.
Inkjet printers have paper-handling mechanisms that may
collect particles of paper over time. Wipe the area with a damp
cloth.
Clean a laser printer with a special vacuum cleaner (not a
household type) if you spill the toner. Unplug a laser printer
before cleaning it due to the high voltages.
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Printer Paper and Ink
 The correct type of paper helps the printer operate
better.
 Types of printer paper available include inkjet and
laser.
 Some papers, especially photo paper and
transparencies, have a right and wrong side marked by
an arrow on the package.
 Manufacturer will recommend the brand and type of ink
to use.
 If the wrong type of ink is used, the printer may not
work or the print quality may be reduced.
 Do not refill ink cartridges because the ink may leak.
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Scanner Maintenance
 The scanner surface should be kept clean. If the glass
becomes dirty, consult the manufacturer's user manual.
To prevent liquid from leaking into the scanner case, do not
spray glass cleaner directly on the device. Dampen a cloth with
cleaner, and then apply gently to the glass.
 If the inside of the glass becomes dirty, check the
manual for instructions on how to open the unit or
remove the glass from the scanner.
If possible, clean both sides of the glass.
When the scanner is not in use, keep lid
closed.
Never lay anything heavy on a scanner.
Store handheld scanners in a safe place.
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Troubleshooting Printers and Scanners
Step 1 Gather data from the customer
Step 2 Verify the obvious issues
Step 3 Try quick solutions first
Step 4 Gather data from the computer
Step 5 Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
Step 6 Close with the customer

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1. Gather Data from the Customer
 Customer information
Company name, contact name, address, phone number

 Printer or scanner information


Manufacturer, model, OS, network environment, connection
type

 Description of problem
Open-ended questions
What were you doing when the problem was identified?
Closed-ended questions
Can you print from an application?

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2. Verify the Obvious Issues
Some of the areas to investigate or have the customer
confirm include:
 Loose cable connections  Out of paper
 Errors on equipment display  Printer queue
 Errors on computer screen  Paper jams
 Equipment power  Low ink warning

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3. Try Quick Solutions First
 Printer or scanner problems may be either in the
hardware or the software.
 Quick hardware solutions to try:
Restart the printer or scanner Restart the computer
Ensure printer doors are closed Reconnect the cables
Check printer for paper jams Reseat paper in trays
Open and close printer trays
 Quick software solutions to try:
Print from another application
Remove all print jobs from the queue: Start > Printers and
Faxes > double-click the printer > Printer > Cancel All
Documents
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4. Gather Data from the Computer
The data gathered from the computer can be used to
confirm the data obtained from the customer.
 Ensure the correct printer is selected as default.
 Check that the correct services are running.
 Check print monitor.
 Ensure there are no hardware issues in Device
Manager.
 Ensure the printer or scanner is configured correctly in
the Control Panel.

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5. Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution
If necessary, research and prioritize other possible solutions,
from the easiest to implement to the most difficult.
 Go to the manufacturer's website to get the most recent
information about the printer or scanner:
Known issues with hardware
Latest version of the drivers
Proper driver for software platform
Latest version of utilities and software
FAQs

Note: Try each solution one at a time. If a solution is tried and


the problem is not fixed, then the technician should totally
reverse the attempted solution before proceeding to the
next step.
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6. Close with the Customer
 Closing with the customer is the final step in the
troubleshooting process.
Complete the work order.
Communicate what the problem was and how it was fixed.
Have the customer test the solution and verify that the printer or
scanner is working correctly.
 Complete all documentation and prepare an invoice for
the customer, if applicable.
Include the problem, the solution, the time it took to resolve the
problem, and your contact information.

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Common Problems and Solutions

Problem Symptom Possible Solution

Delete the print job from the


Printer will not print
queue and print again

Printer is printing unknown Uninstall and reinstall the


characters print driver

Laser printer prints lines or


Replace the toner cartridge
streaks on every page

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Chapter 7 Summary
Printers and Scanners
 Types and sizes of printers and scanners
 Capabilities, speeds, and uses
 Connection types, cables, and interfaces
 Installing and sharing printers
 Installing scanners

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Additional Resources
 Whatis?com: IT Encyclopedia and Learning Center
http://whatis.com
 TechTarget: The Most Targeted IT Media http://techtarget.com
 ZDNet: Tech News, Blogs and White Papers for IT Professionals
http://www.zdnet.com
 HowStuffWorks: It's Good to Know
http://computer.howstuffworks.com
 CNET.com http://www.cnet.com
 PC World http://www.pcworld.com
 ComputerWorld http://www.computerworld.com
 WIRED NEWS http://www.wired.com
 eWEEK.com http://www.eweek.com
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Q and A

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Chapter 8
Networks

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Chapter 8 Objectives
 8.1 Explain the principles of networking
 8.2 Describe types of networks
 8.3 Describe basic networking concepts and technologies
 8.4 Describe the physical components of a network
 8.5 Describe LAN topologies and architectures
 8.6 Identify standards organizations
 8.7 Identify Ethernet standards
 8.8 Explain OSI and TCP/IP data models
 8.9 Describe how to configure a NIC and a modem
 8.10 Identify names, purposes, and characteristics of other technologies used to
establish connectivity
 8.11 Identify and apply common preventive maintenance techniques used for
networks
 8.12 Troubleshoot a network
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Chapter 8 Worksheets, Activities, and Labs
 8.1.2 Activity: Advantages and Disadvantages of Networking
 8.2.3 Activity: Network Types
 8.3.2 Worksheet: Identify IP Address Classes
 8.3.4 Activity: Network Protocols
 8.8.3 Activity: OSI Model
 8.9.1 Worksheet: Internet Search for NIC Drivers
 8.9.2 Lab: Configure an Ethernet NIC to use DHCP
 8.10.3 Worksheet: Answer Broadband Questions
 8.12.2 Worksheet: Diagnose a Network Problem

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Introduction
 Chapter 8 is an overview of network principles,
standards, and purposes
 It covers the following types of networks:
Local Area Network (LAN)
Metropolitan Area Network(MAN)
Wide Area Network (WAN)
Wireless LAN (WLAN)
 These topics are covered:
Network topologies, protocols, and logical models
Hardware needed to create a network
Configuration, troubleshooting, and preventive maintenance
Network software, communication methods, and hardware
relationships
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Principles of Networking
 Networks are systems that are formed by links.
 People use different types of networks every day:
Mail delivery system
Telephone system
Public transportation system
Corporate computer network
The Internet

 Computers can be linked by networks to share data and


resources.
 A network can be as simple as two computers
connected by a single cable or as complex as hundreds
of computers connected to devices that control the flow
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Computer Networks
 Network devices include:
Desktop and laptop computers
Printers and scanners
PDAs and Smartphones
File and print servers
 Resources shared across networks include:
Services, such as printing or scanning
Storage devices, such as hard drives or optical drives
Applications, such as databases
 Different types of network media:
Copper cabling
Fiber-optic cabling
Wireless connection
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Benefits of Networking
 Fewer peripherals
needed
 Increased
communication
capabilities
 Avoid file duplication
and corruption
 Lower cost licensing
 Centralized
administration
 Conserve resources
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Types of Networks
A computer network is identified by:
 The type of media used to connect the devices
 The type of networking
devices used
 How the resources are
managed
 How the network is
organized
 How the data is stored
 The area it serves

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Local Area Network (LAN)
 A group of interconnected
computers that is under the
same administrative control.
 Can be as small as a single
local network installed in a
home or small office.
 Can consist of
interconnected local
networks consisting of
many hundreds of hosts,
installed in multiple
buildings and locations.
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Wide Area Network (WAN)
 A WAN connects LANs in geographically separated
locations.
 A WAN covers a much larger
area than a LAN.
The Internet is a large WAN.
 Telecommunications service
providers (TSP) are used to
interconnect these LANs at
different locations.

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Wireless LAN (WLAN)
 Wireless devices are used to transmit and receive
data using radio waves.
 Wireless devices connect to access points within a
specified area.
 Access points connect to the
network using copper cabling.
 WLAN coverage can be limited
to the area of a room, or can
have greater range.
 You can share resources such
as files and printers, and access
the Internet on a WLAN.
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Peer-to-Peer Networking
 Share files, send messages, and print to a shared printer.
 Each computer has similar capabilities and
responsibilities.
 Each user decides which data and devices to share.
 No central point of control in the network.
 Best if there are ten or fewer computers.

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Disadvantages of Peer-to-Peer
 Without centralized network administration, it is difficult
to determine who controls network resources.
 Without centralized security, each computer must use
separate security measures for data protection.
 More complex and difficult to manage as the number
of computers on the network increases.
 Without centralized data storage, data backups must
be performed by users.

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Client/Server Network
 Client/server network model provides security and
control for the network.
 Client requests information or services from the server.
 Server provides the requested information or service.
 Servers are maintained by network administrators.
Data backups and security measures
Control of user access to network resources
 Centralized storage and services include:
Data stored on a centralized file server
Shared printers managed by a print server
Users have proper permissions to access data or printers
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Networking Concepts and Technologies
 A computer technician is required to configure and
troubleshoot computers on a network.
 A computer technician should understand IP
addressing, protocols, and other network concepts.

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Bandwidth
 amount of data that can
be transmitted within a
fixed time period
 measured in bits per
second and is usually
denoted by the following:
bps - bits per second
Kbps - kilobits per
second
Mbps - megabits per
second

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Three Modes of Transmission
Data is transmitted in one of three modes:
1. Simplex (Unidirectional transmission) is a single, one-way
transmission.
Example: The signal sent from a TV station to your TV.
2. Half-duplex allows data to flow in one direction at a time.
Simultaneous transmission in two directions is not allowed.
Example: Two-way radios, police or emergency mobile radios
3. Full-duplex allows data to flow in both directions at the same
time.
Bandwidth is measured in only one direction. 100 Mbps full-duplex
means a bandwidth of 100 Mbps in each direction.
Broadband technologies, such as digital subscriber line (DSL) and
cable, operate in full-duplex mode.
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IP Address
 An IP address is a unique number that is used to identify a
network device.
 An IP address is represented as a 32-bit binary number,
divided into four octets (groups of eight bits):
Example: 10111110.01100100.00000101.00110110
 An IP address is also represented in a dotted decimal
format.
Example: 190.100.5.54
 When a host is configured with an IP address, it is entered as
a dotted decimal number, such as 192.168.1.5.
 Unique IP addresses on a network ensure that data can be
sent to and received from the correct network device.
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IP Address Classes
 Class A (1-127) and Default Gateway: 255.0.0.0 (/8)
Large networks, implemented by large companies and some
countries
 Class B (128-191) and Default Gateway: 255.255.0.0 (/16)
Medium-sized networks, implemented by universities
 Class C (192-223) and Default Gateway: 255.255.255.0 (/24)
Small networks, implemented by ISP for customer subscriptions
 Class D (224-239)
Special use for multicasting
 Class E (240-255)
Used for experimental testing
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Subnet Masks
 Used to indicate the network portion of an IP address
 Is a dotted decimal number
 Usually, all hosts within a broadcast domain of a LAN
(bounded by routers) use the same subnet mask.
 The default subnet masks for three classes of IP addresses:
255.0.0.0 is the subnet mask for Class A
255.255.0.0 is the subnet mask for Class B
255.255.255.0 is the subnet mask for Class C
 If an organization owns one Class B network but needs to
provide IP addresses for four LANs, the organization will
subdivide the Class B network into four smaller parts by using
subnetting, which is a logical division of a network. The subnet
mask specifies how it is subdivided.
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IP Address Configuration
 Manual configuration
Manually configure each device with the proper IP address and
subnet mask.
 Dynamic configuration
A Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) server
automatically assigns IP addresses to network hosts.
 Network Interface Card (NIC) is the hardware that enables a
computer to connect to a network and it has two addresses:
The IP address is a logical address that can be changed.
The Media Access Control (MAC) address is "burned-in" or
permanently programmed into the NIC when manufactured.
The MAC address cannot be changed.

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Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP)
 DHCP automatically
provides computers with an
IP address.
 The DHCP server can
assign these to hosts:
IP address
Subnet mask
Default gateway
Domain Name System (DNS)
server address

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DHCP Process and Advantages
DHCP process:
1. DHCP server receives a request from a host.
2. Server selects IP address information from a database.
3. Server offers the addresses to requesting host.
4. If the host accepts the offer, the server leases the IP
address for a specific period of time.
Advantages of DHCP:
 Simplifies the administration of a network
 Reduces the possibility of assigning duplicate or invalid
addresses

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Configure Host to Use DHCP
Configure the host to "Obtain an IP address automatically"
in the TCP/IP properties of the NIC configuration
window

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Internet Protocols
 A protocol is a set of rules.
 Internet protocols are sets of rules governing communication
within and between computers on a network.
 Many protocols consist of a suite (or group) of protocols
stacked in layers. These layers depend on the operation of
the other layers in the suite to function properly.
 The main functions of protocols:
Identifying errors
Compressing the data
Deciding how data is to be sent
Addressing data
Deciding how to announce sent and received data
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Common Network Protocols
Protocols used for browsing the web, sending and receiving
e-mail, and transferring data files
Description
TCP/IP A protocol used to transport data on the Internet.
NETBEUI A small, fast protocol designed for a workgroup network that
NETBIOS requires no connection to the Internet.
IPX and
A protocol used to transport data on a Novell Netware network.
SPX
HTTP and
A protocol that defines how files are exchanged on the Web.
HTTPS
FTP A protocol that provides services for file transfer and manipulation.
SSH A protocol that is used to connect computers together securely.
Telnet A protocol that uses a text-based connection to a remote computer.
POP A protocol used to download email messages from an email server.
IMAP A protocol used to download email messages from an email server.
SMTP A protocol used to send mail in a TCP/IP network.
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Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is used by
devices on a network to send control and error
messages to computers and servers.
 PING (Packet Internet Groper) is a simple command
line utility used to test connections between computers
Used to determine whether a specific IP address is accessible.
Used with either the hostname or the IP address.
Works by sending an ICMP echo request to a destination
computer.
Receiving device sends back an ICMP echo reply message.

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Ping Command Switches

These command line switches (options) can be used


with the ping command.
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Output of the Ping Command
 Four ICMP echo requests (pings) are sent to the
destination computer to determine the reliability and
reachability of the destination computer.

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Physical Network Components
 Network devices:
Computers
Hubs
Switches
Routers
Wireless access points
 Network media:
Twisted-pair copper cabling
Fiber-optic cabling
Radio waves

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Hubs

 Extend the range of a signal by receiving then


regenerating it and sending it out all other ports
 Traffic is sent out all ports of the hub
 Allow a lot of collisions on the network segment and
are often not a good solution
 Also called concentrators because they serve as a
central connection point for a LAN
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Bridges and Switches
 A packet, along with its MAC address information, is
called a frame.
 LANs are often divided into sections called segments
bounded by bridges.
 A bridge has the intelligence to determine if an
incoming frame is to be sent to a different segment, or
dropped. A bridge has two ports.
 A switch (multiport bridge) has
several ports and refers to a
table of MAC addresses to
determine which port to use to
forward the frame.
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Routers

 Routers are devices that connect entire networks to


each other.
Use IP addresses to forward packets to other networks.
Can be a computer with special network software installed.
Can be a device built by network equipment manufacturers.
Contain tables of IP addresses along with optimal routes to
other networks.

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Wireless Access Points
 Provide network access to
wireless devices such as
laptops and PDAs.
 Use radio waves to
communicate with radios in
computers, PDAs, and other
wireless access points.
 Have limited range of
coverage.

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Multipurpose Devices
 Perform more than one function.
 More convenient to purchase and
configure just one device.
 Combines the functions of a switch,
a router and a wireless access point
into one device.
 The Linksys 300N is an example of a
multipurpose device.

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Twisted-Pair Cabling
 A pair of twisted wires forms a circuit that transmits data.
 The twisted wires provide protection against crosstalk
(electrical noise) because of the cancellation effect.

Pairs of copper wires are encased


in color-coded plastic insulation
and twisted together.
An outer jacket, called poly-vinyl
chloride (PVC), protects the
bundles of twisted pairs.

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Two Basic Types of Twisted-Pair Cables
 Unshielded twisted-pair (UTP)
Has two or four pairs of wires
Relies on the cancellation effect for reduction of interference
caused by electromagnetic interface (EMI) and radio
frequency interference (RFI)
Most commonly used cabling in networks
Has a range of 328 ft (100 meters)
 Shielded twisted-pair (STP)
Each pair is wrapped in metallic foil to better shield the wires
from electrical noise and then the four pairs of wires are then
wrapped in an overall metallic braid or foil.
Reduces electrical noise from within the cable.
Reduces EMI and RFI from outside the cable.
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Category Rating
 UTP comes in several categories that are based on two
factors:
The number of wires in the cable
The number of twists in those wires
 Category 3 is used for telephone connections.
 Category 5 and Category 5e have are the most
common network cables used.
 Category 6 cable has higher data rate than the Cat 5
cables.

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Coaxial Cable
 A copper-cored network cable surrounded by a heavy
shielding

 Types of coaxial cable:


Thicknet or 10Base5 - Coax cable that was used in networks
and operated at 10 megabits per second with a maximum
length of 500 m
Thinnet or 10Base2 - Coax cable that was used in networks
and operated at 10 megabits per second with a maximum
length of 185 m
RG-59 - Most commonly used for cable television in the US
RG-6 - Higher quality cable than RG-59 with more bandwidth
and less susceptibility to interference

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Fiber-Optic Cable
 A glass or plastic strand that transmits
information using light and is made up of
one or more optical fibers enclosed together
in a sheath or jacket.
 Not affected by electromagnetic or radio
frequency interference.
 Signals are clearer, can go farther, and have
greater bandwidth than with copper cable.
 Usually more expensive than copper cabling
and the connectors are more costly and
harder to assemble.
 Two types of glass fiber-optic cable:
Multimode and Single-mode
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Two Types of LAN Topologies

Physical topology is the


physical layout of the
components on the
network

Logical topology
determines how the hosts
access the medium to
communicate across the
network
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LAN Physical Topologies
A physical topology defines the way in which computers,
printers, and other
devices are
connected to a
network.
 Bus
 Ring
 Star
 Hierarchical star
 Mesh

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Bus Topology
 Each computer connects
to a common cable
 Cable connects one
computer to the next
 Ends of the cable have a terminator installed to
prevent signal reflections and network errors
 Only one computer can transmit data at a time or
frames will collide and be destroyed
 Bus topology is rarely used today. Possibly suitable for
a home office or small business with few hosts

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Ring Topology
 Hosts are connected in a physical ring or circle.
 The ring has no beginning or end, so the cable does not
need to be terminated.
 A special frame, a token, travels
around the ring, stopping at each
host.
 The advantage of a ring topology
is that there are no collisions.
 There are two types of ring
topologies:
Single-ring and Dual-ring

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Star Topology
 Has a central connection point:
a hub, switch, or router
 Hosts connect directly to the
central point with a cable
 Costs more to implement than
the bus topology because more
cable is used, and a central
device is needed
 Easy to troubleshoot, since each host is connected to
the central device with its own wire.

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Hierarchical or Extended Star Topology
 A star network with an additional networking device
connected to the main networking device to increase
the size of the network.
 Used for larger networks

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Mesh Topology
 Connects all devices to each other
 Failure of any cable will not affect the network
 Used in WANs that interconnect LANs
 Expensive and difficult to install
because of the amount of cable
needed
 The Internet is an example of
a mesh topology
 Often used by governments
when data must be available
in the event of a partial network
failure
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Logical Topologies
The two most common types of logical topologies are
broadcast and token passing.
 In a broadcast topology, there is no order that the
hosts must follow to use the network – it is first come,
first served for transmitting data on the network.
 Token passing controls network access by passing an
electronic token sequentially to each host. When a host
receives the token, it can send data on the network. If
the host has no data to send, it passes the token to the
next host and the process repeats itself.

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LAN Architecture
 Is the overall structure of a computer or communication
system.
 Designed for a specific use and have different speeds
and capabilities.
 Describes both the physical and logical topologies used
in a network.
 The three most common LAN architectures:
Ethernet
Token Ring
Fiber-Distributed
Data Interface (FDDI)

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Ethernet
 Based on the IEEE 802.3 standard, which specifies
that a network use the Carrier Sense Multiple Access
with the Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) access control
method.
Hosts access the network using the first come, first served
broadcast topology method to transmit data.
 Standard transfer rates
10 Mbps (Ethernet) “10Base-T”
100 Mbps (FastEthernet) “100Base-T”
1000 Mbps = 1 Gbps (Gigabit Ethernet) “1000Base-T”

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Token Ring
 Reliable network architecture
 Originally developed by IBM
 Based on the token-passing
access control method
 Often integrated with IBM
mainframe systems
 Used with smaller computers and mainframes
 Physically, a star-wired ring because the outer appearance
of the network design is a star
 Inside the device, wiring forms a circular data path,
creating a logical ring
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Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI)
 A type of Token Ring network
 Often used for LANs, connecting several buildings in
an office complex or on a university campus
 Runs on fiber-optic cable
 High-speed performance combined with token-passing
advantage
 Runs at 100 Mbps with a primary and secondary ring
topology
 Normally, traffic flows only on the primary ring and uses
a secondary ring is a backup.
 FDDI dual ring supports up to 500 computers per ring
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Standards Organizations
Name Type Standards Established

ITU Telecommunication one of the three Sectors of Standards covering all


Became ITU-T in
ITU-T Standardization Sector the International fields of
1992
(formerly CCITT) Telecommunication Union telecommunications

Standards for the


Institute of Electrical and A non-profit, technical
IEEE Electronics Engineers professional association
computer and electronics 1884
industry

International A network of the national Promote the development


ISO Organization for standards institutes of 157 of international standards 1947
Standardization countries agreements
Oversees the technical
Internet Architecture A committee; an advisory and engineering 1979; first named
IAB Board body development of the ICCB
Internet
International Standards for all
IEC Electrotechnical Global organization electrical, electronic, and 1906
Commission related technologies

American National Private, non-profit Seeks to establish


ANSI Standards Institute organization consensus among groups
1918

Telecommunications After the


Industry Association / Standards for voice and deregulation of the
TIA/EIA Electronic Industries
Trade associations
data wiring for LANs U.S. telephone
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Ethernet Standards
Ethernet protocols describe the rules that control how
communication occurs on an Ethernet network.
 The 802.2 standard defines how a device addresses
other devices on the medium.
 The 802.3 standard defines
the methodology that devices
must use when they use the
media.
 The 802.11x standards define
how wireless devices
communicate using radio
waves.
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Cabled Ethernet Standards
 IEEE 802.3 Ethernet standard specifies that a network implement
the CSMA/CD access control method.
 In CSMA/CD operation:
All end stations "listen" to the network wire for clearance to send data.
When the end station detects that no other host is transmitting, the
end station will attempt to send data.
If no other station sends any data at the same time, this transmission
will arrive at the destination computer successfully.
If another end station transmits at the same time, a collision will occur
on the network media.
The first station that detects the collision, sends out a jam signal to tell
all stations to stop transmitting and to run a backoff algorithm.
All stations stop transmitting and re-try after a random period of time.

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10BASE-T
 10BASE-T is an Ethernet technology that uses a star topology.
The ten (10) represents a speed of 10 Mbps.
BASE represents baseband transmission.
The T represents twisted-pair cabling.
 Advantages of 10BASE-T:
Installation is inexpensive compared to fiber-optic installation.
Cables are thin, flexible, and easier to install than coaxial
cabling.
Equipment and cables are easy to upgrade.
 Disadvantages of 10BASE-T:
The maximum length for a 10BASE-T segment is 328 ft (100 m).
Cables are susceptible to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI).
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100BASE-TX “FastEthernet”
 Has a theoretical bandwidth of 100 Mbps.
 The "X" indicates different types of copper and fiber-optic
can be used.
 Advantages of 100BASE-TX:
Transfer rates of 100BASE-TX are ten times that of 10BASE-T
100BASE-X uses twisted-pair, inexpensive and easy to install
 Disadvantages of 100BASE-TX:
Maximum length for a 100BASE-TX segment is 329 ft (100 m).
Cables are susceptible to Electromagnetic Interference (EMI).

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1000BASE-TX “Gigabit Ethernet”
 Advantages of 1000BASE-T:
1 Gbps is ten times faster than Fast Ethernet and 100 times
faster than Ethernet.
Increased speed makes it possible to implement bandwidth-
intensive applications, such as live video.
The 1000BASE-T architecture has interoperability with 10BASE-
T and 100BASE-TX.
 Disadvantages of 1000BASE-T:
Maximum length for a 1000BASE-T segment is 328 ft (100 m).
It is susceptible to interference.
Gigabit NICs and Switches are expensive.
Additional equipment is required.
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Wireless Ethernet Standards
 IEEE 802.11 is the standard that specifies connectivity
for wireless networks.
 Wi-Fi (wireless fidelity), refers to the 802.11 family
802.11 (the original specification)
802.11b
802.11a
802.11g
802.11n
These protocols specify the frequencies, speeds, and other
capabilities of the different Wi-Fi standards.

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IEEE 802.11a WLAN Standard
 Allows data rates as high as 54 Mbps
 Devices operate in the 5 GHz radio frequency range
 Avoids some interference issues of 802.11b
 802.11a is not backward compatible to 802.11b
 Dual mode wireless NICs are available
 802.11a has a range of approximately 100 ft (30 m)

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IEEE 802.11b WLAN Standard
 Operates in the 2.4 GHz frequency range
 Maximum theoretical data rate of 11 Mbps, but typically
about 6.5 Mbps
 Average range of approximately 100 ft (30 m) at 11
Mbps and 295 ft (90 m) at 1 Mbps
 Range fluctuates depending on the operational speed.
 Signal quality dictates the operational speed of 802.11b.
 Bluetooth devices, cordless phones, and even
microwave ovens operate in the 2.4 GHz band, possibly
causing interference.

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IEEE 802.11g and 802.11n
 802.11g
Allows data rates as high as 54 Mbps
Operates in the same 2.4 GHz spectrum as 802.11b
802.11g is backward compatible with 802.11b
Interoperability among all speeds (a, b, g) exists
Average range of approximately 100 ft (30 m)
 802.11n
Has a theoretical bandwidth of 540 Mbps
Operates in either the 2.4 GHz or 5 GHz frequency range
Maximum range of 164 ft (50 m)
Expected approval for 802.11n is April 2008 or earlier
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Wireless Ethernet Standards
Bandwidth Frequency Range Interoperability

Not interoperable with


100 feet
802.11a Up to 54 Mbps 5 GHz band
(30 meters)
802.11b, 802.11g, or
802.11n

100 feet Interoperable with


802.11b Up to 11 Mbps 2.4 GHz band
(30 meters) 802.11g

100 feet Interoperable with


802.11g Up to 54 Mbps 2.4 GHz band
(30 meters) 802.11b

802.11n 164 feet Interoperable with


Up to 540 Mbps 2.4 GHz band
(Pre-standard) (50 meters) 802.11b and 802.11g

2.4 GHz band


802.15.1 Up to 2 Mbps or 5 GHz
30 feet Not interoperable with
Bluetooth (10 meters) any other 802.11
band
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OSI and TCP/IP Data Models
 Architectural model
Separates functions of protocols into manageable layers
Each layer performs a specific function in network
communication
 TCP/IP model
A four-layer model that explains the TCP/IP suite of protocols
TCP/IP is the dominant standard for transporting data across
networks
 Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model
Standards defining how devices communicate on a network
Ensures interoperability between network devices

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The TCP/IP Reference Model
 Frame of reference used to develop the Internet's protocols
 Consists of layers that perform functions necessary to
prepare data for transmission over a network

Description Protocols
Provides network services to user HTTP, HTML, Telnet,
Application applications FTP, SMTP, DNS

Provides end-to-end management of data


Transport and divides data into segments
TCP, UDP

Provides connectivity between hosts in the


Internet network
IP, ICMP, RIP, ARP

Network Describes the standards that hosts use to


Access access the physical media
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The OSI Model
 The OSI model is an industry standard framework that is
used to divide network communications into seven
layers.
 Although other models exist, most network vendors
today build their products using this framework.
 A protocol stack is a system that implements protocol
behavior using a series of layers.
Protocol stacks can be implemented either in hardware or
software, or in a combination of both.
Typically, only the lower layers are implemented in hardware,
and the higher layers are implemented in software.

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The OSI Model
Layer Description
Application 7 Responsible for network services to applications
Transforms data formats to provide a standard interface
Presentation 6 for the Application layer
Establishes, manages and terminates the connections
Session 5 between the local and remote application
Provides reliable transport and flow control across a
Transport 4 network
Responsible for logical addressing and the domain of
Network 3 routing
Provides physical addressing and media access
Data Link 2 procedures
Defines all the electrical and physical specifications for
Physical 1 devices

Remember the OSI layers with this mnemonic:


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Compare OSI and TCP/IP Models

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Configuring a NIC and a Modem
 Install the NIC and the driver.
NIC
If necessary, download an updated driver from the
manufacturer.
 Connect the computer to
the network.
 Also, you may need to
install a modem to
connect to the Internet.
Modem

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Install or Update a NIC Driver
 Manufacturers publish new driver software for NICs
May enhance the functionality of the NIC
May be needed for operating system compatibility
 Install a new driver
Disable virus protection software
Install only one driver at a time
Close all applications that are running so that they are not
using any files associated with the driver update.
Visit the manufacturer's website and download a self-
extracting executable driver file that will automatically
install or update the driver

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Install or Update a NIC Driver
 Alternatively, you can click the
Update Driver button in the
toolbar of the Device
Manager.
 After updating the driver,
reboot the computer.
 If a new NIC driver does not
perform as expected after it
has been installed, the driver
can be uninstalled, or rolled
back, to the previous driver.

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Attach Computer to Existing Network
 Plug a network cable into the
network port on the computer.
 Plug the other end into the
network device or wall jack.
 After connecting the network
cable, look at the LEDs, or link
lights, next to the Ethernet port
on the NIC.
 If there is no activity, you may
have to replace a faulty cable,
a faulty hub port, or even a
faulty NIC to correct the
problem.
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Configure the NIC
 The computer will now need an IP address.
If the computer does not acquire an IP address from a DHCP
server, you will need to enter a unique IP address in the TCP/IP
properties of the NIC.
Click Start > Control Panel > Network Connections > Local
Area Connection
 Every NIC must be configured with the following information:
The same protocol must be implemented between any two
computers that communicate on the same network.
The IP address must be unique to each device and can be
configured manually or dynamically.
The MAC address is a unique address assigned by the
manufacturer and cannot be changed.
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What is the Assigned IP Address?
If you do not know your IP address yet, use the ipconfig
program, to find it.

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Test Connectivity Using Ping
 Ping your own IP address to make sure your NIC is
working properly.
 Ping your default gateway or another computer on your
network.
 Ping a popular website.
 If you cannot ping one
of these items, you may
need to begin
troubleshooting.

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Modem Installation
 A modem is an electronic device that transfers data
between one computer and another using analog signals
over a telephone line.
A transmitting modem converts digital data to analog signals,
called modulation.
The receiving modem reconverts the analog signals back to
digital data, called demodulation.
 An internal modem plugs into an expansion slot on the
motherboard and a software driver is installed.
 External modems connect to a computer through the
serial and USB ports and also require a software driver.

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Dial-up Networking (DUN)
 When computers use the public telephone system to
communicate, it is called dial-up networking (DUN).
 Modems communicate with each other using audio tone
signals. DUN creates a Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)
connection between two computers over a phone line.
 After the line connection has been established, a
"handshaking sequence" takes place between the two
modems and the computers.
 The digital signals from the computers must be converted to
an analog signal to travel across telephone lines. They are
converted back to the digital form, 1s and 0s, by the
receiving modem so that the receiving computer can process
the data.
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AT Commands
 AT (“Attention”) Commands - commands for modems
Function
AT modem
Most Attention code
software that the
uses precedes all modem actioncommand
Hayes-compatible commands
set.
AP Dial the phone number, xxxxxxx, using pulse dialing

ATDT
Thexxxxxxx
AT command set isnumber,
Dial the phone usedxxxxxxx,
to issue dial,
using tonehang
dialingup,
reset,
ATA and other
Answer instructions to the modem.
the phone immediately
ATHO Hang
Most modem upmanuals
user the phone list
immediately
the AT command set.
ATZ Reset the modem to its power up settings
 The Standard Hayes compatible code to dial is
ATF
ATDxxxxxxxReset modem parameters and settings to the factory defaults
AT+++ Break the signal, change from data mode to command mode
Usually no spaces in an AT string.
P Signifies pulse dialing
The "x" signifies the number dialed.
T Signifies tone dialing
Seven
W digitsIndicates
for a local
that call and 11will
the modem digits
waitfor long-distance.

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Other Types of Connectivity
 Phone, cable, satellite, and private telecommunications
companies provide Internet connections.
 In the 1990s, low-speed modems used the plain old
telephone system (POTS) to send and receive data.
 Today, many businesses and home users have switched
to high-speed Internet connections, which allows for
transmission of data, voice and video.

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Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
 A standard for sending voice, video, and data over telephone
wires.
 Provides higher-quality voice and higher-speed data transfer
than traditional analog telephone service.
 Three services offered by ISDN digital connections: Basic
Rate Interface (BRI), Primary Rate Interface (PRI), and
Broadband ISDN (BISDN).
 ISDN uses two different types of communications channels:
"B" channel is used to carry the information - data, voice, or
video.
"D" channel is usually used for controlling and signaling, but can
be used for data.

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ISDN Types
Type Description
ISDN Basic Rate Interface offers a dedicated 128 Kbps
connection using two 64 Kbps B channels. ISDN BRI also
BRI
uses on 16 Kbps D channel for call setup, control, and
teardown.
ISDN Primary Rate Interface offers up to 1.544 Mbps over
23 B channels in North America and Japan or 2.048 Mbps
PRI
over 30 B channels in Europe and Australia. ISDN PRI also
uses one D channel for call maintenance.
Broadband ISDN manages different types of service all at
BISDN the same time. BISDN is mostly used only in network
backbones.

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Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
 An "always-on" technology; there is no need to dial up
each time to connect to the Internet.
 Uses the existing copper telephone lines to provide
high-speed data communication between end users
and telephone companies.
 Asymmetric DSL (ADSL) is currently the most
commonly used DSL technology.
Has a fast downstream speed, typically 1.5 Mbps.
Upload rate of ADSL is slower.
Not the best solution for hosting a web server or FTP server.

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DSL Types
Type Description
Asymmetric DSL is most common. Downstream speed from
ADSL 384 Kbps to 6 Mbps. Upstream speeds lower than downstream
speeds.

High Data Rate DSL provides equal bandwidth in both


HDSL
directions.

Symmetric DSL provides the same speed, up to 3 Mbps, for


SDSL
uploads and downloads

Very High Data Rate DSL is capable of bandwidths between 13


VDSL
and 52 Mbps downstream, and 16 Mbps upstream.

ISDN DSL is DSL over ISDN lines. Uses ordinary phone lines.
IDSL
Requires ISDN adapters
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Power Line Communication (PLC)
 Uses power distribution wires (local electric grid) to
send and receive data.
 May be available in areas without any other service.
 Is faster than an analog modem.
 May cost less than other high-speed connections.
 Will become more common in time.
 Can be used in a home or office environment through
an electrical outlet.
 Can control lighting and appliances.

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Broadband Connectivity
 Broadband is a technique used to transmit and receive
multiple signals using multiple frequencies over one
cable.
 Broadband uses a wide range of frequencies that may
be further divided into channels.
 Some common broadband network connections
include:
Cable
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
Satellite

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Cable Modem
 A cable modem connects your computer to the cable
company using the same coaxial cable that connects to
your cable television.
You can connect the computer directly into the cable modem.
You can connect a router, switch, hub, or multipurpose network
device so multiple computers can share the Internet connection.

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DSL Modem and Filter
 Voice and data signals are carried
on different frequencies on the
copper telephone wires.
 A filter is used to prevent DSL signals from interfering
with phone signals. Plug the filter into a phone jack and
plug the phone into the filter.
 The DSL modem does not need a filter. A DSL modem
can connect directly to your computer,
or it can be connected to a networking device to share
the Internet connection between multiple computers.

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A Typical ISDN Connection
 ISDN uses multiple channels and can carry voice,
video, and data;
therefore, it is
considered a type
of broadband.

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Broadband Satellite
 Uses a satellite dish for two-way
communication.
 Download speeds are typically up to
500 Kbps, while uploads are closer
to 56 Kbps.
 People in rural areas often use
satellite broadband because it is a
faster connection than dial-up and no
other broadband connection may be
available.

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Voice over IP (VoIP)
 Is a method used to carry telephone calls over data
networks and the Internet.
 Converts the analog signals of voices into digital
information that is transported in IP packets.
 Can also use an existing IP network to provide access
to the public switched telephone network (PSTN).
 Depends on a reliable Internet connection. When a
service interruption occurs the user cannot make phone
calls.

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Preventive Maintenance for Networks
 Common preventive maintenance techniques should
continually be performed for a network to operate properly.
 Keep network rooms clean and change air filters often.
 Checking the various components of a network for wear.
 Check the condition of network cables because they are often
moved, unplugged, and kicked.
 Label the cables to save troubleshooting time later. Refer to
wiring diagrams and always follow your company's cable
labeling guidelines.
 AC power adapters should be checked regularly.
 The uninterruptible power supply (UPS) should be tested
to ensure that you have power in the case of an outage.

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Troubleshooting Process
Step 1 Gather data from the
customer
Step 2 Verify the obvious issues
Step 3 Try quick solutions first
Step 4 Gather data from the
computer
Step 5 Evaluate the problem
and implement the solution
Step 6 Close with the customer

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1. Gather Data from the Customer
 Customer information
Company name, contact name, address, phone number

 Computer configuration
Operating system, protection software, network environment,
connection type

 Use a work order to collect information


 Description of problem
Open-ended questions
What type of network connection is your computer using?
Closed-ended questions
Can you access the Internet?
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2. Verify the Obvious Issues
Examine the most obvious causes of a problem.
 Check that the network cables are properly connected.
 If a cable is not connected properly or if a NIC is
improperly installed or configured, the LED link lights
on the NIC will not light.
 Check the wireless access point signal strength in your
network client software.
 Use the ipconfig tool to make sure that the computer
has a valid, unique IP address. Check for errors in the
subnet mask and default gateway address.

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3. Try Quick Solutions First
 Check that all cables are connected to the proper
locations.
 Unseat and then reconnect cables and connectors.
 Reboot the computer or network device.
 Login as a different user.
 Repair or re-enable the network connection.
 Contact the network administrator.

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4. Gather Data from the Computer
 Ping is used to check network connectivity. It sends a
packet to the specified address and waits for a reply.
 Nslookup is used to query Internet domain name
server. It returns a list of hosts in a domain or the
information for one host.
 Tracert is used to determine the route taken by packets
when they travel across the network. It shows where
communications between your computer and another
computer are having difficulty.
 Net View is used to display a list of computers in a
workgroup. It shows the available shared resources on
a network.
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5. Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution
You may need to conduct further research
 Problem solving experience
 Other technicians
 Internet search and technical websites
 News groups and online forums
 Manufacturer FAQs
 Computer and device manuals

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6. Close with the Customer
When you are confident that the problem is resolved:
 Document the customer information, problem description,
and steps to resolve the issue in the work order.
 Explain to the customer how you solved the problem .
 Let the customer verify that the problem has been solved.
 Complete all documentation including sales orders, time
logs, and receipts.
 Complete the work order.
 Update the repair journal. You can use the notes from the
journal for future reference.

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Common Problems and Solutions
Problem Symptom Possible Solution

Computer is not able to Check DNS settings, hardware


connect to a popular website. and/or software firewall settings.

Computer has an IP address Check to make sure the DHCP server


of 169.254.x.x. is operational and can be pinged.

Computer is not able to


Check for loose network cables.
connect to the network.

Computer is not able to print Check user permissions and status


using the network printer. of network printer.

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Chapter 8 Summary
 The fundamentals of networking
 The benefits of a network
 The ways to connect computers to a network
 The different aspects of troubleshooting a network
 How to analyze problems and implement simple
solutions

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Additional Resources
 Telecommunication Standardization Sector of the International
Telecommunications Union (ITU-T) http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/
 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
http://www.ieee.org/
 International Organization for Standardization (ISO)
http://www.iso.ch/iso/
 Internet Architecture Board (IAB) http://www.iab.org/
 International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) http://www.iec.ch/
 American National Standards Institute (ANSI) http://www.ansi.org/
 Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA)
http://www.tiaonline.org/
 Electronic Industries Alliance (EIA) http://www.eia.org/
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Q and A

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Chapter 9
Security

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Chapter 9 Objectives
 9.1 Explain why security is important
 9.2 Describe security threats
 9.3 Identify security procedures
 9.4 Identify common preventive maintenance
techniques for security
 9.5 Troubleshoot security

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Chapter 9 Worksheets and Activity
 9.1 Worksheet: Security Attacks
 9.2.1 Worksheet: Third-Party Anti-Virus Software
 9.2.3 Activity: Adware, Spyware, and Grayware
 9.4.2 Worksheet: Operating System Updates
 9.5.6 Worksheet: Gather Information from the Customer

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The Importance of Security
 Private information,
company secrets, financial
data, computer equipment,
and items of national
security are placed at risk if
proper security procedures
are not followed.
 A technician’s primary
responsibilities include data
and network security.

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Security Threats
Types of attacks to computer security:
 Physical
Theft, damage, or destruction to computer equipment.
 Data
Removal, corruption, denial of access, unauthorized access, or
theft of information.
Potential threats to computer security:
 Internal threats
Employees can cause a malicious threat or an accidental threat.
 External threats
Outside users can attack in an unstructured or structured way.

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Viruses, Worms, and Trojan Horses
 A computer virus is software code that is deliberately
created by an attacker. Viruses may collect sensitive
information or may alter or destroy information.
 A worm is a self-replicating program that uses the
network to duplicate its code to the hosts on the network.
At a minimum, worms consume bandwidth in a network.
 A Trojan horse is technically a worm and is named for its
method of getting past computer defenses by pretending
to be something useful.
 Anti-virus software is designed to detect, disable, and
remove viruses, worms, and Trojan horses before they
infect a computer.
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Web Security
Attackers may use any of these tools to install a program
on a computer.
 ActiveX
Controls interactivity on web pages

 Java
Allows applets to run within a browser
Example: a calculator or a counter

 JavaScript
Interacts with HTML source code to allow interactive web
sites
Example: a rotating banner or a popup window

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Adware, Spyware, and Grayware
 Typically installed without the user’s knowledge, these
programs collect information stored on the computer,
change the computer configuration, or open extra
windows on the computer and all without the user’s
consent.

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Denial of Service (DoS)
 Prevents users from accessing normal services
 Sends enough requests to overload a resource or even
stopping its operation
 Ping of Death is a series of repeated, larger than
normal pings intended to crash the receiving computer
 E-mail Bomb is a large quantity of bulk e-mail
that overwhelms the e-mail server preventing users
from accessing e-mail
 Distributed DoS is an attack launched from many
computers, called zombies

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Spam and Popup Windows
 Spam is unsolicited email
that can be used to send
harmful links or deceptive
content.
 Popups are windows that
automatically open and
are designed to capture
your attention and lead
you to advertising sites.

Use anti-virus software, options in e-mail software, popup


blockers, and common indications of spam to combat
these.
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Social Engineering
 Never give out a
password
 Always ask for the ID of
the unknown person
 Restrict access of
unexpected visitors
 Escort all visitors
through the facility

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TCP/IP Attacks
TCP/IP is used to control all Internet communications.

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Computer Disposal and Recycling
 Erase all hard drives, then use a third-party tool to fully
erase all data.
 The only way to fully ensure
that data cannot be recovered
from a hard drive is to carefully
shatter the platters with a
hammer and safely dispose of
the pieces.
 To destroy software media
(floppy disks and CDs), use
a shredding machine designed
for shredding these materials.
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Security is Strengthened in Layers

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Security Policy
Questions to answer in writing a local security policy:
 What assets require protection?
 What are the possible threats?
 What should be done in the event of a security
breach?

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Protecting Equipment
Since stealing the whole PC is the easiest way to steal
data, physical computer equipment must be secured.
 Control access to facilities
 Use cable locks
 Lock telecommunication rooms
 Use security screws
 Use security cages around
equipment
 Label and install sensors on
equipment
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Protecting Data
Methods of securing data:
 Password protection
 Data encryption
 Port protection
 Data backups
 File system security

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Levels of Wireless Security

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Installing Updates and Patches

A technician recognizes when new updates and patches


are available and knows how to install them.
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Updating Protection Programs
Create a Launch Click
Run a
restore protection update
scan
point program button

Yes

Review Need to
manuall Manually
scan y treat treat or
report or delete
delete?

No
Schedule future
automatic
updates and
scans
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Operating System Updates and Patches
Create a
Check for Download Install
restore
updates updates update
point

Yes
Prompte
d to Restart
restart? computer

No

Test all aspects to


ensure the update has
not caused issues

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Troubleshooting Process
Step 1 Gather data from the customer
Step 2 Verify the obvious issues
Step 3 Try quick solutions first
Step 4 Gather data from the computer
Step 5 Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
Step 6 Close with the customer

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1. Gather Data from the Customer
 Customer information
Company name, contact name, address, phone number

 Computer configuration
Protection software, OS, network environment, connection type

 Description of problem
Open-ended questions
What changes were made to the security settings?
Closed-ended questions
Are the protection software signature files up-to-date?

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2. Verify the Obvious Issues
Examine the most obvious causes of a problem.
 A visual inspection can resolve some issues.
Broken locks, signs of tampering, missing equipment

 Has an attacker accessed the equipment?


Unfamiliar login address in login windows, unexplained entries
in system security logs, missing or additional patch cords

 Wireless network issues


Changes in access point configuration, unexplained
connections in the access point status display

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3. Try Quick Solutions First
 Check that all cables are connected to the proper locations
 Unseat and then reconnect cables and connectors
 Reboot the computer or network device
 Login as a different user
 Check that the anti-virus and spyware signature files are up-
to-date
 Scan computer with protection software
 Check computer for the latest OS patches and updates
 Disconnect from the network
 Change your password
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4. Gather Data from the Computer
 Third-party software, such as anti-virus and anti-
spyware applications, can report on the files that have
been infected.
 There are several tools available in the operating
system that a technician can use:
Verify that the signature file is current.
Check the security software log file for entries.
Task Manager is used to check for unknown applications that
are running.

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5. Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution
1. Evaluate the information gathered from the
customer and from the laptop
2. Determine possible solutions
3. Implement the best solution
4. If a proposed solution doesn’t correct the problem,
reset the computer back to the original state and try
another proposed solution.
NOTE: Never ask a customer to reveal a password.

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6. Close with the Customer
 Discuss with customer the solution implemented.
 Have customer verify problem is solved.
 Provide all paperwork to customer.
 Document steps of solution in work order and in
technician’s journal.
 Document components used in repair.
 Document time spent to resolve the problem.

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Common Problems and Solutions
Problem Symptom Possible Solution
Set Windows Automatic Update to run
A computer runs updates and requires
daily at a convenient time, such as
rebooting at inconvenient times.
lunchtime.
A wireless network is compromised even Upgrade to 128-bit WEP security, WAP, or
though 64-bit WEP encryption is in use. EAP-Cisco security.
After recovering any sensitive data,
A stolen laptop is returned by the police.
destroy the hard drive and recycle the
It is no longer needed by the user.
computer.
A user complains that his system is This may be a denial of service attack. At
receiving hundreds or thousands of junk the e-mail server, filter out e-mail from
e-mails daily. the sender.
A printer repair person no one
Contact security or police. Advise users
remembers seeing before is observed
never to hide passwords near their work
looking under keyboards and on
area.
desktops.

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Chapter 9 Summary
Following proper security procedures will protect computers
and network equipment, and the data they contain, from
physical danger such as fire and theft, as well as from loss
and damage by employees and attackers.
 Security threats can come from inside or outside of an
organization.
 Viruses and worms are common threats that attack data.
 Develop and maintain a security plan to protect both data
and physical equipment from loss.
 Keep operating systems and applications up to date and
secure with patches and service packs.

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Additional Resources
 Whatis?com: IT Encyclopedia and Learning Center
http://whatis.com
 TechTarget: The Most Targeted IT Media http://techtarget.com
 ZDNet: Tech News, Blogs and White Papers for IT Professionals
http://www.zdnet.com
 HowStuffWorks: It's Good to Know
http://computer.howstuffworks.com
 CNET.com http://www.cnet.com
 PC World http://www.pcworld.com
 ComputerWorld http://www.computerworld.com
 WIRED NEWS http://www.wired.com
 eWEEK.com http://www.eweek.com
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Q and A

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Chapter 10
Communication Skills

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Chapter 10 Objectives
 10.1 Explain the relationship between communication
and troubleshooting
 10.2 Describe good communication skills and
professional behavior
 10.3 Explain ethics and legal aspects of working with
computer technology
 10.4 Describe call center environment and technician
responsibilities

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Worksheets and Class Discussions
 10.1 Worksheet: Technician Resources
 10.2.2 Class Discussion: Controlling the Call
 10.2.3 Class Discussion: Identifying Difficult Customer
Types
 10.3 Class Discussion: Customer Privacy

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Introduction
 Troubleshooting is as much about communicating
with the customer as it is about knowing how to fix
a computer.
 Learn to use good
communication skills
as confidently as you
use a screwdriver.

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Communication and Troubleshooting
 A knowledgeable technician who uses good
communication skills will always be in demand in the
jobs market.
As technical knowledge increases, so does ability to quickly
determine a problem and find a solution.

 A technician should establish a good rapport with the


customer since a relaxed customer is better able to
explain the details of the problem.
 The technician has access to several communication
and research tools. Any of these resources can be
used to help gather information for the troubleshooting
process.
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Communication and Professionalism
 A technician’s professionalism and good
communication skills will enhance their creditability with
the customer.
 Successful technicians
control their own reactions
and emotions from one
customer call to the next.

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Determine the Problem
 Know - Call the customer by name.
 Relate - Use brief communication to create a one-to-one
connection between you and your customer.
 Understand - Determine what the customer knows about
the computer to effectively communicate with the customer.
 Practice active listening skills. Listen carefully and let the
customer finish speaking.
 After the customer has explained the problem, clarify what
the customer has said.
 Ask some follow-up questions, if needed.
 Use all the information to complete the work order.
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Display Professional Behavior
Handle customers with respect and prompt attention.
On a phone call, know how to:
 Place a customer on hold
 Transfer them without losing the call
 Help the customer focus on and communicate the
problem
 Stay positive by focusing on what you can do to help
 Convey an interest in helping the customer

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Holds and Transfers
Transferring a customer:
 Let the customer finish speaking.
 Explain that you will to transfer
their call, to whom, and why.
 Tell them the number you are
Putting a customer on hold: transferring them to.
 Ask for their permission to do so.
 Let the customer finish speaking.
 Thank the customer and explain
 Explain that you will put the the details of the transfer.
customer on hold and why.  Tell the new technician the details
 Ask for their permission to do so. of the case.

 Explain how long they will be on


hold and what you will be doing
during that time.
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Keep the Customer Focused
 Part of a technician’s job is to focus the customer
during the phone call.
 When the customer stays focused on the problem, the
technician controls the call.
 Do not take any comments personally and do not
retaliate with any comments or criticism.
 If you stay calm with the customer, finding a solution to
the problem will remain the focal point of the call.

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Types of Difficult Customers
Recognize traits to manage a call accordingly.
 A talkative customer discusses everything except the problem
and uses the call to socialize.
 A rude customer complains during the call, makes negative
comments, may be abusive and uncooperative, and may be
easily aggravated.
 An angry customer talks loud, tries to speak when the technician
is talking, is usually frustrated and upset that they have to call
somebody to fix the problem.
 A knowledgeable customer wants to speak with a technician
that is equally experienced in computers and usually tries to
control the call.
 An inexperienced customer has difficulty describing the
problem and may not able to follow directions correctly.
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Handling the Talkative Customer
A talkative customer discusses everything except the
problem and uses the call to socialize.
 Allow them to talk for one minute.
 Gather as much information about the problem as
possible.
 Politely refocus the customer. This is the exception to
the rule of never interrupting a customer.
 Ask as many closed-ended questions as you need to
once you have regained control of the call.
 Avoid conversation that is not related to the problem.

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Handling the Rude Customer
A rude customer complains during the call, makes
negative comments, may be abusive and uncooperative,
and may be easily aggravated.
 Listen very carefully, as you do not want to ask them to
repeat any information.
 Follow a step-by-step approach.
 Try to contact the customer’s favorite technician to see if
they can take the call.
 Apologize for the wait time and the inconvenience, even if
there has been no wait time.
 Reiterate that you want to solve the problem as quickly as
possible.
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Handling the Angry Customer
An angry customer talks loud, tries to talk when the
technician is talking, is usually frustrated and upset that
they have to call somebody to fix the problem.
 Let the customer tell their problem without interruption,
even if they are angry.
 Sympathize with the customer’s problem.
 Apologize for wait time or inconvenience.
 Avoid putting this customer on hold or transferring them.
 Avoid talking at length about the cause of the problem.
 Focus on solving the problem.

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Handling the Knowledgeable Customer
A knowledgeable customer wants to speak with a
technician that is equally experienced in computers
and usually tries to control the call.
 If you are a level-one technician, try to set up a
conference call with a level-two technician.
 Tell the customer the overall approach to what you are
trying to verify.
 Avoid using a step-by-step process.
 Avoid asking the customer to check the obvious.

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Handling the Inexperienced Customer
An inexperienced customer has difficulty describing the
problem and may not be able to follow directions
correctly.
 Use a simple step-by-step process of instructions.
 Speak in plain terms.
 Avoid using industry jargon.
 Avoid sounding condescending or belittling.

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Proper Netiquette
 Be pleasant and polite.  Be ethical.
 Open with an appropriate  Share expert knowledge.
greeting.
 Respect the privacy of others.
 Check grammar and spelling.
 Forgive other’s mistakes.
 Remember you are dealing
with people.  Use mixed case lettering. All
upper case lettering is
 Follow the standards of considered shouting.
behavior that you follow in the
rest of your life.  Never send chain letters
through email.
 Know where you are in
cyberspace.  Do not send or reply to flames.

 Respect other’s time and  If you would not say it to their


bandwidth. face, then do not send it.

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Workstation Ergonomics
 Make sure that your desk layout works well
 Have your headset and phone in a position that is easy to
reach and easy to use
 Adjust your chair to a comfortable height
 Adjust your monitor to a
comfortable angle
 Place your keyboard and
mouse in a comfortable
position
 Minimize external distractions
such as noise
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Time Management
 Prioritize your activities
 Follow the business policy of your company
 Make sure call back a customer as close to the callback
time as possible
 Keep a list of callback customers and check them off
one at a time as you complete these calls
 Avoid giving favorite customers faster or better service
 Avoid taking only the easy customer calls
 Avoid taking another technician’s call unless you have
their permission
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Stress Management
 Take a moment to compose yourself between customer
calls
 Ways to relax include:
Relaxed breathing
Listen to soothing sounds
Massage your temples
Take a break for a quick
walk or to climb a flight of
stairs
Eat a protein snack
Plan your weekend
Avoid stimulants
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Service Level Agreements (SLA)
 A contract defining
expectations between an
organization and the service
vendor to provide an agreed
upon level of support
 A legal agreement that
contains the responsibilities
and liabilities of all parties
involved

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Business Policies
Be aware of all business policies about customer calls.
 Time on call
 Time in queue
 Number of calls per
day
 How to pass calls
 Promises to customer
 Follow SLA
 When to escalate
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Ethics and Legal Aspects
Respect the customer and their property including, their
equipment and their data
 E-mails
 Phone lists
 Records or data on the computer
 Hard copies of files, information, or data left on desk
Obtain customer’s permission before accessing their account.
Divulging any customer information is unethical, and may be
illegal.
What are the copyright and trademark laws in your state or
country?
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A Call Center
 Usually very professional and fast-paced
 A help desk system
 Customers call in and are placed on a callboard
 Available technicians take the customer calls

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Help Desk Software
Uses Software
Log and track Software to manage call queues, set call priorities,
incidents assign calls, and escalate calls

Record contacts Software to store, edit, and recall customer information

Database of supported products, including features,


Research products limitations, versions, constraints, bugs, availability, and
online help files

Diagnostic utility software, including remote access to


Run diagnostics
customer’s computer
Research a
Database of common problems and their solutions
knowledge base
Collect customer
Software to collect customer feedback
feedback
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Call Prioritization

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Level-one Technician Responsibilities
 Gather pertinent information from the customer
 Document all information in the ticket or work order

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Succinct Problem Descriptions
A level-one technician succinctly documents a problem.

Problem Documentation
• The printer will print a test page, but
• Printer will not print
not from an application.
• Mouse does not • The user is not able to control the
work cursor.
• Cannot get onto the • The user is not able to login to the
network network.
• Monitor is not • Monitor settings have been altered. No
working images can be seen on the screen.
• Computer will not • The computer will not boot to the
turn on Windows OS desktop.

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Level-two Technician Responsibilities
 Usually more knowledgeable about technology
 May have been working for the company for a longer
period of time
 Receives escalated work orders from level-one
technicians
 Calls the customer back to ask any additional questions
 May use remote access software to access the
customer’s computer to diagnose the problem and
possibly to resolve the issue

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Chapter 10 Summary
Communication Skills
 Relationship between communication skills and
troubleshooting skills
 Combined, these skills, can make a person a
successful technician.
 Legal aspects of and ethics involved in customer
relations
 Situations facing level-one technicians
 Situations facing level-two technicians

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Additional Resources
 Whatis?com: IT Encyclopedia and Learning Center
http://whatis.com
 TechTarget: The Most Targeted IT Media http://techtarget.com
 ZDNet: Tech News, Blogs and White Papers for IT Professionals
http://www.zdnet.com
 HowStuffWorks: It's Good to Know
http://computer.howstuffworks.com
 CNET.com http://www.cnet.com
 PC World http://www.pcworld.com
 ComputerWorld http://www.computerworld.com
 WIRED NEWS http://www.wired.com
 eWEEK.com http://www.eweek.com
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Q and A

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Chapter 11:
Advanced Personal
Computers

IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software v4.0

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Chapter 11 Objectives
 11.1 Give an overview of field, remote, and bench
technician jobs
 11.2 Explain safe lab procedure and tool use
 11.3 Describe situations requiring replacement of
computer components
 11.4 Upgrade and configure personal computer
components and peripherals
 11.5 Identify and apply common preventive
maintenance techniques for personal computer
components
 11.6 Troubleshoot personal computer components and
peripherals
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Chapter 11 Worksheets and Labs
 11.1 Worksheet: Job Opportunities
 11.3.7 Worksheet: Research Computer Components
 11.4.1 Lab: Install a NIC
 11.4.3 Lab: Install Additional RAM
 11.4.4 Lab: BIOS File Search
 11.4.5 Lab: Install, Configure, and Partition a Second
Hard Drive
 11.6.3 Lab: Repair Boot Problem
 11.6.3 Remote Technician: Repair Boot Problem

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Personal Computers
 A technician should be able
to determine if a component
for a customer's computer
should be upgraded or
replaced.
 A technician should develop
advanced skills in these
areas:
Installation procedures
Troubleshooting techniques
Diagnostic methods for
computers.
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Computer Technicians
When training to become a computer technician, develop
the following skills:
 Building and upgrading computers
 Performing installations
 Installing, configuring, and optimizing software
 Performing preventive maintenance
 Troubleshooting and repairing computers
 Communicating clearly with the customer
 Documenting customer feedback and the steps involved in
finding the solution to a problem
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Field, Remote, and Bench Technicians
 A field technician needs troubleshooting skills
and customer service skills, because they work
on-site, are in regular contact with customers and
work on a wide variety of hardware and software.

 A remote technician may work at a help desk


answering calls or e-mails from customers who
have computer problems and need good
communication skills.

 A bench technician may not work directly with


customers. Bench technicians are often hired to
perform computer warranty service in a central
depot or work facility.
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Safety Rules
 Keep work area clean and free of clutter.
 Keep food and drinks out of work area.
 Never open a computer monitor without proper training.
 Remove all your jewelry and watches.
 Make sure the power is off and the power plug has been
removed.
 Do not look into laser beams located in equipment.
 Make sure there is a fire extinguisher and first aid kit
available.
 Cover sharp edges with tape when working inside computer
case.
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Safe Working Environments
Always follow these basic rules:
 Use antistatic mats and pads to reduce the chance of
ESD damaging your equipment.
 Store hazardous or toxic materials in a secured cabinet.
 Keep the floor clear of anything that might trip someone.
 Clean work areas on a regular basis.
Follow local codes and government rules whenever
disposing of batteries, solvents, computers, and
monitors.
 What are some of the documents that describe work
safety codes and standards in your country?
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Proper Tools
 Use proper tools to work safely and prevent damage to
the computer equipment.
Various screwdrivers Small dust brush
TORX screwdriver Soft, lint-free cloth
Tweezers or part retriever Cable ties
Needle-nosed pliers Scissors
Wire cutters Small flashlight
Chip extractor Electric tape
Hex wrench set Pencil or pen
Nut driver, large and small Compressed air
Three-claw component holder Antistatic wrist strap
Digital multimeter Antistatic mat
Wrap plugs Antistatic bag
Small mirror Cleaning products
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High Voltage Computer Components
The following dangerous, high-voltage computer
components should only be serviced by authorized
personnel:
 Power supplies - Most broken or used power supplies are
replaced.
 Display monitors - The internal electronic parts of a display
monitor cannot be repaired, but they can be replaced.
 Laser printers - It is more cost effective
to fix broken printers by repairing or
replacing broken parts. Laser printers
use high voltages and may have very
hot surfaces inside.

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Environmental Issues
 A computer recycling
warehouse is a place where
discarded computer
equipment can be taken apart.
 Computer parts that are still
usable can be recycled for
repairing other equipment.
 Many organizations have
policies that define disposal
methods for the hazardous
components found in
electronic equipment.
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Computer Replacement Components
Situations that require the replacement of computer
components include the repair of broken parts or an
upgrade for functionality.

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Select a Case and Power Supply
 Determine the customer's needs
before making any purchases or
performing upgrades.
 The computer case holds the power
supply, motherboard, memory, and
other components.
 When purchasing a new computer
case and power supply separately,
ensure that all of the components
will fit into the new case and that the power supply is
powerful enough to operate all of the components.

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Select a Motherboard
 When you select a replacement motherboard, make sure
it supports the CPU, RAM, video adapter, and other
adapter cards.
 The socket and chip set on the motherboard must be
compatible with the CPU.
 The motherboard must accommodate the existing heat
sink/fan assembly.
 The existing power supply must have connections that fit
the new motherboard.
 The number and type of expansion slots
must match the existing adapter cards.
 The new motherboard must physically
fit into the current computer case.
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Select CPU and Heat Sink/Fan Assembly
Replace the CPU when it fails or is no longer adequate
for the current applications.
Make sure the CPU is compatible with the existing
motherboard:
 The new CPU must use the same socket type and chip set.
 The BIOS must support the new CPU.
 The new CPU may require a different heat sink/fan
assembly.
 Make sure the correct voltage is maintained.
 Use manufacturers' websites to investigate the compatibility
between CPUs and other devices.
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Select RAM
 New RAM may be needed when an application locks
up or the computer displays frequent error messages.

 When selecting new RAM,


check the compatibility with
the current motherboard.
 The speed of the new RAM
must be the same or faster
than the existing RAM.

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Select Adapter Cards
 Adapter (or expansion) cards, add extra functionality to
a computer. Before purchasing an adapter card, check:
Is there an open expansion slot?
Is the adapter card compatible with the open slot?

 If the motherboard does not have


compatible expansion slots,
external devices may be an option:
Are USB or FireWire versions of the
external device available?
Does the computer have an open USB
or FireWire port?

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Scenario: Adapter Card Upgrade
 A customer requires a wireless card to connect to the
network.
Investigate wireless NICs before you purchase one.
1. Is the new wireless NIC compatible with the 802.11 wireless
standard (a, b, or g) used on the wireless network?
2. Does the computer have an available expansion slot or an
open USB port?
3. Identify which adapter cards are compatible?
4. Now, consider cost, warranty, brand name, and availability
to select one of the compatible adapter cards for purchase.

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Hard Drive Failures
The signs that a hard drive is failing and should be
replaced as soon as possible:
 Unusual noises
 Error messages
 Corrupt data or
applications

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Hard Drive Connectors
 PATA (Parallel ATA) hard drives
Originally, called ATA (Advanced Technology Attachment).
With the introduction of SATA, ATA was renamed to PATA.
Can use a 40-pin / 80-conductor cable or a 40-pin / 40-conductor
cable.
 SATA (Serial ATA) hard drives
Connect to the motherboard using a serial interface.
Have a higher data-transfer rate than PATA drives.
Smaller data cable allows for improved airflow.
 SCSI (Small Computer Systems Interface) hard drives
More advanced interface controller than PATA or SATA.

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Small Computer Systems Interface (SCSI)
 Usually used for hard drives and for tape storage
 Ideal for high-end computers,
including network servers that
require high transfer speeds
and reliability
 SCSI devices are connected in
a series, forming a chain that is
called a daisy chain.
 Each end of the daisy chain is
terminated to prevent signal
reflections and interference.
 Most SCSI buses can handle a total of seven devices and a
SCSI controller.
 Each device must have a unique SCSI ID.
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SCSI Types
Also Maximum
SCSI Type Connector
Called Throughput
50-pin
SCSI-1 5 MBps
Centronics 50-pin
50-pin
Fast SCSI Plain SCSI 10 MBps
Centronics 50-pin
50-pin
Fast Wide SCSI 20 MBps
68-pin
Ultra SCSI Fast-20 50-pin 20 MBps
Ultra Wide SCSI 68-pin 40 MBps
Ultra2 SCSI Fast-40 50-pin 40 MBps
68-pin
Ultra2 Wide SCSI 80 MBps
80-pin
68-pin
Ultra3 SCSI Ultra-160 160 MBps
80-pin
68-pin
Ultra320 SCSI 320 MBps
80-pin
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Select Input and Output (I/O) Devices
 An input device transfers information into a computer:
Mouse, keyboard, scanner, camera, process control sensor, MIDI
interface, and microphone

 An output device transfers information out of a computer:


Display monitor, projector, printer, process-control equipment,
and speaker

1. Find out what the customer wants


2. Research possible solutions
3. Determine which devices the customer needs
4. Determine how to connect the devices to the computer
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Types of I/O Device Interfaces
 USB 1.1
Transfers data up to 12 Mbps
 USB 2.0
Transfers data up to 480 Mbps
 IEEE 1394 (FireWire)
Transfers data at 100, 200, or 400 Mbps
 Parallel (IEEE 1284)
Transfers data up to 3 MBps
 Serial (RS-232)
Early versions: less than 20 Kbps. Now: up to 1.5 Mbps
 SCSI (Ultra-320 SCSI)
Connects as many as 15 devices at 320 MBps
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Upgrade Components and Peripherals
Computer systems need
periodic upgrades:
 User requirements change
 Upgraded software packages
require new hardware
 New hardware offers
enhanced performance
Research the effectiveness
and cost for both upgrading
and replacing.

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Upgrade and Configure Motherboards
1. Work on an antistatic mat and wear a wrist strap.
2. Note where and how everything is connected before you
start the upgrade.
3. Move the CPU and heat sink/fan assembly to the new
motherboard.
4. Use thermal compound between the CPU and the heat
sink.
5. If new, different RAM is required, install it at this time.
6. Remove the cables from the motherboard that attach to
the case LEDs and buttons.
7. Make sure to use the correct screws.
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Upgrade and Configure Motherboards
8. Connect the power supply cables.
9. Connect the cables for the case LEDs and buttons.
10. Install and secure all expansion cards.
11. Make sure there are no loose parts or leftover wires.
12. Connect a keyboard, mouse, monitor, and power.
13. Use the documentation that came with the motherboard
to learn what BIOS adjustments may be required.
CAUTION: If there is any sign of trouble, shut the power
supply off immediately.

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Upgrade and Configure CPU
 CAUTION: Always work on an antistatic mat and wear
a wrist strap when installing and removing CPUs.
 Remove the existing CPU by releasing it from the
socket using the zero insertion
force lever.
 Insert the new CPU into place.
 Excessive force may damage
the CPU or its socket.

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Upgrade and Configure Heat Sink/Fan
Assembly
 The heat sink/fan assembly must:
physically fit the CPU
be compatible with the CPU socket.
be adequate to remove the heat of the faster CPU

CAUTION: You must apply thermal compound between


the new CPU and the heat sink/fan assembly.
 With some types of BIOS, you can view thermal
settings to determine if there are any problems with the
CPU and the heat sink/fan assembly.
 Third-party software applications can report CPU
temperature information in an easy to read format.
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Upgrade and Configure RAM
CAUTION: Work on an antistatic mat. Wear a wrist strap.
1. Remove the existing RAM by freeing retaining clips that
secure it. Pull it from the socket.
2. Insert the new RAM, and lock it into place with the
retaining clips.
3. The RAM should be
discovered by the
system.
4. If the BIOS does not
indicate the presence
of the correct amount
of RAM, troubleshoot.
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Upgrade and Configure BIOS
Motherboard manufacturers periodically release updates for
their BIOS. Read release notes for description of upgrade.
 “Flashing the BIOS" is upgrading the BIOS with new EEPROM, or
flash memory.
 To view the current BIOS settings, enter the BIOS setup program.
Press the setup sequence keys (possibly F1, F2, or Del key) while the
computer is performing the power-on self test (POST).
 If you are unsure about changing a BIOS setting, then research the
problem in depth.
 To download a new BIOS, go to the manufacturer's website and
follow the installation procedures.
CAUTION: An improperly installed or aborted BIOS update can
cause the computer to become unusable.
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Upgrade and Configure Storage Devices and
Hard Drives
Reasons for installing an additional drive:
 To install a second operating system
 To provide additional storage space
 To provide a faster hard drive
 To hold the system swap file
 To provide a backup for the original hard drive
 To increase fault tolerance
New partitions or drive letter assignments should be well-
planned. The boot order in BIOS may need to be
adjusted.
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Types of RAID
 Arrays, such as a redundant array of independent
disks (RAID), improve fault tolerance when connecting
multiple hard drives.
 Install RAID using hardware or software.
Hardware installations are usually more dependable, but more
expensive.

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Upgrade and Configure I/O Devices
Reasons installing new I/O devices:
 Replace a device that
stopped operating
properly
 Increase performance
and/or productivity
 Add ergonomically
designed devices
 Accommodate users with disabilities
When upgrading and configuring I/O devices, install new
drivers, if necessary.
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Preventive Maintenance Techniques
 Preventive maintenance can extend the life of the
components, protect data, and improve computer
performance.
 Preventive maintenance
includes:
Clean internal components.
Clean the case.
Inspect computer components.

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Clean Internal Components
 To remove dust, use compressed air to blow the dust
away.
 When using a can of compressed air, keep the can upright
to prevent the fluid from leaking onto computer
components.
 While cleaning, inspect components for loose screws and
connectors.
 Keep these internal parts as clean as possible:
Heat sink/fan assembly
Case fan
RAM
Power supply
Adapter cards
Internal drives
Motherboard
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Clean the Computer Case
 Dust buildup inside a computer can prevent the flow of
air and affect cooling.
 Use a cloth or duster to clean the outside of the
computer case.
 If using a cleaning product, put a small amount onto a
cleaning cloth or duster and wipe the outside of the
case.
 Also, look for and fix these issues:
Missing expansion slot covers that let dust, dirt, or living pests
into the computer
Loose or missing screws that secure adapter cards
Missing or tangled cables that can pull free from the case
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Inspect Computer Components
 CPU and cooling system
Examine for dust buildup.
Check that the fan power cable is secure.
Check the fan while the power is on to see the fan turn.
Inspect the CPU to be sure that it is seated securely in the
socket.
Make sure that the heat sink is well attached.
CAUTION: Do not remove the CPU for cleaning.

 RAM connections
Ensure RAM chips are seated securely in the RAM slots.
Sometimes the retaining clips can loosen.
Use compressed air to remove any dust.
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Inspect Computer Components
 Storage devices
Ensure all cables are firmly connected.
Check for loose, missing, or incorrectly set jumpers.
A drive should not produce rattling, knocking, or grinding sounds.
Read the manufacturer's manual to learn how to clean optical
drive and tape heads by using cotton swabs and compressed air.
Clean floppy drives with a drive cleaning kit.
 Adapter cards
Ensure cards are seated properly.
Secure cards with the retaining screw to avoid the cards coming
loose in their expansion slots.
Use compressed air to remove any dirt or dust on the adapter
cards or the expansion slots.
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Inspect Computer Components
 Power devices, including power strips, surge suppressors
(surge protectors), and UPS devices
Ensure proper ventilation. Replace power strips if there have
been electrical problems or excessive thunderstorms in the area.
 Loose screws
Can cause problems if not immediately fixed or removed.
 Keyboard and mouse
Use compressed air or a small vacuum cleaner to clean the
keyboard and mouse. If the mouse is the mechanical type,
remove the ball and clean off any dirt.
 Cables
Look for broken and bent pins. Ensure that all connector
retaining screws are finger tight.
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Troubleshooting Process
Step 1 Gather data from the customer
Step 2 Verify the obvious issues
Step 3 Try quick solutions first
Step 4 Gather data from the computer
Step 5 Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
Step 6 Close with the customer

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1. Gather Data from the Customer
 Customer information
Company name, contact name, address, phone number

 Laptop information
Manufacturer, model, OS, network environment, connection
type

 Description of problem
Open-ended questions
How often does the computer fail to start?
Closed-ended questions
Is the computer turned off at night?

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2. Verify the Obvious Solutions
 Are all the cables to this computer tightly in their sockets?
 Is the power cord firmly seated at both ends?
 Is the cable that connects the computer to the monitor
squarely seated in its socket with the thumbscrews finger-
tight?
 Are any of the rear-panel expansion slot covers loose so
that the adapter cards have loosened?
 Was the computer recently dropped or jarred?
 Are there any missing screws or signs that the computer
has been tampered with?

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3. Try Quick Solutions First
After the obvious issues have been verified, try some
quick solutions:
 Check the external cables for loose connections that
could cause a restart.
 Check the internal data and power cables for loose
connections.
 Ensure adapter cards and RAM are properly secured.
 Verify all cooling fans are operating properly.

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4. Gather Data from the Computer
Ways to gather information about the problem from the
computer:
 Could not access safe mode from menu.
 Computer boots from a Windows startup disk.
 The hard drive can be accessed manually.

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5. Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution
 Problem solving experience
 Other technicians
 Internet search
 News groups
 Manufacturer FAQs
 Computer manuals
 Device manuals
 Online forums
 Technical websites
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6. Close with the Customer
 Discuss with customer the solution implemented.
 Have customer verify problem is solved.
 Provide all paperwork to customer.
 Document steps of solution in the work order and in the
technician’s journal.
 Document components used in repair.
 Document time spent to resolve the problem.

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Common Problems and Solutions
Problem Symptom Possible Solution
Turn off the integrated audio on the
Sound card does not work.
motherboard using the BIOS setup program.

Cannot use SCSI drive. Check SCSI IDs for duplicates.


Cannot detect drive after
Check and reseat power cable.
boot up.
Reseat processor, verify motherboard
System does not start after
compatibility with the BIOS version and the
installing new processor.
CPU, flash the BIOS.
Cannot use external SCSI
Turn on drive before booting computer.
drive.
Check fan power cable, verify fan operation,
System runs for a few
and verify that thermal compound is properly
minutes, and then locks up.
applied.
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Apply Troubleshooting Skills
 It is time to apply your listening and diagnostic skills.

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Chapter 11 Summary
 Advanced computer diagnosis and repair
 Select components for replacement and for upgrade
 Upgrade personal computers

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Additional Resources
 Career resources, news, jobs and resumes in Information
Technology and Engineering http://www.techcareers.com/
 Whatis?com: IT Encyclopedia and Learning Center
http://whatis.com
 TechTarget: The Most Targeted IT Media http://techtarget.com
 ZDNet: Tech News, Blogs and White Papers for IT Professionals
http://www.zdnet.com
 HowStuffWorks: It's Good to Know
http://computer.howstuffworks.com
 CNET.com http://www.cnet.com
 PC World http://www.pcworld.com
 ComputerWorld http://www.computerworld.com
 WIRED NEWS http://www.wired.com
 eWEEK.com http://www.eweek.com
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Q and A

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Chapter 12:
Advanced
Operating Systems

IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software v4.0

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Chapter 12 Objectives
 12.1 Select the appropriate operating system based on
customer needs
 12.2 Install, configure, and optimize an operating
system
 12.3 Describe how to upgrade operating systems
 12.4 Describe preventive maintenance procedures for
operating systems
 12.5 Troubleshoot operating systems

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Chapter 12 Worksheets, Activities, and Labs
 12.1.2 Activity: Network Protocols
 12.2.2 Lab: Advanced Installation of Windows XP
 12.2.3 Lab: Create a Partition in Windows XP Pro
 12.2.4 Lab: Customize Virtual Memory Settings
 12.2.5 Lab: Install an Alternate Browser (Optional)
 12.2.6 Activity: E-Mail Protocols
 12.4.1 Lab: Schedule Task Using GUI and at Command
 12.5.3 Lab: Fix an Operating System Problem
 12.5.3 Remote Technician: Fix an Operating System
Problem
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Brands and Versions of Operating Systems
 Various brands of operating systems
Microsoft Windows
Apple Mac OS
UNIX and Linux
 Several versions or distributions
Windows 2000 Professional
Windows XP Home, Professional or Media Center Editions
Windows Vista Home Basic, Business and Premium Editions
 Compare OS versions or editions to find the best one
for your customer

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Select the Appropriate Operating System
 Select hardware that meets or exceeds the minimum
requirements for the OS
Remote Network Scalable CPU EFS Enhanced
Desktop Sharing Support Support Security
Microsoft
Windowsxp YES YES YES YES YES
Professional
Microsoft
Windowsxp No YES No No No
Home Edition
Microsoft
Windowsxp YES YES YES YES YES
Media Center Edition
Microsoft
Windows2000 Add-On YES YES YES YES

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Operating Systems Capabilities
 An operating system is the interface between the user
and the computer.
Provides a bridge between the hardware and applications
Creates a file system to store data
Manages applications
Interprets user commands

 Operating systems have minimum requirements for


hardware.

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Network Operating System (NOS)
 A network operating system (NOS) is an operating
system that contains additional features to increase
functionality and manageability in a networked
environment.
 Examples of network operating systems:
Windows 2000 Server
Windows 2003 Server
UNIX
Linux
Novell NetWare
Mac OS X

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Server NOS
The NOS is designed to provide network resources to
clients:
 Server applications, such as shared databases
 Centralized data storage
 Directory services that provide a centralized repository of
user accounts and resources on the network, such as
LDAP or Active Directory
 Network print queue
 Network access and security
 Redundant storage systems, such as RAID and backups

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Network Protocols
Network operating systems provide several protocols
designed to perform network functions.
Defines how files are exchanged on the web

Provides services for file transfer and manipulation

Retrieves e-mail messages from an e-mail server

Resolves URLs for websites to their IP addresses

Automates assignment of IP addresses


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Install, Configure, and Optimize an OS
To install Windows XP Professional:
 Insert the installation CD
 An installation wizard asks a series of questions
 The wizard completes the installation automatically

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Default and Custom Installations
 A default installation requires minimal user interaction.
 A custom installation allows the user to customize the
regional settings and the network settings.
 The technician can automate and customize a Windows
XP Pro installation to include the following features:
Productivity applications, such as Microsoft Office
Custom applications
Support for multiple languages
OS Deployment Feature Pack
using Microsoft Systems
Management Server (SMS)
Hardware device drivers
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Windows XP Custom Install Methods
 Unattended installation from a network distribution point
using an answer file.
 Image-based installation using Sysprep and a disk-
imaging program, which copies an image of the operating
system directly to the hard drive with no user intervention.
 Remote installation using Remote Installation Services
(RIS), which can download the installation across the
network.
 OS Deployment Feature Pack using Microsoft Systems
Management Server (SMS), which can dramatically
simplify deployment of an operating system across the
organization.

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Disk Structure
Create, view, and manage disks, directories, and files
 Types of partitions on a hard drive:
Primary partitions
Extended partitions
Logical drives
 NOTE: Only one partition may be designated as the
active partition for booting the system.
 In most cases, the C: drive is the active partition and
contains the boot and system files.
 Additional partitions can be created as needed for
organizing files or dual-booting.
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Disk Management Utility
Create, view, and manage disks, directories, and files
 Used to display information and perform services such
as partitioning and formatting disks in Windows

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File Systems of Windows XP
Create, view, and manage disks, directories, and files
 Partitions are formatted with a file system. Two file
systems available in Windows XP:
FAT32
NTFS - greater stability and security features

 The type of file system, NTFS or FAT32, provides the


rules that files within each directory must follow.

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File Extensions
Create, view, and manage disks, directories, and files
 Windows file systems require at least three characters after
the last period (.) of a file extension
Valid file name: My_file.txt
Invalid file name: My_file.xt

 By default, Windows does not display the file extension


This practice can cause security problems
Some viruses are executable files disguised as a non-executable file

 To avoid this security breach, you should always show file


extensions:
Start > Control Panel > Folder Options > File Types tab >
Advanced > Always show extension

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System Tools
Optimize the performance of operating systems

To maintain and optimize an


operating system:
 Disk error checking which can
scan the hard drive for file
structure errors
 Hard drive defragmentation
consolidates files for faster
access

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Virtual Memory
Optimize the performance of operating systems
 Swap file uses free space on the hard drive to
temporarily store segments of an application or data
 The OS uses the swap file to mimic RAM
 To adjust the size of the swap file, you must be logged
in as an administrator
 Typically, you should let Windows manage the size of
the swap file
 Increasing the size of the swap space is not always
helpful and may slow down the computer

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Virtual Memory Settings in Windows XP

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Disk Defragmenter
Optimize the performance of operating systems
 Disk Defragmenter makes files on the hard drive contiguous
and speeds up the reading of files.
 To defragment a drive
Double-click My Computer on the desktop
Right-click the drive that you want to optimize
Choose Properties. On the Tools tab, click Defragment Now
 Temporary Files are used by many programs
Designed to be automatically deleted later
Some must be deleted manually. Check these locations:
C:\temp, C:\tmp, C:\windows\temp, C:\windows\tmp, C:\documents
and settings\%USERPROFILE%\local settings\temp

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Services
Optimize the performance of operating systems
 Services are a type of application that runs in the
background and waits for requests
Only necessary services should be started
Services may be enabled if clients need them
Services may be stopped for troubleshooting purposes
 Four settings, or states, used to control services:
Automatic - Starts when the PC starts
Manual - Administrator must enable or disable the service
Disabled - Administrator may disable or stop a service
Stopped - The state of a service that has been disabled
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Optimize Web Browser and Email
Optimize the performance of browsers
 Web browsers and e-mail
Typically the most-used applications
Optimizing them should increase the computer’s performance
 Microsoft’s Internet Explorer (IE), general settings:
Change the homepage and browser appearance
 View or delete the information saved by the browser:
Historyare information transmitted
Cookies Passwords between a
Temporary files
web browser and a web server with the
Web-form purpose of
information
Cookies
tracking user information to customize the page
delivered to the user.
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Internet Explorer Browser Options

To access these settings:


 Open an IE window
 Go to Tools menu
 Select Internet Options

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Caching in a Web Browser
 Caching is a feature of the web browser
Speeds up access to previously visited websites
IE copies the images or the HTML files of visited sites
Files are retrieved from the local cache rather than downloaded
 Cached files may become outdated or large. Adjustable
settings are:
Refresh at every visit to the page
Refresh every time you start IE
Refresh automatically
Never refresh
 To access the cached settings in IE:
Tools > Internet Options > General tab > Temporary Internet Files >
click Settings
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Configure Email Client Software
Use the following information to set up an email
account in the email client software:
 Display name
 E-mail address
 Type of incoming mail server
(POP3 or IMAP)
 Incoming mail server name
 Outgoing mail server name
 Username
 Account password
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Email Protocols
 Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3)
Downloads email from a server to manipulate and store on local
computer.
 Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP)
Accesses email on a server to manipulate and store on the server.
User can also decide to download the email to local computer.
 Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
Sends text-only email across a TCP/IP network and is, normally, used
with POP3 or IMAP.
 Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME)
Transmits audio, video, pictures, word processor documents,
applications.
Normally, used in conjunction with SMTP.
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Set Display Properties
Set screen resolution and update video driver
 Screen resolution
Determines the number of pixels displayed. A higher number of
pixels will display a better picture.
 Refresh rate
The rate the screen image is refreshed. Refresh rates are
measured in Hertz (Hz) or times per second.
 Display colors
Colors created by varying the light intensity of the three basic
colors.

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Upgrade the Video Driver
 The Windows default video driver may work, but may not
provide all performance options.
 To upgrade the driver:
Download most recent driver
Remove the current driver
Disable anti-virus software
Install the new driver
Enable anti-virus software
Restart the computer

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Troubleshoot Video Driver Issues
Set screen resolution and update video driver
 Troubleshooting problems after installing video driver
Example: After performing the graphical performance steps and restart
the computer, you are unable to view the screen.
 To investigate the problem and restore the settings:
Reboot the computer again
During the boot phase, use the F8 key
Enter the boot options when prompted
Select the Enable VGA Mode to boot using a 640 x 480 resolution
 Once the operating system is loaded:
Select Roll Back Driver from graphics card Properties
Research possible driver issues
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Dual-Boot Process
Installation of a second operating system
 There is a dual-boot process for multiple operating systems
on a computer.
 During the dual-boot process:
The boot.ini file indicates that more than one OS is present
You are prompted to choose the OS that you want to load
 To create a dual-boot system in Microsoft Windows:
More than one hard drive or a hard drive with more than one partition
Install the oldest OS on the primary partition or the hard drive marked
with an active partition
Install the second OS on the second partition or hard drive
The boot files are automatically installed in the active partition
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The boot.ini File
Installation of a second operating system
 During installation, the boot.ini file is created on the
active partition to allow choice of OS to boot.
 boot.ini can be edited to change
the order of the operating systems
the length of time to select an OS (default is 30 seconds)
 To edit the boot.ini file:
Right-click My Computer > Properties > Advanced Tab. In
the Startup and Recovery area, select Settings. Click Edit.

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Upgrading Operating Systems
Describe how to upgrade operating systems
 Operating systems must be upgraded periodically
To remain compatible with the latest hardware and software
Because support for older OS is eventually withdrawn
 A Windows XP upgrade can be performed from a CD or
over a network
 Ensure that the new OS is compatible with the computer
Use Microsoft Upgrade Advisor to scan the system for incompatibility
issues before upgrading
Upgrade Advisor is free and downloadable from the Microsoft
Windows website
 Backup all data prior to beginning the upgrade
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Preventive Maintenance for OS
 Automating scheduled
updates
 Installing service packs
 Using Restore Points if
necessary to restore the
system to a previous state

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Schedule Automatic Tasks and Updates
Scheduled Tasks utility is a Windows-based GUI utility.
Use the Scheduled Tasks utility to automate:
 Disk cleanup
 Backup
 Disk defragmenter
 Starting other applications
To open the Scheduled Tasks wizard:
 Select Start > All Programs > Accessories > System
Tools > Scheduled Tasks
 Double-click Add Scheduled Task

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Schedule Automatic Tasks and Updates
CLI automatic updates in the command line.
 Use the at command to automatically schedule a
command, a script file, or an application to run at a
specific date and time.
 To use the at command, you must be logged in as a
member of the Administrators group.
 To learn more about the at command, choose Start >
Run. At the CLI prompt, type cmd, and then press
Return. At the command prompt, type at/?

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Automatically Update Windows XP
Schedule automatic tasks and updates
 Settings to choose from regarding Windows XP
updates:
Automatic (need to specify a date and time)
Download updates for me, but let me choose when to install
them
Notify me but don't automatically download or install them
Turn off Automatic Updates
 To access Automatic Updates:
Select Start > Control Panel > double-click Automatic
Updates

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Restore Points
Set restore points
 Restore points return the OS to a predefined point in
time.
 If installation of an application or a hardware driver
causes problems, try uninstalling the application or
driver
 If uninstalling does not help, try to restore the computer
to an earlier time when the system worked properly
 To access the System Restore utility:
Select Start > All Programs > Accessories > System Tools >
System Restore

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Windows XP Restore Points
Set restore points
 Windows XP may create restore points:
When an install or upgrade takes place
Every 24 hours, if the computer is running
Manually, at any time
 Restore points contain information about the system and
registry settings used by the Windows OS.
 System restore does not back up personal data files or
recover corrupted or deleted personal files.
 To backup data, use a dedicated backup system, such as
a tape drive, CDs, or even a USB storage device.

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Troubleshooting Process
Step 1 Gather data from the customer
Step 2 Verify the obvious issues
Step 3 Try quick solutions first
Step 4 Gather data from the computer
Step 5 Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
Step 6 Close with the customer

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Level-one Technician Gathers Data
Step 1: Gather data from the customer
 Description of problem by the level-one helpdesk
technician:
Customer cannot surf the Internet or access any network
resources.
Customer can login to the network using other computers.
Customer has verified that their username, password, and
domain name are correct.

 The helpdesk technician was unable to resolve the


problem, so the work order is escalated to a level-two
technician.

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Level-two Technician Gathers Data
Step 1: Gather data from the customer
 Level-two technician asks open-ended questions:
Which specific network resources are you trying to access
with your desktop computer?
Are there any network resources that you can access?
When were you last able to access the network from your
desktop?
 Level-two technician draws these conclusions:
In the office, no resources can be accessed.
When using the modem to connect, no problems are
experienced.
The problems started just after a new update was installed.
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Level-two Technician Gathers Data
Step 1: Gather data from the customer
 Technician asks closed-ended questions:
Is your network cable plugged in?
Does anyone else have this problem?
Have you changed your password recently?
Have you received any error messages on your computer?
 Technician gets this information:
Customer's computer experiences unexpected errors.
Customer reports an on-screen error regarding the OS; unsure of
details.
 Technician draws these conclusions:
Focus on an operating system problem.
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Verify the Obvious Issues
Step 2: Verify the obvious issues
Technician asks some general questions and some
related to the functioning of the OS:
 Is the power turned on?
 Has any software been added or upgraded?
 Has any hardware been added or removed?
 Is the NIC link light on?
 Is the NIC listed in the Device Manager as a properly
working device?
 Do the mouse and keyboard work?
 Have any cables been added or disconnected?
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Conclusions from Checking the Obvious
Step 2: Verify the obvious issues
 Technician gets this information:
The computer can connect successfully by modem.
The computer cannot connect to any network resources.
Other computers can access network resources.
All cables are connected properly.
There is no link light on the NIC.
 Technician draws these conclusions:
Problem may be a bad cable, bad NIC, or a driver problem.

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Quick Solutions
Step 3: Try quick solutions first
 Technician tries these quick solutions:
Reboot
Install a known good network cable to this computer
Boot in safe mode using the F8 menu
Boot to last known good configuration using the F8 menu
Boot from startup disk
Ensure IP address information is correct for this computer
 Technician follows these best practices:
Documents results of each solution tried
Undo failed solutions before trying the next solution

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Gather Data from the Computer
Step 4: Gather data from the computer
 Technician gathers data:
Repeats some of the tests done by the level-one technician.
To look for OS problems, technician examines system files and runs
diagnostic software.
 Technician gets this information:
An automatic system update was performed recently.
 Conclusion:
The update may be causing the problem.
 Technician takes this action:
Ask customer to look for restore points at the time of the update.

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Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution
Step 5: Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
 Technician records these notes:
Computer worked on Tuesday, but not on Wednesday.
Automatic system update ran at midnight Tuesday.
Restore points were automatically created prior to the
installation of the update.
 Technician decides on a solution:
Restore the computer to the state it was in before the automatic
system update ran on the computer.
 Technician takes this action:
Ask customer to use the System Restore application.

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Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution
Step 5: Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
 Customer takes this action:
Chooses “Restore my computer to an earlier time” option.
Chooses the restore point created before the update was installed.
Reboots computer.
 Results of the solution:
Computer operates normally.
 Likely cause of the problem:
A patch that was installed through an automatic update disabled network
connectivity.
 To prevent the problem from occurring again:
Set Automatic Updates to require permission of the network administrator
or the user.
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System Restore Point Screens
Step 5: Evaluate the problem and implement the solution

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Close with the Customer
Step 6: Close with the customer
 Technician discusses results with customer:
If possible, verbally verify the solution with the customer.
If possible, allow customer to demonstrate that the repair has
solved the problem.
If customer is not available, technician should inform the customer
of the work that was performed.
 If the solution is acceptable, the technician can finish the
documentation and close the work order.
 Documentation should include:
A restatement of the problem
Steps taken in the troubleshooting process, and the solution
Time needed to solve the problem
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Closed Work Order
Step 6: Close with the customer
 Make two copies of the
final work order and
documentation
One for the customer
One for the technician

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Common Problems and Solutions
Problem Symptom Possible Solution
You have a dual-boot system, but you are
Make sure the boot.ini is not corrupt and
unable to access the second operating
verify that it is correct.
system.
If the new driver is bad, boot to VGA mode
A screen goes blank after you install an
and use Roll Back Driver to restore the
updated graphics driver.
previous driver.
A customer plans to install Windows XP on Advise the customer that the installation CD
100 computers in a branch office over a will take too long. Consult with customer
weekend, but is very concerned about how about one of the automated installation
much time it will take. solutions.
The customer is receiving warnings about Run the Disk Cleanup utility to delete
the hard drive becoming too full. temporary files.
A customer receives error messages that
Ask the customer for the name of the service
an application will not launch because a
in the error message and restart the service.
required service is not running.
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Fix an Operating System Problem
 Now that you understand the troubleshooting process, it is
time to apply your listening and diagnostic skills.
 The first lab is designed to reinforce your skills with the
operating system. You will check restore points before and
after using Windows Update.
 The second lab is designed to reinforce your communication
and troubleshooting skills. This lab includes the following
steps:
Receive the work order
Research the problem
Take the customer through various steps to try and resolve the
problem
Document the problem and the resolution
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Chapter 12 Summary
 Ensuring that you understand the technology needs of the
customer
 Knowing the differences between common operating systems
 Matching the customer needs to the proper technologies
 Knowing the different methods to install an operating system
 Knowing how to upgrade different operating systems
 Understanding how preventive maintenance can avoid
problems
 Knowing which preventive maintenance procedures are
appropriate for the customer
 Knowing how to troubleshoot operating system problems

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Q and A

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Chapter 13:
Advanced Laptops
and Portable
Devices

IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software v4.0

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Chapter 13 Objectives
 13.1 Describe wireless communication methods for
laptops and portable devices
 13.2 Describe repairs for laptops and portable devices
 13.3 Select laptop components
 13.4 Describe preventive maintenance procedures for
laptops
 13.5 Describe how to troubleshoot a laptop

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Chapter 13 Worksheets and Activity
 13.1.5 Activity: Wireless Technologies
 13.2 Worksheet: Investigating Repair Centers
 13.3.1 Worksheet: Laptop Batteries
 13.3.2 Worksheet: Docking Station
 13.3.3 Worksheet: DVD Drive Research
 13.3.4 Worksheet: Laptop RAM
 13.5.3 Worksheet: Verify Work Order Information

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Introduction
 With the increase in demand for mobility, the popularity
of laptops and portable devices will continue to grow.
 A technician should be able to configure, optimize, and
troubleshoot laptops, portable
devices, docking stations and
accessories.
 Some laptop manufacturers
require technicians complete
specialized certification
training to perform laptop
repairs.

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Wireless Communication Methods
13.1 Describe wireless communication methods for
laptops and portable devices
 Bluetooth
 Infrared
 Cellular WANs
 Wi-Fi
 Satellite

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Bluetooth Technology
 A short-range wireless technology designed to
eliminate the need for cables between portable or fixed-
configuration devices.
 Operates at 2.4 to 2.485 GHz in the unlicensed
Industrial, Scientific, and Medical (ISM) band.
 Low power, low cost, and
small size.
 Uses adaptive frequency
hopping.

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Infrared (IR) Technology
 A short-range, low-throughput wireless technology used
as a data transmission medium.
 Infrared light signals operate in the lowest light
frequency, typically between 100GHz to 1000THz.
 Distances are limited to a few
feet or meters.
 IR cannot penetrate any object
that blocks the light signal.

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Cellular WAN Technology
 Cellular WAN connections are powerful, 2-way wireless
networks that have been around since the late 1970s.
 Cellular networks operate in one of two ranges:
Approximately 800 MHz
Approximately 1900 MHz

 Three generations of cellular WAN include voice-only


analog, digital, and high-speed data and voice.

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Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) Technology
 Wi-Fi is a wireless technology that provides a simple
connection from anywhere within the range of a base
station.
 Connection distances of 300 feet (91 meters) or
more, depending on the
environment.
 Ease of access makes Wi-Fi
a simple solution for network
connectivity.

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Satellite Technology
 Satellite networks are faster than dial-up connections
but slower than Cable and DSL connections.
 Satellite service is ideal for the rural or remote Internet
users.
 Downloading files is faster than
uploading files.
 Adverse weather conditions can
interfere with satellite reception.

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Wireless Technologies
Purpose Devices Range Frequency Limitation

Radio-frequency Laptop, printer, Low-power,


Device must be
creating a WPAN camera, PDA, cell short range; 1 to 2.4 to 2.485
Bluetooth connecting phone, smartphone, 100 meters (3 to GHz
Bluetooth
compatible.
portable devices hands-free headset 330 feet)

projector, PDA,
Light waves used
printer, remote low-power, short Susceptible to
Infrared as a data 100 GHz to
control, wireless range (1 meter); interference and
(IR) transmission 1000 THz
mouse, wireless low through-put dilution
medium
keyboard
Within several
Cellular Cellular signal Laptop, cell phone, 850 to 1900 Only where cell
miles of cellular
WAN creating a WWAN PDA, smartphone MHz signal reaches
tower

Wireless The 2.4 GHz


Radio-frequency
Laptop, printer, and 33 to 100 meters 2.4 GHz or range is
Fidelity creating high-
other network devices (100 to 300 feet) 5.0 GHz unregulated and
(Wi-Fi) speed WLAN
heavily used.
High-speed Internet
Slower than
access; ideal when Up to 5,000
Laptop, GPS devices, DSL/Cable;
Satellite no other
smartphone
To the satellite channels per
higher setup
broadband access satellite
costs
available
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Repairing Laptops and Portable Devices

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Selecting Replacement Components

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Selecting Batteries
How do you know when you need a new laptop battery?
 The signs may not always
be apparent, but some are
obvious:
Laptop shuts off immediately
when AC power is removed
Battery is leaking
Battery overheats
Battery does not hold a
charge

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Select a Docking Station/Port Replicator
 Increase the number of ports available to a laptop.
 Convenient to connect the laptop to office network and
peripherals.

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Select Storage Devices
Storage devices are CRUs, unless a warranty requires
technical assistance.

 External USB hard drive


 Firewire hard drive
 DVD/CD burner

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Select Additional RAM
Additional RAM speeds up the process by decreasing
the number of times the OS reads and writes data to the
hard drive swap file.

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Laptop Preventive Maintenance
Preventive maintenance should be scheduled at regular
intervals to keep laptops running properly. Because
laptops are portable, they are more likely to be exposed
to harmful materials and situations than desktop
computers.
 Clean the laptop
 Perform hard drive
maintenance
Disk Cleanup
Disk Defragmenter

 Update software

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Disk Cleanup and Disk Defragmenter
The computer can slow down if the operating system is
searching through fragmented files.
 Windows XP has two programs that help clean up the
hard drive:
Disk Cleanup
Disk Defragmenter

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File Management and Version Control
When moving files from a laptop to a desktop computer,
be careful that data copied from one computer does not
inadvertently overwrite data on the other computer.

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Troubleshooting Process
Step 1 Gather data from the customer
Step 2 Verify the obvious issues
Step 3 Try quick solutions first
Step 4 Gather data from the computer
Step 5 Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
Step 6 Close with the customer

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1. Gather Data from the Customer
 Customer information
Company name, contact name, address, phone number

 Laptop information
Manufacturer, model, OS, network environment, connection
type

 Description of problem
In the scenario outlined in the student course content, the
laptop will not boot.

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2. Verify the Obvious Issues
Examine the most obvious causes of a problem.
 Is the laptop plugged in with the AC adapter?
 Is the battery secure?
 Is the power switch turned on?
 Have there been any power outages?
 Have any cables been unplugged?
 Are the cables or connectors damaged?

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3. Try Quick Solutions First

A quick solution can save time and money.


 Replace the AC power adapter with a known good AC
power adapter.
 Remove and reinsert the battery, making sure that it is
secure and locked in place.
 Replace battery with a known good battery.

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4. Gather Data from the Computer
After connecting the AC adapter to a power outlet and
the laptop still does not boot,
 Remove the battery and start the laptop with just the
AC adapter connected to a power outlet.
 Check the connections inside the laptop case:
Reseat the memory module.
Remove the hard drive and then reinstall it.
Remove any optical drives, such as the CD or DVD drive.

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5. Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution
1. Evaluate the information gathered from the customer
and from the laptop
2. Determine possible solutions
3. Implement the best solution
Note: Try each solution one at a time. If a solution is tried
and the problem is not fixed, then the technician
should totally reverse the attempted solution before
proceeding to the next step.

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6. Close with the Customer
 Discuss with customer the solution implemented.
 Have customer verify problem is solved.
 Provide all paperwork to customer.
 Document steps of solution.
 Document components used in repair.
 Document time spent to resolve the problem.

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Common Problems and Solutions
Problem Symptom Possible Solution
A laptop user complains that numerous
Provide information to the user about
peripheral cables are constantly getting
cordless peripherals.
tangled.
Reconfigure the wireless security on the
A laptop user is unable to connect to
laptop to connect to the security system
the wireless network.
used by the network.
The keyboard is a FRU. Advise the
The laptop keyboard no longer works. customer to take the laptop to a repair
center or return it to the manufacturer.
A user reports that the laptop battery
Have the user completely discharge the
needs recharging more frequently than
battery, then fully recharge it.
when it was new.
A user obtains a new laptop and
Docking stations are proprietary. Verify
reports that it does not fit in the existing
that the user has a compatible model.
docking station.

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Apply Troubleshooting Skills
 Now that you understand the troubleshooting process, it
is time to apply your listening and diagnostic skills.
 The worksheet is designed to reinforce your
communication skills to
verify information from
the customer.

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Chapter 13 Summary
Advanced Laptops and Portable Devices
 Describe wireless communication methods
 Describe CRU and FRU repairs
 Select laptop CRU components
 Schedule and perform preventive maintenance
 Troubleshoot laptop issue as a level-two technician

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Additional Resources
 Bluetooth Basics http://www.bluetooth.com/Bluetooth/Learn/Basics/
 Wireless Networking Overview http://www.escotal.com/wifi.html
 Wireless Network Technology http://www.northoak-training.com/Wireless.htm
 “Infrared” from About.com
http://compnetworking.about.com/od/homenetworking/g/bldef_infrared.htm
 Wide-Area Wireless Computing from Network Computing
http://www.networkcomputing.com/netdesign/wireless1.html
 802.11 Wireless Standards from About.com
http://compnetworking.about.com/od/wireless80211/80211_Wireless_Standards.htm
 Wi-Fi Alliance http://www.wi-fi.org
 Satellite Internet Service Information http://www.high-speed-internet-access-
guide.com/satellite/
 Howstuffworks: “How does satellite Internet operate?”
http://computer.howstuffworks.com/question606.htm
 Cleaning laptop keyboards from Computing.Net
http://www.computing.net/howto/simple/keyboard/
 Cleaning a Laptop Computer from About.com
http://mobileoffice.about.com/od/usingyourlaptop/a/cleanlaptop.htm
 Book: Wireless Home Networking Simplified (Cisco Press book) ISBN #1587201615

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Q and A

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Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 694
Chapter 14:
Advanced Printers
and Scanners

IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software v4.0

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Chapter 14 Objectives
 14.1 Describe potential safety hazards and safety
procedures associated with printers and scanners
 14.2 Install and configure a local printer and scanner
 14.3 Describe how to share a printer and a scanner on
a network
 14.4 Upgrade and configure printers and scanners
 14.5 Describe printer and scanner preventive
maintenance techniques
 14.6 Troubleshoot printers and scanners

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Chapter 14 Worksheets and Labs
 14.2.4 Lab: Install an All-in-one Printer/Scanner
 14.3.2 Lab: Share the All-in-one Printer/Scanner
 14.4.2 Lab: Comparing Scanned Images
 14.5.1 Worksheet: Search for Certified Printer
Technician Jobs
 14.6.3 Lab: Fix a Printer
 14.6.3 Remote Technician: Fix a Printer Problem

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Introduction
 This chapter explores the functionality of printers and
scanners.
 The chapter discusses safety hazards, configuration
procedures,
preventive maintenance, and
printer and scanner sharing.
 Learn how to maintain, install,
and repair these devices in
both local and network
configurations.

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Hazards of Printers and Scanners
Always follow safety procedures when working on any
computer, printer or scanner. These rules will keep you
and the equipment safe.
 Always lift equipment by using the strength in your legs and
knees, not your back.
 Wear appropriate work clothes and shoes.
 Do not wear loose jewelry or baggy clothes when servicing
computer equipment.
 Turn off equipment and allow it to cool before beginning any
repairs on internal components.
 Only qualified technicians should perform advanced repairs
on laser printers due to high voltage potential.
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Printer and Scanner Installation
 Connect it (USB, LPT, 1394, Print Server)
 Use Windows XP’s PnP driver
 Add software from manufacturer
 Check for driver updates on the Internet
 Change default settings
 Run a test print
 Scan a picture
 Print the scanned picture

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Computer Ports
Ports Characteristics
Serial data transfer is the movement of single bits of information in a single
Serial cycle. A serial connection can be used for dot matrix printers.
Parallel data transfer is faster than serial data transfer. Parallel data transfer is
Parallel the movement of multiple bits of information in a single cycle.
There are several common types of SCSI connections. SCSI ports can be DB
SCSI 50, Mini DB 50, and DB 68. All of these ports may be male or female.
The speed and simple setup has made USB very practical. When a USB
USB device is added to a computer system supporting PnP, the device is
automatically detected, and the computer starts the driver installation process.
Firewire is a high-speed communication bus that interconnects digital devices
such as printers, scanners, cameras, and hard drives. FireWire provides a
FireWire single plug-and-socket connection on which up to 63 devices can be attached
with data transfer speeds up to 400 Mbps.
Connecting a printer to a network requires cabling that is compatible with both
Ethernet the existing network and the network port installed in the printer.

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Drivers and Software
The process of installing and updating a printer driver:
1. Determine the version of the installed printer driver
and select a newer version to increase functionality.
2. Search the Internet to locate the latest driver version.
3. Download the driver and follow the instructions.
4. Install the driver.
5. Test the driver.
To test the driver choose Start > Settings > Printers and
Faxes. Right-click the printer and choose Properties. Then
choose Print Test Page. If the printer does not work, restart
the computer and then try again.
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Options and Default Settings
The media control options set the way a printer manages
media:
 Input paper tray selection
 Output path selection
 Media size and orientation
 Paper weight selection
The printer output options manage how the ink or toner
goes on the media:
 Color management
 Use the Print Test Page option from Windows
 Print speed
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Global and Per-Document Methods
Global method sets options to affect all documents.
 To change the configuration of a global printer, select Start
> Control Panel > Printers and Faxes and right-click the
individual printer.
Per-Document method sets options to affect a single
document.
 To change the printer settings, keep the document open
and select File > Page Setup.
 Alter the colors, print quality, paper direction, and margin
size for the document that you are printing without changing
the default settings.

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Verify Functionality
Installation is complete only after successfully testing all
device functions.
 Print double-sided documents
 Use different types of paper trays
 Change the settings of a color printer so that it prints in
black and white or grayscale to print draft copies of
documents
 Change scanner's scan resolution
 Edit scanned images of saved documents
 Use an optical character recognition (OCR) application

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Shared Printer
The computer that is connected to the printer can serve as the
print server.
 Confirm printer sharing software is installed on the computer
 The computer must know which
printer to share
 Go to the Printers folder
 Right-click the printer to share
 Select Properties
 Click the Sharing tab
 Select Share this printer option
 Assign the printer a name
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Types of Print Servers
A print server has three functions.
1. Provide client access
2. Administrate print jobs
Storing jobs in a queue until the print device is ready, and then
feeding or spooling the print information to the printer
3. Provide feedback to the users
Notification that a print job is finished, or an error message
There are three kinds of print servers:
 Network print server devices
 Dedicated PC print servers
 Computer-shared printers
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Configure Computer to Share a Printer
Configure the computer attached to the printer to share the printer
with other network users.
1. Go to Start > Control Panel > Printers and Other Hardware >
Printers and Faxes.
2. Select the printer you wish to share. The Printer Tasks box will
appear on the left.
3. Select Share this printer. The Printer Properties dialog box for
that printer will display.
4. Select the Sharing tab. Select Share this printer and enter the
desired share name. This is the name that the printer will appear
as to other users.
5. Verify that sharing has been successful. Return to the Printers
and Faxes folder and note the printer icon now has a hand
under it indicating the printer is now shared.
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Connecting Others to Shared Printer
Other users on the network can now connect to the shared
printer:
1. Go to Start > Control Panel > Printers and other Hardware
> Add a Printer.
2. The Add Printer wizard will appear. Click Next.
3. Select A network printer, or a printer attached to another
computer. Click Next.
4. Type in the name of the printer, or browse for it on the
network using the Next button.
5. After selecting the printer, a virtual printer port is created and
displayed in the Add a Printer window. The required print
drivers will be downloaded from the print server and installed
on the computer. The wizard will then finish the installation.
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Upgrade Printers and Scanners
 Some printers can be expanded to
print faster and to accommodate
more print jobs by adding hardware.
The hardware may include additional
paper trays, sheet feeders, network
cards, and expansion memory.

 Scanners can also be configured to


do more to meet customer needs.
Examples for scanner optimization include
color correction and resizing.

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Printer Upgrades
 Improves printing speed
 Enhances ability to perform complex print jobs
 Improves printer efficiency
Job buffering, page creation, photo printing, and graphics

 Printer upgrades include:


Adding printer memory for improved efficiency
Duplex printing to enable dual-sided printing
Extra trays to hold more paper
Specialized tray types for different media
Network cards to access a wired or wireless network
Firmware upgrades to add functionality or to fix bugs
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Scanner Optimization
 Resizing
 Sharpening
 Brightening or darkening
 Color correction
 Resolution
Resolutionchanges
changes
 Output
Output file
fileformat
format
 Color inversion

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Preventive Maintenance Techniques
Decrease downtime and increase
the service life of the components
 Schedule maintenance according
to vendor guidelines
 Maintain a suitable environment
for printers and scanners
 Follow appropriate cleaning
methods
 Check the capacity of ink
cartridges and toners

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Maintenance Schedule
A laser printer maintenance
kit may contain:
 Fuser assembly
 Transfer rollers
 Separation pads
 Pickup rollers
When installing new parts or replacing toners and cartridges,
visually inspect all internal components:
 Remove bits of paper and dust
 Clean spilled ink
 Look for any worn gears, cracked plastic, or broken parts
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Operating Environment Guidelines
Printers and scanners are affected by temperature,
humidity, and electrical interference.
 Keep paper dry
 Keep printer in a cool, dust-free environment
 Store toner in a clean, dry environment
 Clean glass on scanners
 Keep printers ventilated

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Printer Maintenance
 CAUTION: Remember to unplug scanners and printers
before cleaning to prevent danger from high voltage.
 Using a damp cloth wipe clean the exterior.
 Use the utility supplied with the printer to clean the print
heads. Afterward, test them to confirm they are clean.
 On inkjet printers, clean the paper-handling machinery
with a damp cloth.
 CAUTION: Do not touch the drum
of a laser printer while cleaning.
 Use a specially designed vacuum
cleaner to clean a laser printer.
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Scanner Maintenance
 CAUTION: Remember to unplug scanners and printers
before cleaning to prevent danger from high voltage.
 Using a damp cloth wipe clean the exterior.
 On flatbed scanners, keep the lid closed when the scanner
is not in use to prevent dust build-up and accidental fingertip
smudges.
 Consult the user guide for the manufacturer's cleaning
recommendations of the glass.
 Usually, use a glass cleaner and a soft cloth to protect the
glass from scratching.
 Check the manual for instructions on how to open the unit or
remove the glass from the scanner.
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Ink Cartridges and Toners
 When an inkjet printer
needs ink, it produces
blank pages.
 When a laser printer
needs ink, it begins to
print very poor-quality
printouts.
 Some printers have LCD
message screens or LED lights that warn users when ink
supplies are low.
 You can set the printer software to reduce the amount of
ink or toner that the printer uses.
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Troubleshooting Process
Step 1 Gather data from the customer
Step 2 Verify the obvious issues
Step 3 Try quick solutions first
Step 4 Gather data from the computer
Step 5 Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
Step 6 Close with the customer

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1. Gather Data from the Customer
 Customer information
Company name, contact name, address, phone number

 Laptop information
Manufacturer, model, OS, network environment, connection
type

 Description of problem
Open-ended questions
What error messages have you received?
Closed-ended questions
Does the problem appear on every page?

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2. Verify the Obvious Solutions
 Check that the data cable is the correct cable and installed
correctly.
 Make sure the printer is not plugged into a UPS.
 Check that the glass surfaces are not dirty on the printer or
scanner.
 Make sure that the toner cartridge is full.
 Check the age of the toner cartridge.
 Make sure that the ink cartridge is full.
 Make sure that the wiper bar and the inside of the printer are
clean.
 Check that the scanner arm is not taped or blocked in place.

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3. Try Quick Solutions First
 Restart the equipment.
 Cycle the power.
 Clear jobs in the printer queue.
 Restart the print spooler service.
 Remove and reinsert data cables.
 Shake the toner cartridge.
 Reinstall printer software.
 Re-insert paper.
 Remove tape from inkjet cartridge nozzles.
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4. Gather Data from the Computer
Ways to gather information about a printer or
scanner problem:
 Printer settings
 Network settings
 Device manager
 Errors in queue
 User permissions
 Application print settings

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Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 723
5. Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution
 Problem solving experience
 Other technicians
 Internet search
 News groups
 Manufacturer FAQs
 Computer manuals
 Device manuals
 Online forums
 Technical websites
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6. Close with the Customer
 Discuss with customer the solution implemented.
 Have customer verify problem is solved.
 Provide all paperwork to customer.
 Document steps of solution in the work order and in the
technician’s journal.
 Document components used in repair.
 Document time spent to resolve the problem.

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Common Problems and Solutions
Problem Symptom Possible Solution
The printouts from a laser printer are
Restore print quality to normal
faint and difficult to read. The toner
setting.
cartridge is fresh, and nearly full.
Disconnect the power, clean the
An inkjet printer is found to be filled
printer, and replace the cartridge.
with liquid ink.
Avoid using refilled cartridges.
An inkjet printer is producing Clean the print head with the
blotchy, streaked printouts. cleaning utility.
The sensor arm on the scanner will Remove the tape or unlock the
not move. sensor arm.
Scanner produces copies with lines Clean the glass and check for
and marks. scratches.
An “out of memory” error is Check the printer manual for RAM
displayed when printing specifications, and then add RAM
photographs. if possible.
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Apply Troubleshooting Skills
 It is time to apply your listening and diagnostic skills.

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Chapter 14 Summary
Advanced Printers and Scanners
 Information about printers and scanners
 Hazards and safety procedures
 Steps to install, configure, and upgrade a printer
 Steps to install, configure, and upgrade a scanner
 Preventive maintenance techniques

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Additional Resources
 Whatis?com: IT Encyclopedia and Learning Center
http://whatis.com
 TechTarget: The Most Targeted IT Media http://techtarget.com
 ZDNet: Tech News, Blogs and White Papers for IT Professionals
http://www.zdnet.com
 HowStuffWorks: It's Good to Know
http://computer.howstuffworks.com
 CNET.com http://www.cnet.com
 PC World http://www.pcworld.com
 ComputerWorld http://www.computerworld.com
 WIRED NEWS http://www.wired.com
 eWEEK.com http://www.eweek.com
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Q and A

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Chapter 15:
Advanced
Networks

IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software v4.0

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Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 731
Chapter 15 Objectives
 15.1 Identify potential safety hazards and implement proper
safety procedures related to networks
 15.2 Design a network based on the customer's needs
 15.3 Determine the components for your customer's network
 15.4 Implement the customer's network
 15.5 Upgrade the customer's network
 15.6 Describe installation, configuration and management of
a simple mail server
 15.7 Describe preventive maintenance procedures for
networks
 15.8 Troubleshoot the network
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Chapter 15 Worksheets, Activities, Labs
 15.2.2 Worksheet: Protocols
 15.3.2 Worksheet: ISP Connections
 15.3.4 Activity: Network Devices
 15.4.2a Lab: Browser Configuration
 15.4.2b Lab: Network Resource Sharing
 15.5.1 Lab: Wireless NIC Installation
 15.5.2 Lab: Wireless Router Installation
 15.5.3 Lab: Wireless NIC Connection Test
 15.8.3 Lab: Network Problem
 15.8.3 Lab: Remote Tech Network Problem
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Introduction
 To meet the expectations and needs of customers and
network users, a technician must be familiar with
networking technologies.
 A technician must understand the basics of how a
network is designed and why some components affect
the flow of data on a network.
 Topics included in this chapter are:
Advanced networking topics, including network design, network
component upgrades, and email server installations
Basic networking topics such as safety, network components,
and preventive maintenance
Troubleshooting advanced network situations
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Safety Procedures
 Wear clothing that will help
protect you from unexpected
or toxic materials you may
encounter when pulling cable
through ceilings and walls.
For example, wear long pants, long-sleeved shirts, sturdy shoes
that cover your feet, gloves, and safety glasses.

 Consider safety issues when using a ladder.


 Follow safety rules when working with cables.
 Use common sense when you take care of any
problems. Call another person to assist you if need
help.
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Fiber-Optic Safety
 Fiber optics are useful for communications, but they
have certain hazards:
Dangerous chemicals
Light that you cannot see that can burn your eyes
Tools with sharp edges that produce glass splinters

 Specific types of tools and chemicals are used when


working with fiber-optic cable and must be handled
safely.
Solvents and glues Harmful light
Tools Glass shards

CAUTION: Obtain proper training before you attempt to


cut, strip, or splice fiber-optic cable.
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Cable Safety
 Know the hazards before working with network cable
and equipment.
 WARNING: When handling
cable, always wear eye
protection. Never touch the
ends of any type of cable with
bare skin.
 Copper cables can be
dangerous to handle
Sharp ends
Cutting and crimping tools
Electricity
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Network Design
A network will work best if it is designed to meet the
needs of your customer.
 Analyze the environment
 Understand network options
 Interview the customer and
other people involved
 List hardware and software
to be used
 Consider future growth of
the company and the
network
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Determine a Network Topology
A site survey is a physical inspection of the building that
will help determine a basic logical topology, which is the
flow of data and protocols.
Considerations for topology choice:
 Number and location of users
 Cable and wireless types
 Expandability

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Protocol Ports
When the TCP/IP protocol stack is enabled, other
protocols become available on specific ports:

Protocols Port Purpose


Transports web pages over a TCP/IP
HTTP Port 80 network
Securely transports web pages over a
HTTPS Port 443 TCP/IP network
SMTP Port 25 Sends email over a TCP/IP network
Provides connections to computers over a
TELNET/SSH Ports 23/22 TCP/IP network
Ports 20 or
FTP/TFTP Transports files over a TCP/IP network
21/69
DNS Port 53 Translates URLs to IP address
Automates assignment of IP address on a
DHCP Port 67 network
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Components of a Network

 The network topology chosen


determines the type of devices, cables,
and network interface that will be
required to construct the network.
 A connection to an Internet service
provider (ISP) must be established.

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Cable Types
Which cable type is most beneficial and cost effective for
the customer?
 Types of twisted-pair copper cable: Cat5, Cat5e, Cat6,
and Cat6A
 Cat5e is the most common type of cable used in a
network
 Cat6A is the most recent type and it carries signals at a
rate of 10 Gbps

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Considerations for Cable Choice
 Installing cables is expensive, but after a one-time
expense, a wired network is normally inexpensive to
maintain.
 To make a wireless network as secure as wired
network requires the use of encryption.
 Install the highest-grade cable available to ensure the
network will handle future network speeds.
 A wireless solution may be possible in places where
cables cannot be installed.

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ISP Connection Types
Considerations when selecting an ISP connection type:
speed, reliability, availability, and cost.
Advantages Disadvantages Speed
Very slow speeds
POTS Very common Cannot receive phone calls Max 56kbps
while connected
Higher speeds Still much slower than other BRI – up to 128kbps
ISDN
than POTS broadband technologies PRI – up to 2.048Mbps
DSL Low cost Must be close to carrier 256kbps – 24Mbps

Cable Very high speed Slow upload speeds 384kbps – 27Mbps


Available when Significant lag, more expensive
Satellite DSL and cable are than other broadband 9kbps – 24Mbps
not technologies
Scalable to Very expensive
Wireless Up to 45Mbps
customer needs Limited market availability
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Select Network Interface Cards (NICs)
Considerations include speed, form factor, and
capabilities of NIC and of hub or switch.
 Most NICs for desktops are either integrated
into the motherboard or are an expansion card
that fits into an expansion slot.
 Most NICs for laptops are either integrated into
the motherboard or fit into a PC Card or
ExpressBus expansion slot.
 USB network adapters plug into
any available USB port and can
be used with both desktops and
laptops.
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Select Network Device
 Hub
Sends all traffic received out all ports
Regenerates traffic that passes through it
 Switch
Filter and segment network traffic by sending only to the
destination device
Higher dedicated bandwidth provided to each network device
 Router
Connects networks together (example: connects a home
network to the Internet)
Wireless routers also act as a firewall
 ISP equipment
A cable or DSL modem
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Installation Checklist
Careful planning will help ensure an easier and faster
network installation.
All parts are in
Installation scheduled
Backups are available
Access to needed passwords
Extra supplies handy
Install components
Test components

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Network Installation
1. To install cable in ceilings and behind walls, perform a
cable pull. Terminate each end of every cable. Label the
ends of every cable.
2. Test the cables for shorts or interference.
3. Install NICs in network devices. Configure client software
and IP address information on all devices.
4. Install switches and routers in a secured, central location.
5. Install patch cables from wall connections to devices.
Check NICs for link lights on all devices.
6. Test the network for connectivity. Configure and test
network applications.
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Configure a Web Browser
 Configure settings and
perform maintenance tasks
Microsoft Internet Explorer (IE)
> Tools menu > Internet
Options…

 Occasionally delete the


Temporary Internet files
 Confirm which web browser is
the default browser
Select Start > Run, enter a
website address and click OK

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Share Network Resources
To share a single file, multiple folders filled with files and
folders, or an entire drive:
1. Copy the item to share
to a folder
2. Right-click the folder
and select Sharing and
Security
3. Select Share this folder
4. Identify who can access
the folder and which
permissions they have
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Share Network Resources
To share a printer:
1. Select Start > Control Panel > Printers and Faxes
2. Right-click the printer icon and select Sharing
3. Click Share this printer
4. Click OK
To print on a shared printer:
1. Select Start > Control Panel > Printers and Faxes
2. Click File > Add Printer
3. Use the Add Printers wizard to find and install the
shared network printer

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Network Upgrades
 You must be able to upgrade, install, and configure
components when a customer asks for increased
speed or new functionality to be added to a network.

Network Upgrade
Methods
• Cable type
• Type of NIC
• Additional functionality

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Install and Configure Wireless Adapter
 Before purchasing a wireless adapter, make sure it is
compatible with other wireless equipment that is
already installed on the network.
 To install a PCI wireless adapter:
The adapter must be the correct form
factor to fit the computer
Remove the case cover
Install the NIC into an open PCI slot or
PCI express slot
Configure device drivers
Enter network address information

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Install and Configure Wireless Router
1. Position wireless router for maximum coverage.
2. Connect the wireless router to the existing network.
Connect a DSL or cable modem to the wireless router.
Connect one computer to any of the remaining ports
to access the configuration web pages.
3. Turn on the broadband modem and plug in the power
cord to the router. When the modem finishes
establishing connection to the ISP, the router
automatically communicates with the modem to
receive network information from the ISP: IP address,
subnet mask, and DNS server addresses.

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Install and Configure Wireless Router
The following steps are specific to the Linksys WRT300N
router:
4. Turn on the computer that is connected to the router
and open a web browser. In the Address field, enter
192.168.1.1 to go to the default address for router
configuration and management.
5. A security window opens prompting you for
authentication to access the router configuration
screens. The user name field should be left empty.
Enter admin as the default password.
6. Click Save Settings at the bottom of each screen
after making any changes.
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Test Network Connection
 Open a web browser and see if the Internet is available.

 To troubleshoot a wireless
connection, you can use
the Windows GUI or CLI.
Select Start > Control
Panel > Network
Connections.
Double-click on the wireless
network connection to
display the status.

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Connection Status
The Connection Status screen displays the number of
packets that have been sent and received.

connection
status

duration of
connection

# of packets # of packets
sent received

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Support Tab of Connection Status

Static or
dynamic

View MAC
address Reset the
and other connection
information information
and
establish
new

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Ipconfig Commands
 Used to verify basic IP address information
ipconfig
Purpose
Commands
Displays full configuration of all network
ipconfig /all
adapters
ipconfig /release Releases the IP address of a network adapter

ipconfig /renew Renews the IP address of a network adapter

ipconfig /flushdns Empties the cache that stores DNS information


ipconfig Refreshes DHCP leases and re-registers the
/registerdns adapter with DNS
ipconfig /displaydns Shows DNS information in the cache

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Ping Command
 To confirm that your adapter is working properly, ping
your NIC.
Select Start > Run > cmd.
At the command prompt, enter ping localhost.

 To confirm that your WAN connection is working


properly, ping your default gateway.
Find the address for the default gateway by using the ipconfig
command.

 To test the Internet connection and DNS, ping a popular


website.
 The response shows replies from the ping or that the
request timed out because there is a problem.
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Tracert Command
 Traces the route that packets take from your computer
to a destination address.
Select Start > Run > cmd.
At the command prompt, enter tracert.

 The first listing in the window for the tracert result is


your default gateway.
 Each listing after that is the router that packets are
traveling through to reach the destination.
 Tracert will show you where packets are stopping,
indicating where the problem is occurring.

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Email Protocol Comparison
A technician should know the advantages and
disadvantages of each email protocol.
Send Retrieve
Protocol Advantages Disadvantages Port
Mail Mail
Delivers email from one server
to another
SMTP Client upload only 25 Yes No
Can send mail directly to the
destination
Simple Download only
POP Supports intermittent Cannot manage the 110 No Yes
connections mail on the server
Simple
More features than POP
Requires more disk
Stores mail on server
IMAP space and CPU 143 No Yes
Faster than POP resources
Allows simultaneous access by
multiple clients
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Email Server Setup
 Active directory servers, global catalog servers, and
domain name servers (DNS) servers must all be in
place and functioning before Exchange can be installed
and work properly.
 Test the environment before installing Exchange.
 Set up the services required and install Exchange on a
dedicated set of servers away from the main network.
 Keep the installation of Exchange separated from your
production network until you are sure that it is
functioning properly.

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Prepare for Email Installation
Be prepared with proper equipment and information:
 DNS deployment
 Active Directory domain
 At least one Global Catalog
 Windows 2000 or higher native domain functionality
 Exchange server software
 Windows server support tools
 Schema master server
 High-speed Internet connection
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Email Installation
 Add Internet Information Services (IIS) using the
Add/Remove Windows Components wizard before initiating
the installation of the Exchange server.
 Insert the Exchange installation CD and begin the New
Exchange installation wizard.
 The wizard will verify that Exchange is ready to be installed.
 Once Exchange is installed, the Microsoft Management
Console provides access to many settings. The Exchange
System Manager is used to manage the options of the
server.
 Use the Active Directory Users and Computer (ADUC)
console to configure a user's mailbox.
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Preventive Maintenance
 Check the condition of cables, network devices, servers, and
computers to make sure that they are kept clean and are in
good working order.
 Develop a plan to perform scheduled maintenance and cleaning
at regular intervals.
 If you notice equipment is failing,
damaged, or making unusual
sounds, then inform the network
administrator to prevent
unnecessary network downtime.
 Educate network users by
demonstrating to them how to
properly connect, disconnect,
and move cables.
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Troubleshooting Process
Step 1 Gather data from the customer
Step 2 Verify the obvious issues
Step 3 Try quick solutions first
Step 4 Gather data from the computer
Step 5 Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
Step 6 Close with the customer

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1. Gather Data from the Customer
 Customer information
Company name, contact name, address, phone number

 Laptop information
Manufacturer, model, OS, network environment, connection
type

 Description of problem
Open-ended questions
Is there anything else you can tell me about the problem?
Closed-ended questions
Have you rebooted the equipment?

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2. Verify the Obvious Issues
Examine the most obvious causes of a problem.
 What is your IP information?
 Are the settings on the network equipment correct?
 Is there activity on the wireless router?
 Is there activity on the modem?
 Is your wireless client configured correctly?
 Has your network connection been disabled?

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3. Try Quick Solutions First
A quick solution can save time and money.
 Restart the equipment.
 Renew the IP address.
 Flush DNS.
 Roll back a driver.
 Return to previous saved restore point.
NOTE: Remember to document each solution you try, as
well as every outcome. You should undo failed solutions
before implementing additional solutions. Otherwise,
problems may begin to compound each other.
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4. Gather Data from the Computer
Ways to gather information about a network problem:
 Device manager - Make sure that the NIC is properly installed.
 Event viewer - Check for system and hardware errors.
 ipconfig - Check that the IP address is properly configured.
 Ping the localhost - Make sure that the NIC is working
properly.
 Ping the default gateway - Make sure the computer can reach
the default gateway.
 Ping a popular website - Make sure the computer can reach
the Internet using DNS.
 Verify wireless router configuration
 Verify email client configuration
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5. Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution
 Problem solving experience
 Other technicians
 Internet search
 News groups
 Manufacturer FAQs
 Computer manuals
 Device manuals
 Online forums
 Technical websites
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6. Close with the Customer
 Discuss with customer the solution implemented.
 Have customer verify problem is solved.
 Provide all paperwork to customer.
 Document steps of solution in the work order and in the
technician’s journal.
 Document components used in repair.
 Document time spent to resolve the problem.

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Common Problems and Solutions
Problem Symptom Possible Solution
Users report that a network printer is
increasingly unreliable. The network cable
Replace and reroute the network printer cable.
travels under a desk and has become frayed
and pinched.
The user’s Connection Status screen shows
The wireless connection has failed. Reset the
less than a dozen packets sent and
wireless adapter card, click Repair to refresh the
received, even though the computer has
IP address, and check again.
been on for hours.
A user is making many changes in the
configuration of a WRT300N wireless router, The user must click Save Settings at the bottom
but the changes do not seem to remain in of each screen after making any changes.
effect.
Locate the folder where web browser or
temporary files are stored and verify the folder
A user receives a warning message that
size is a problem. Use Disk Cleanup to delete
hard drive space is low.
the temp files, the browser clean up utility, or
manually delete them.
A network has become slow as more users
are added. All users connect to a 24-port Replace the hub with a switch.
hub.
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Apply Troubleshooting Skills
 It is time to apply your listening and diagnostic skills.

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Chapter 15 Summary
 Security threats can come from inside or outside of an
organization.
 Viruses and worms are common threats that attack
data.
 Develop and maintain a security plan to protect both
data and physical equipment from loss.
 Keep operating systems and applications up to date
and secure with patches and service packs.

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Q and A

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Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 777
Chapter 16:
Advanced Security

IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software v4.0

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Chapter 16 Objectives
 16.1 Outline security requirements based on customer
needs
 16.2 Select security components based on customer
needs
 16.3 Implement customer's security policy
 16.4 Perform preventive maintenance on security
 16.5 Troubleshoot security

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Chapter 16 Worksheets, Activities, Labs
 16.1.1 Worksheet: Security Policy
 16.2.2 Activity: Security Devices
 16.2.3 Worksheet: Firewalls
 16.3.2 Lab: Windows XP Firewall
 16.5.3 Lab: Fix a Security Problem
 16.5.3 Remote Technician: Fix a Security Problem

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Outline Security Requirements
A security policy includes a comprehensive statement
about the level of security required and how this
security will be achieved.
 Is the computer located
at a home or a business?
 Is there full-time Internet
access?
 Is the computer a laptop?

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Outline a Security Policy
A collection of rules, guidelines, and checklists:
 Define an acceptable computer usage statement.
 Identify the people permitted to use the computer
equipment.
 Identify devices that are permitted to be installed on a
network, as well as the conditions of the installation.
 Define the requirements necessary for data to remain
confidential on a network.
 Determine a process for employees to acquire access
to equipment and data.

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Security Hardware
Identify hardware and equipment that can be used to
prevent theft, vandalism, and data loss.
 To restrict access to premises, you might use
biometrics, fences, and/or door locks.
 To protect the network infrastructure, you might
secure telecom rooms, setup detection for unauthorized
use of wireless, and/or setup hardware firewalls.
 To protect individual computers, you might use cable
locks, laptop docking station locks and/or lockable
cases.
 To protect data, you might use lockable HD carriers
and/or USP security dongles.
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Security Applications
Security applications protect the operating system and
software application data.
 Software Firewall
 Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS)
 Application and OS Patches
 Anti-virus software and anti-malware software

Compare the cost of data loss to the expense of security


protection, and then determine what tradeoffs are
acceptable.

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Selecting Security Components
Consider the following factors when deciding on security
components:
 Advantages and
disadvantages of a security
component
 Overlapping features and
functions
 Component setup and
maintenance requirements
 Budget restrictions
 Real and perceived threats

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Security Techniques
Depending on the situation, more than one technique
may be required.
 Use encrypted passwords to login to the network
 Monitor network activity through logging and auditing
 Set up data encryption over wireless
Encryption methods include:
 Hash encoding uses an algorithm to track tampering
 Symmetric encryption uses a key to encode/decode data
 Asymmetric encryption uses one key to encode and
another key to decode
 VPN creates a virtual “secure tunnel”

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Access Control Devices
Physical access control devices
 Lock
 Conduit
 Card key
 Video surveillance
 Guards
Two-factor identification methods
for access control
 Smart card
 Security key fob
 Biometric device
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Firewall Types
Hardware
Software Firewall
Firewall
• Free-standing and uses • Available as 3rd party
dedicated hardware software and cost varies

• Initial cost for hardware • Included in Windows XP


and software updates can operating system
be costly
• Multiple computers can be • Typically protects only the
protected computer it is installed on

• Little impact on the • Uses the CPU, potentially


computer performance slowing the computer

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Configure Security Settings
Two primary security settings include:
 Setting levels of permissions on folders and files
Use FAT or NTFS to configure folder sharing or folder-level
permissions for users with network access
Use file-level permissions with NTFS to configure access to files
 Securing wireless access points
Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)
Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA)
MAC address filtering
Unused wireless connections
Service Set Identifier (SSID) Broadcasting
Wireless antenna

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Configure Firewalls
 A restrictive firewall policy
(open only the required ports)
 A permissive firewall policy
(open all ports except those
explicitly denied)
 Configure a software firewall
manually or to run
automatically.
 Configure a hardware firewall
by indicating what is filtered
by port type, port number,
source address, and/or
destination address.
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Protect Against Malware
Run software scanning programs to detect and remove
the malicious software.
 Anti-virus, anti-spyware, anti-adware, and phishing
programs
Phishing attacks trick the user into providing the personal
information. A user’s data can be sold and/or used fraudulently.

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Operating System Updates
Windows XP update options:
 Automatic:
Automatically downloads and installs without user intervention.
 Only Download Updates:
Download the updates automatically, but the user is required to
install them.
 Notify Me:
Notify the user that updates are available and gives the user the
option to download and install.
 Turn off Automatic Updates:
Prevents automatically checking for updates. Updates have to
be discovered, downloaded and installed by the user.
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User Account Maintenance
 Group employees by job requirements to give access
to files by setting up group permissions.
 When an employee leaves an organization, access to
the network should be terminated immediately.
 Guests can be given access through a Guest account.

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Data Backups
Description
Full or Normal
Archives all selected files
Backup
Archives all selected files that have changed since
Incremental
last full or incremental backup. It marks files as
Backup
having been backed up.
Archives everything that has changed since last full
Differential
backup. It does not mark files as having been backed
Backup
up.
Archives all selected files that have changed on the
Daily Backup
day of the backup
Copy Backup Archives all selected files
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Troubleshooting Process
Step 1 Gather data from the customer
Step 2 Verify the obvious issues
Step 3 Try quick solutions first
Step 4 Gather data from the computer
Step 5 Evaluate the problem and implement the solution
Step 6 Close with the customer

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Level-one Technician Gathers Data
Description of problem by the level-one helpdesk
technician:
 Customer is unable to connect to the network using
wireless connection.
Customer cannot surf the Internet.
Customer cannot access any resources on the network.
Wireless does not seem to be working properly at the office.
The customer has checked all settings.

 The helpdesk technician was unable to resolve the


problem, so the work order is escalated to a level-two
technician.

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Open-Ended Questions
Here are some open-ended questions that a level-two
technician might ask to gather more information from
the customer in this scenario:
 Which specific network resources are you trying to
access with your wireless system?
 Are there any network resources that you can access
by wireless?
 When were you last able to access the network using
wireless at the office?
 How does your computer perform using wireless at
other locations?
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Level-two Technician Draws Conclusions
Based on the information given by the customer to the
open-ended questions, these conclusions can be
determined:
 In the office, no resources can be accessed.
 When operating away from the office, no problems are
experienced.
 The problems started just after a new wireless router
was installed.

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Closed-Ended Questions
Here are some closed-ended questions that a level-two
technician might ask to gather more information from
the customer in this scenario:
 Is your network cable plugged in?
 When you plug in your network cable, does everything
work correctly?
From the answers to these questions, you determine that
the customer is experiencing a wireless connection
problem. Therefore, focus your efforts on a problem
with wireless connectivity in the office.

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Verify the Obvious Issues
Examine the most obvious causes of a problem.
 Does the access point appear to be on?
 What lights on the access point are on or flashing?
 Does anyone else have this problem?
 Have you been able to connect to the Internet since the
wireless router was upgraded?
 Does this problem occur only at your desk or at other
areas of the office as well?
 Have you been able to connect through wireless at any
other locations?
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Conclusions from Checking the Obvious
 The network login and password are valid.
 The wireless card in the user's computer operates
normally.
 The problem is not interference with the wireless signal.
 There is probably a wireless configuration issue.

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Quick Solutions
 Check the wireless signal strength in various areas in
the office.
 Try connecting using wireless connection with security
settings turned off.
Results of quick solutions:
 The wireless signal strength seems normal.
 Wireless connection works with security turned off.
So the problem is probably a configuration issue.
 Check the configurations on the computer and on the
access point.

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Gather Data from the Computer
Determine the MAC address of the computer:
1. Select Start > Run
2. Type cmd in the Run box. The Command Line
interface should appear
3. Enter ipconfig /all at the command prompt.
4. Write down the MAC address of the wireless NIC and
of the Ethernet NIC.
No resolution to the problem has been found at this point.
The problem is most likely to be found in the
configuration of the wireless access point security
settings.
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Evaluate Problem & Implement Solution
1. What do you know now?
 Works using the Ethernet  Works using wireless when the
cable security is disabled
 Works using wireless at  No one else has the problem
home
 Doesn’t work when connected to the office wireless access
point
2. Determine possible solutions
 Might be incorrect wireless access point configuration settings
3. Implement the best solution
 The MAC address filter on the access point was incorrectly
configured for this customer.
 Add the computer’s MAC address to the wireless access point
MAC address filter list.
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Close with the Customer
 Discuss with customer the solution implemented.
 Have customer verify problem is solved.
 Provide all paperwork to customer.
 Document steps of solution.
 Document components used in repair.
 Document time spent to resolve the problem.

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Common Problems and Solutions
Problem Symptom Possible Solution
A customer reports that a backup that
Advise the customer to implement a
was started the night before is still
different type of backup that saves time.
going.
Grant access to the files for the duration
A visiting consultant using a guest
of the visit. When the consultant leaves,
account cannot access needed files.
disable the account.
A user refuses your request to e-mail Inform the user that there was no such
you their student ID number and request. Gather information and warn
password. others against this phishing attack.
A user can locate a file on the server but Change the user permissions on this file
cannot download it. from read to read and execute.
A user cannot connect to the network
Verify that the user’s MAC address is
using a wireless router even after the
listed in the MAC address filter table.
proper security key has been installed.

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Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 806
Fix a Security Problem
Now that you understand the troubleshooting process, it
is time to apply your listening and diagnostic skills.
 Receive the work order
 Research the problem
 Take the customer through various steps to try and
resolve the problem
 Document the problem and the resolution

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Chapter 1 © 2007 Cisco Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. Cisco Public 807
Chapter 16 Summary
Advanced Security
 Security requirements for customers differ because of
budget restraints, the type of equipment to secure, and
the decision regarding hardware and software security.
 A security policy should be developed and used to
determine the type of firewall to be installed.
 Hardware and software security tools are available to
protect data on a network.
 Security policies should be followed by everyone in the
organization.
 Preventive maintenance is an effective part of security.
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Additional Resources
 Linksys: Learning Center http://www.linksys.com
 Home PC Firewall GuideTM http://www.firewallguide.com
 HowStuffWorks: It's Good to Know
http://computer.howstuffworks.com/firewall.htm
 United States Computer Emergence Readiness Team: Cyber Security Tip
http://www.us-cert.gov/cas/tips/ST04-004.html
 Microsoft: Security at Home: Firewall FAQs
http://www.microsoft.com/athome/security/protect/firewall.mspx
 ConsumerSearch: Firewalls Reviews, Best Firewalls
http://www.consumersearch.com/www/software/firewalls/index.html
 Matousec: Comparison of Top Five Personal Firewalls
http://www.matousec.com/projects/windows-personal-firewall-analysis/top-
five-comparison.php
 Computer Shopper, PC PRO UK: Personal Firewalls
http://www.pcpro.co.uk/shopper/labs/222/software-labs-personal-
firewalls/introduction.html
 Information Week: Safety First: 5 Firewalls for Your Desktop PC
http://www.informationweek.com/software/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=192
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Q and A

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