# Lecture 4-1

Gauss¶s Law: Qualitative Statement 
Form any closed surface around charges  Count the number of electric field lines coming through the surface, those outward as positive and inward as negative.  Then the net number of lines is proportional to the net charges enclosed in the surface.

Lecture 4-2

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Lecture 4-6 Reading Quiz 1 Which of the following statements contradict Gauss¶s law? a) The electric flux through a closed surface depends on all the charges outside the closed surface. b) The electric flux through a closed surface is proportional to the net charges enclosed in the surface. d) An electric dipole inside a closed surface does not change the net flux through the surface. . c) Any closed surface can be used with Gauss¶s law.

i. # of field lines N = density of field lines x ³area´ where ³area´ = A2 x cos U u v u v \$ N w E AB ! E gAn Sum over surface U u v \$ E gAn § General definition of electric flux: (must specify sense.Lecture 4-7 Electric flux Summary To state Gauss¶s Law in a quantitative form. which way) u v \$ * E ! ´ E gn dA S ..e. we first need to compute the Electric Flux.

Out is +. r \$  Since E gn is a scalar product. *E proportional to # field lines coming through outward . the electric flux is a SCALAR quantity. \$  The integration element n is a vector normal to the surface and always points OUTWARD from the surface.Lecture 4-8 Electric Flux through a Closed Surface u v \$ * E ! ÑE gn d ! ÑEn dA ´ ´ S S  The integral is over a CLOSED surface.

. BUT .Lecture 4-9 Gauss¶s Law: Quantitative Statement The net electric flux through any closed surface equals the net charge enclosed by that surface divided by I0.It is very useful in finding E when the physical situation exhibits a lot of SYMMETRY. r \$ ! * ! Qenclosed E gndA E ´ Ñ I0 How do we use this equation?? The above equation is TRUE always but it doesn¶t look easy to use.

Lecture 4-10 A1 A2 cos U .! 2 ! r1 r22 +Q outside a closed surface .

The flux is larger when the charge is outside. Not enough information to tell. Which statement about the net electric flux through the surface of the sphere is true? a) b) c) d) e) The flux is larger when the charge is inside. The flux is zero in both cases. and outside an identical sphere in the other case. at the center of a large sphere in one case. Q>0 Q>0 .Lecture 4-11 Physics 241 ± Warm up Quiz 2 Two identical point charges are placed. The flux is the same (and not zero).

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Lecture 4-13 DOCCAM 2 Details of + Q Gaussian argument .

the electric field must only depend on r and is along a radial line everywhere.  Apply Gauss¶s law to the blue surface . we get E  4T 2 Q ! 0 1 @E ! 4T Q 2 0 .Lecture 4-14 Proof of the Shell Theorem Electric Field Outside a Shell of Charge  By symmetry.

 Equal and opposite contributions from charges on diagonally opposite surface elements. Discontinuity in E .Lecture 4-15 E = 0 inside Uniformly charged thin shell: Inside  By symmetry.  Apply Gauss¶s law to the blue surface . the electric field must only depend on r and is along a radial line everywhere. we get E = 0.

Lecture 4-16 Electric Field of a Uniformly Charged Sphere Apply Gauss¶s Law directly or use superposition of the shell results .

Lecture 4-17 DOCCAM 2 Charged Sphere Details .

H. Freeman and Company .Lecture 4-18 Cylindrical coordinates r perpendicular to z axis r2 = x2 + y2 ©2008 by W.

H.Lecture 4-19 Line charge on z axis ©2008 by W. Freeman and Company .

Lecture 4-20 DOCCAM 2 Details of cylindrical case .

Which statement about the net electric flux through the surface of the cube is true? a) The net flux is larger when the charge is at the center. +Q +Q . c) The net flux is larger when the charge is near the surface.Lecture 4-21 Physics 241 ±Quiz 3 10:30 Two identical point charges are each placed inside a large cube. e) The flux is zero in both cases. One is at the center while the other is close to the surface. d) Not enough information to tell. b) The net flux is the same (and not zero).

Not enough information to tell. The flux is larger when the charge is near the surface. The magnitude of the flux is the same (and not zero). Which statement about the net electric flux through the surface of the sphere is true? a) b) c) d) e) The flux is larger when the charge is at the center. The flux is zero in both cases. One is at the center while the other is close to the surface. +Q +Q .Lecture 4-22 Physics 241 ±Quiz 3 11:30 Two identical point charges are each placed inside a large sphere.