ECE590 Electronics &
Microprocessors
Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal,
UiTM Shah Alam
PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (PO)
PO1 Ability to acquire and apply knowledge of
engineering fundamentals.
COURSE OUTCOMES (CO)
CO1 To develop knowledge in the operation simple
electronic circuits : diode and BJT
CO2 To learn and develop knowledge in logic devices and
circuits
CO3 To learn microprocessor system, programming and
simple interface techniques.
CHAPTER 1: CIRCUIT THEORY
Circuit Concepts :
Voltage,V & Current, I,
Resistance, R; Inductance, L; & Capacitance, C
Circuit Laws :
Ohm’s Law,
Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL),
Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL),
Circuit Elements in Series & Parallel,
Thevenin’s Theorem
What is voltage and current?
Voltage is the measure of specific potential
energy (potential energy per unit charge)
between two locations.
When a voltage source is connected to a circuit,
the voltage will cause a uniform flow of electrons
through that circuit called a current.
Analogy:
Concept of Voltage & Current
Ohm’s Law
Ohm’s Law simply states that current in a
resistive circuit is directly proportional to its
applied voltage and inversely proportional to
its resistance.
Example – Ohm’s Law
Cont..
As with all circuit elements, we need to know how the
current through and voltage across the device are related
Materials with a linear relationship satisfy Ohm’s law: v
= ± mi
The slope, m, is equal to the resistance of the element
Ohm’s Law: v = iR
Voltage Symbols
Series Resistor
R1 R2
I
+ VR1  + VR2 
+
Vs VRN RN

 VR3 +
R3
Total Resistance: RT = R1 + R2 + R3 + …….. + RN
The supplied power = Total power dissipated by resistors
PT = PR1 + PR2 + PR3 + …….. + PRN
VS
I
RT
Parallel Resistor
IT
I1 I2 I3
Vs R1 R2 RN
1 1 1 1
.......
RT R1 R2 RN
The total current is equal to the total sum of the branch current,
IT = I1 + I2 + …….. + IN
Exercise:
0.2941mA
9.66V
4kΩ
6.76V
1.324mA
Kirchoff’s Laws
The foundation of circuit analysis is
The defining equations for circuit elements (e.g. Ohm’s law)
Kirchoff’s current law (KCL)
Kirchoff’s voltage law (KVL)
The defining equations tell us how the voltage and current
within a circuit element are related
Kirchoff’s laws tell us how the voltages and currents in
different branches are related
Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL)
Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL): the algebraic sum
of currents entering a node (or a closed boundary) is
zero
The sum of currents entering a node is equal to the
sum of the currents leaving a node
Kirchoff’s Current Law for Boundaries
Example – KCL
Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)
Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL): the algebraic sum of
voltages around a closed path (or loop) is zero
Voltage drop at each element must be same with the
voltage supply.
v4 + v1 + v2 + v3 = 0
Example – KVL Solution:
Consider the circuit shown in the figure From Loop 1 we get:
above, with the following Parameters: V1 − VR3 − VR1 = 0
V1 = 15V
From Loop 2 we get:
V2 = 7V
V2 − VR3 − VR2 = 0
R1 = 20Ω
R2 = 5Ω
R3 = 10Ω
Find current through R3 using Kirchhoff's
Voltage Law.
Continue.. It is clear that: from (3)
..... (1)
and
V2 + (I1 − I2) * R3 − I2 * R2 = 0
Substitute the Above Result into (2)
... (2)
By equating above (1) and (2) we can
eliminate I2 and hence get the following:
... (3)
The Negative sign for IR3 only tells us that
Current IR3 flows in the same direction to I2
direction.
Voltage Divider Rule
The voltage divider is useful in
determining the voltage drop across a
resistor within a series circuit.
Example
Analyze a simple series circuit, determining
the voltage drops across individual
resistors
Current Divider Rule
Current Divider Rule is useful in
determining the current flow through one
branch of parallel circuit.
IT
I1 I2 R2
I1 T
+ + R 1 R2
V1 R1 V2
Vs  
R1
I2 T
R 1 R2
SHORT CIRCUIT
An element with zero resistance (R = 0) is
called a ‘short circuit’
Often just drawn as a wire (line)
OPEN CIRCUIT
Current can only exist when there is a
conductive path (e.g. a length of a wire).
In the circuit shown in the figure above, I = 0,
since there is no conductor between points a
and b. We refer to this as an ‘open circuit’,
with infinite resistance (R = ∞)
Thevenin’s Theorem
Thevenin's Theorem states that it is possible to simplify any
linear circuit, no matter how complex, to an equivalent circuit
with just a single voltage source and series resistance
connected to a load
Example
Given the following circuit, determine the
equivalent Thevenin’s Circuit between
points A & B. Calculate the:
Equivalent Thevenin’s Voltage, VTH
Equivalent Thevenin’s Resistance, RTH
Example
Step 0: The original circuit
Step 1: Calculating the equivalent output
voltage
Continue..
Step 2: Calculating the equivalent
Step 3: The equivalent circuit
resistance