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 In fine art panting, "naturalism" describes a true-to-life

style which involves the representation or depiction of


nature (including people) with the least possible
distortion or interpretation. There is a quasi-
photographic quality to the best naturalistic paintings:
a quality which requires a minimum amount of visual
detail. "Modern" naturalism dates from the affluence
of the early 19th century, and was much influenced by
the literary fashion for authenticity - the term was first
coined by the French writer Emile Zola. It emerged
first in English landscape painting, before spreading to
France and then other parts of Europe. Like all
comparable styles, naturalism is influenced to a degree
by the aesthetics and culture, as well as the
unavoidable subjectivism, of the artist. But it's a
question of degree - after all, no painting can be wholly
naturalist: the artist is bound to make tiny distortions
to create his idea of a perfectly natural picture.
Nevertheless if an artist sets out with the clear aim of
replicating nature, then a naturalist painting is the
most likely outcome.
 “Realistic”
 One very distinctive visual style is sometimes treated as if
it did not exist, because the work of art so directly
represents the subject that they seem to be the same
thing. This style is called “realistic” or, its near twin,
“photographic.” These terms are so widely used and
misused that they should be avoided whenever
possible. Of the two, “photographic” is the less
informative because photographs can look like
anything. There is no style inherent in the products of a
camera. If a certain kind of photograph has been
assumed by the writer, then which kind it is must be
explained. Since the analogy requires its own
explanation, the term “photographic style” creates more
problems than it solves.
 If “realistic” is used to mean a strong likeness to the
appearance of things as we see them in the world, then
the reader needs to know the particular ways in which the
particular work resembles which aspects of the world.
Social conventions play a part, since different people and
different cultures define the world differently. For all of
these reasons, the most useful definition of this style –
like that of any other – depends upon noting very specific
visual features which are defined very specifically.
 Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art
movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in
poetry and other arts.
 In literature, the style originates with the 1857
publication of Charles Baudelaire's Les Fleurs du mal.
The works of Edgar Allan Poe, which Baudelaire admired
greatly and translated into French, were a significant
influence and the source of many stock tropes and
images. The aesthetic was developed by Stéphane
Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s.
In the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of
manifestos and attracted a generation of writers. The
name "symbolist" itself was first applied by the
critic Jean Moréas, who invented the term to distinguish
the Symbolists from the related Decadents of literature
and of art.
 Distinct from, but related to, the style of literature,
symbolism in art is related to the gothic component
of Romanticism and Impressionism.
 Abstract art can be a painting or sculpture
(including assemblage) that does not depict a
person, place or thing in the natural world. Note
that works of art that represent the world in
exaggerated or distorted ways (such as the Cubist
paintings of Paul Paul Cézanne and Pablo
Picasso) are not abstract, for they present a type
of conceptual realism. With abstract art, the
subject of the work is based on what you see:
color, shapes, brushstrokes, size, scale and, in
some cases, the process (see action painting).
 THE ORIGINS OF ABSTRACT ART
 Art historians typically identify the early 20th
century as an important historical moment in the
history of abstract art as artists worked to create
what they defined as "pure art"—creative works
that were not grounded in visual perceptions, but
in the imagination of the artist. Influential works
from this time period include Picture with a
Circle (1911) by the Russian artist Wassily
Kandinsky (1866-1944) and Francis
Picabia's Caoutchouc (1909).
 Modern art includes artistic work produced during
the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the
1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art
produced during that era.[1] The term is usually
associated with art in which the traditions of the past
have been thrown aside in a spirit of
experimentation.[2] Modern artists experimented
with new ways of seeing and with fresh ideas about
the nature of materials and functions of art. A
tendency away from the narrative, which was
characteristic for the traditional arts,
toward abstraction is characteristic of much modern
art. Modern art begins with the heritage of painters
like Vincent van Gogh, Paul Cézanne, Paul
Gauguin, Georges Seurat and Henri de Toulouse-
Lautrec all of whom were essential for the
development of modern art. At the beginning of the
20th century Henri Matisse and several other young
artists including the pre-cubists Georges
Braque, André Derain, Raoul Dufy, Jean
Metzinger and Maurice de Vlaminck revolutionized
the Paris art world with "wild", multi-colored,
expressive landscapes and figure paintings that the
critics called Fauvism. Matisse's two versions of The
Dance signified a key point in his career and in the
development of modern painting.
 Contemporary art is the art of today,
produced in the late 20th century or in the
21st century. Contemporary artists work in
a globally influenced, culturally diverse, and
technologically advancing world. Their art is
a dynamic combination of materials,
methods, concepts, and subjects that
challenge traditional boundaries and defy
easy definition. Diverse and eclectic,
contemporary art as a whole is distinguished
by the very lack of a uniform, organising
principle, ideology, or ‘ism.’ Contemporary
art is part of a cultural dialogue that
concerns larger contextual frameworks such
as personal and cultural identity, family,
community, and nationality.
 In vernacular English, "modern" and
"contemporary" are synonyms, resulting in
some conflation of the terms "modern art"
and "contemporary art" by non-specialists.[