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BASIC EAR ANATOMY

OR WHATS IN AN EAR
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 EXPECTED
OUTCOMES
 TO UNDERSTAND
THE HEARING
MECHANISM
 TO BE ABLE TO
IDENTIFY THE
STRUCTURES OF
THE EAR
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 HEARING MECHANISM
 OUTER EAR – ACOUSTIC
TO KINETIC ENERGY
 MIDDLE EAR – CAUSES
INCREASE IN KINETIC
ENERGY ( x18)
 INNER EAR – KINETIC TO
HYDRAULIC ENERGY
THEN HYDRAULIC TO
ELECTRICAL ENERGY
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 MADE UP OF THREE
REGIONS
 EXTERNAL EAR
 PINNA OR AURICLE

 EXTERNAL AUDITORY
CANAL
 MIDDLE EAR
 TYMPANIC MEMBRANE

 MALLEUS, INCUS AND


STAPES
 EUSTATION TUBE OR
PHARYNGOTYMPANIC
TUBE
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 INNER EAR
 BONY AND
MEMBRANEOUS
LABRYNTH
 VESTIBULE

 SEMI-CIRCULAR
CANALS
 COCHLEA

 VESTIBULAR NERVE

 AUDITORY NERVE
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 MASTOID BONE
 HONEYCOMB OF AIR
CELLS
 LOCATED BEHIND, ABOVE
AND BELOW THE EAR
 CELLS LINED BY THIN
MUCOUS MEMBRANE
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 OUTER EAR
 THE PINNA OR AURICLE
 CONSISTS OF CARTILEGE
AND SKIN
 ACTS AS A CHANNEL FOR

SOUND WAVES AND


DIRECTS THEM
TOWARDS THE
EXTERNAL AUDITORY
MEATUS AND ON TO THE
TYMPANIC MEMBRANE
 MADE UP OF 8 DISTINCT
STRUCTURES
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 OUTER EAR
 PINNA OR AURICLE
 CARTILEGE COVERED
WITH
PERICHONDRIUM
BOUND TO THE SKIN
 AUDITORY MEATUS
 2/3 CARTILEGE

 1/3 BONE

 STOPS AT THE
TYMPANIC
MEMBRANE
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 AUDITORY MEATUS
 CERUMEN (WAX) IS

PRODUCED IN THE OUTER


2/3 AND IS A
BACTERICIDAL WHICH
AIDS IN THE CLEANING
MECHANISM ALONG
WITH EPITHELIAL
MIGRATION
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 THE MIDDLE EAR
 THE TYMPANIC
MEMBRANE
 ROUGHLY CIRCULAR

 ALMOST

TRANSPARANT WITH A
CAPILLIARY BLOOD
SUPPLY
 JOINS MEATUS

AROUND ITS
CIRCUMFERENCE
(ANNULAR)
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 THE MIDDLE EAR
 THE TYMPANIC
MEMBRANE
 CONSISTS OF THREE
LAYERS
 OUTER EPITHELIAL

 MIDDLE ELASTIC

FIBRE
 INNER MUCOUS

MEMBRANE
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 THE MIDDLE EAR
 THE OSSICLES
 STAPES

 INCUS

 MALLEUS

 TRANFERS SOUND
VIBRATIONS FROM THE
TYPANIC MEMBRANE TO
THE INNER EAR
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 THE MIDDLE EAR
 EUSTACHIAN TUBE OR
PHARYNGOTYMPANIC
TUBE
 LINKS THE MIDDLE

EAR TO THE PHARYNX


 ALLOWS PRESSURE TO

EQUALISE BETWEEN
THE ATMOSPHERE
AND THE MIDDLE EAR
 ALLOWS MUCOUS

DRAINAGE
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 INNER EAR
 BONY LABRYNTH
 ANTERIORLY THE
COCHLEA
 MIDDLE THE

VESTIBULE
 POSTERIORLY THE 3

SEMI-CIRCULAR
CANALS
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 INNER EAR
 VESTIBULE
 THE FLUID FILLED
(PERI-LYMPH AND
ENDO-LYMPH)
CENTRAL CAVITY OF
THE BONY LABYRNTH
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 INNER EAR
 SEMI-CIRCULAR CANALS
 RESPONSIBLE FOR
SENSING MOTION AND
BALANCE
 HOLLOW BONEY

TUBES FILLED WITH


PERILYMPH
 CONTAINS THE

MEMBRANEOUS
LABYRNTH AND
ENDOLYMPH
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 INNER EAR
 THE COCHLEA
 A SPIRAL SHAPED
FLUID FILLED
STRUCTURE LINED
WITH TINY HAIRS
(CILLIA) WHICH
MOVE WHEN
VIBRATED AND
CAUSE A NERVE
IMPULSE TO FORM
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 INNER EAR
 THE COCHLEA
 CONTAINS THE
ORGAN OF CORTI
THROUGH WHICH
ELECTRICAL
(SOUND)
IMPULSES ARE
SENT ALONG THE
AUDITORY NERVE
TO THE BRAIN
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
 THE AUDITORY
NERVE
 CARRIES SOUND
IMPULSES FROM THE
COCHLEA TO THE
BRAIN
 THE VESTIBULAR
NERVE
 CARRIES BALANCE
SIGNALS FROM THE
SEMI-CIRCULAR
CANALS TO THE
BRAIN
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
anvil - (also called the incus) a tiny bone that passes
vibrations from the hammer to the stirrup.
cochlea - a spiral-shaped, fluid-filled inner ear structure; it
is lined with cilia (tiny hairs) that move when vibrated and
cause a nerve impulse to form.
eardrum - (also called the tympanic membrane) a thin
membrane that vibrates when sound waves reach it.
Eustachian tube - a tube that connects the middle ear to
the back of the nose; it equalizes the pressure between the
middle ear and the air outside. When you "pop" your ears
as you change altitude (going up a mountain or in an
airplane), you are equalizing the air pressure in your
middle ear.
hammer - (also called the malleus) a tiny bone that passes
vibrations from the eardrum to the anvil.
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
nerves - these carry electro-chemical signals from the
inner ear (the cochlea) to the brain.
outer ear canal - the tube through which sound travels
to the eardrum.
pinna - (also called the auricle) the visible part of the
outer ear. It collects sound and directs it into the outer
ear canal
semicircular canals - three loops of fluid-filled tubes
that are attached to the cochlea in the inner ear. They
help us maintain our sense of balance.
stirrup - (also called the stapes) a tiny, U-shaped bone
that passes vibrations from the stirrup to the cochlea.
This is the smallest bone in the human body (it is 0.25
to 0.33 cm long).
BASIC EAR ANATOMY
STAPES
AND OVAL SEMI CIRCULAR CANALS
WINDOW

INCUS VESTIBULAR AND


AUDITORY NERVES
MALLEUS
PINNA

COCHLEA

TYMPANIC
MEMBRANE
EUSTACHIAN
EAR CANAL TUBE
BASIC EAR ANATOMY

QUESTIONS ?

NO ….GOOD!!!