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 These are the horizontal rows in the periodic table.

There are about 7

periods. Elements in the same period, have the same number of electron
 As the trend increases across a period, each element has an extra electron
and proton in comparison to the previous element (refer to atomic
 Also, the properties of the elements change from metallic to non-metallic,
going across the period.
 These are the vertical columns in a periodic table. There are eight groups
and each group has the same number of electrons on its outermost shell.
 The oxidation state of each element can be found from its group number
(only can be used for group 1-4). The oxidation number for group 5-7, can
be calculated by the group number minus 8.
 Going down the group, the electrons on the outermost shell increases by
one, all the elements of a particular group have the same chemical
properties and the metallic nature and reactivity of elements increases
down a group.
 Melting point decreases going up the group(metallic bond gets weaker)
 Ease of ionization decreases down the group(refer to atomic radius)
 Strength of reducing agents decrease down a group(refer to electrons)
 The stability of compounds decreases down a group.
 The strength of oxides decreases down a group(refer to electrons)
 The solubility of hydroxides increases down a group.
 The solubility of carbonates/ sulphates decreases up a group.
 Going down the group there is an increase in colour intensity and state of
matter (pale yellow gas to grey-black solid).
 Density decreases down a group while ease of ionization increases up the
 Strength of an oxidising agent increases down a period.
 The element usually displaced, is displaced by another element above it in
that group.
 Reactivity increases up a group.
 As the trend across the period increases to the right, the properties of the
elements change from metallic to non-metallic.
 Across the period, the elements change from good conductors of electricity to
 The ease of ionization increases across a period.
 Reactivity increases across a period.
 The bonding structure of each element changes from a giant ionic lattice to
covalent molecules.
 The nature of oxide for each element changes from a basic oxide to an acidic
oxide across a period.
 The strength or a reducing agent decreases across a period while the strength
of an oxidising agent increases across a period.
 Ionization- the process where an atom obtains a positive or negative
charge by losing electrons to form ions.
 Reactivity- this occurs when an atom undergoes a chemical reaction with
itself or other substances to release energy.
 Solubility- the ability of a substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent.
 Reducing agent- a substance that is oxidised and losing electrons
 Oxidising agent- a substance that is reduced and gaining electrons.