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# ECE590 Electronics &

Microprocessors

## Fakulti Kejuruteraan Mekanikal,

UiTM Shah Alam
PROGRAMME OUTCOMES (PO)
PO1 Ability to acquire and apply knowledge of
engineering fundamentals.

## COURSE OUTCOMES (CO)

CO1 To develop knowledge in the operation simple
electronic circuits : diode and BJT
CO2 To learn and develop knowledge in logic devices and
circuits
CO3 To learn microprocessor system, programming and
simple interface techniques.
CHAPTER 1: CIRCUIT THEORY

 Circuit Concepts :
 Voltage,V & Current, I,
 Resistance, R; Inductance, L; & Capacitance, C

 Circuit Laws :
 Ohm’s Law,
 Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL),
 Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL),
 Circuit Elements in Series & Parallel,
 Thevenin’s Theorem
What is voltage and current?
 Voltage is the measure of specific potential
energy (potential energy per unit charge)
between two locations.
 When a voltage source is connected to a circuit,
the voltage will cause a uniform flow of electrons
through that circuit called a current.
Analogy:
Concept of Voltage & Current
Ohm’s Law
 Ohm’s Law simply states that current in a
resistive circuit is directly proportional to its
applied voltage and inversely proportional to
its resistance.
Example – Ohm’s Law
Cont..

##  As with all circuit elements, we need to know how the

current through and voltage across the device are related
 Materials with a linear relationship satisfy Ohm’s law: v
= ± mi
 The slope, m, is equal to the resistance of the element
 Ohm’s Law: v = iR
Voltage Symbols
Series Resistor
R1 R2
I
+ VR1 - + VR2 -
+
Vs VRN RN
-
- VR3 +

R3

##  Total Resistance: RT = R1 + R2 + R3 + …….. + RN

The supplied power = Total power dissipated by resistors

## PT = PR1 + PR2 + PR3 + …….. + PRN

VS
I 
RT
Parallel Resistor
IT
I1 I2 I3

Vs R1 R2 RN

1 1 1 1
   ....... 
RT R1 R2 RN
The total current is equal to the total sum of the branch current,

IT = I1 + I2 + …….. + IN
Exercise:

0.2941mA
9.66V
4kΩ
6.76V
1.324mA
Kirchoff’s Laws
 The foundation of circuit analysis is
 The defining equations for circuit elements (e.g. Ohm’s law)
 Kirchoff’s current law (KCL)
 Kirchoff’s voltage law (KVL)
 The defining equations tell us how the voltage and current
within a circuit element are related
 Kirchoff’s laws tell us how the voltages and currents in
different branches are related
Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL)

##  Kirchoff’s Current Law (KCL): the algebraic sum

of currents entering a node (or a closed boundary) is
zero
 The sum of currents entering a node is equal to the
sum of the currents leaving a node
Kirchoff’s Current Law for Boundaries
Example – KCL
Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL)

##  Kirchoff’s Voltage Law (KVL): the algebraic sum of

voltages around a closed path (or loop) is zero
 Voltage drop at each element must be same with the
voltage supply.

v4 + v1 + v2 + v3 = 0
Example – KVL Solution:

## Consider the circuit shown in the figure From Loop 1 we get:

above, with the following Parameters: V1 − VR3 − VR1 = 0
V1 = 15V
From Loop 2 we get:
V2 = 7V
V2 − VR3 − VR2 = 0
R1 = 20Ω
R2 = 5Ω
R3 = 10Ω
Find current through R3 using Kirchhoff's
Voltage Law.
Continue.. It is clear that: from (3)

..... (1)

and
V2 + (I1 − I2) * R3 − I2 * R2 = 0
Substitute the Above Result into (2)

... (2)

## By equating above (1) and (2) we can

eliminate I2 and hence get the following:

... (3)

## The Negative sign for IR3 only tells us that

Current IR3 flows in the same direction to I2
direction.
Voltage Divider Rule
 The voltage divider is useful in
determining the voltage drop across a
resistor within a series circuit.
Example
Analyze a simple series circuit, determining
the voltage drops across individual
resistors
Current Divider Rule
 Current Divider Rule is useful in
determining the current flow through one
branch of parallel circuit.
IT
I1 I2 R2
I1  T
+ + R 1  R2
V1 R1 V2
Vs - -
R1
I2  T
R 1  R2
SHORT CIRCUIT

##  An element with zero resistance (R = 0) is

called a ‘short circuit’
 Often just drawn as a wire (line)
OPEN CIRCUIT

##  Current can only exist when there is a

conductive path (e.g. a length of a wire).
 In the circuit shown in the figure above, I = 0,
since there is no conductor between points a
and b. We refer to this as an ‘open circuit’,
with infinite resistance (R = ∞)
Thevenin’s Theorem
 Thevenin's Theorem states that it is possible to simplify any
linear circuit, no matter how complex, to an equivalent circuit
with just a single voltage source and series resistance
connected to a load
Example

## Given the following circuit, determine the

equivalent Thevenin’s Circuit between
points A & B. Calculate the:
 Equivalent Thevenin’s Voltage, VTH
 Equivalent Thevenin’s Resistance, RTH
Example

voltage
Continue..

## Step 2: Calculating the equivalent

Step 3: The equivalent circuit
resistance