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Normal Forms

Defntions of terms

• A literal is either an atomic formula (called

a positive literal) or a negated atomic

formula (called a negated literal)

– e.g. p, ¬q

• A clause is A literal, or Disjunction of two

or more literals, or The empty clause,

shown as □, :‐ or {}

– e.g. p, p ∨ ¬q ∨ r

• a term is a conjunction of literals

-ex

Logical Operators

- Disjunction Do we need all these?

- Conjunction

- Negation

- Implication pq p q

- Exclusive or (p q) (p q)

- Biconditional p q

(pq) (qp)

(p q) (q p)

Functionally Complete

• A set of logical operators is called

functionally complete if every compound

proposition is logically equivalent to a

compound proposition involving only this

set of logical operators.

• , , and form a functionally complete

set of operators.

Are (p(pq))

and (p q) equivalent?

(p(pq))

p (pq) DeMorgan

p (pq) DeMorgan

p (pq) Double Negation

(pp)(p q) Distribution

(pp)(p q) Commutative

F (p q) And Contradiction

(p q) F Commutative

(p q) Identity

DeMorgan’s Laws

• ¬(p∨q) ≡(¬p∧￢q) “neither”

– driving in negations flips ands to ors

• ¬(p∧q) ≡(¬p∨￢q) “nand”

– Driving in negations flips ors to ands

• Also law of double negation: ¬¬p ≡p

• By repeatedly replacing LHS by RHS all

negation signs can be pressed against variables

• ￢(p∨(q∧r)) ≡￢p∧￢(q∧r) ≡￢p∧(￢q∨￢r)

2/3/12 7

Distributive Laws, Normal Forms

• p∧(q∨r)≡(p∧q)∨(p∧r)

• p∨(q∧r)≡(p∨q)∧(p∨r)

• By applying these transformations, every

formula can be put in either

– Conjunctive normal form (and-of-ors-of-literals),

or

– Disjunctive normal form (or-of-ands-of-literals)

• ￢p∨ (￢q∧￢r) is in DNF

• (￢p∨￢q)∧(￢p∨￢r) is an equivalent CNF

2/3/12 8

Are (p(pq))

and (p q) equivalent?

• Even though both are expressed with only

, , and , it is still hard to tell without

doing a proof.

• What we need is a unique representation of

a compound proposition that uses , , and

.

• This unique representation is called the

Disjunctive Normal Form

Disjunctive Normal Form

• A disjunction of conjunctions where every

variable or its negation is represented once

in each conjunction (a minterm)

– each minterm appears only once

Example: DNF of pq is

(pq)(pq).

Examples of DNF

Truth Table

p q pq (pq) (pq)

T T F F

T F T T

F T T T

F F F F

Method to construct DNF

• Construct a truth table for the proposition.

• Use the rows of the truth table where the

proposition is True to construct minterms

– If the variable is true, use the propositional variable in

the minterm

– If a variable is false, use the negation of the variable in

the minterm

• Connect the minterms with ’s.

How to find the DNF of (p q)r

p q r (p q) r (p q)r

T T T T F F

T T F T T T

T F T T F F

T F F T T T

F T T T F F

F T F T T T

F F T F F T

F F F F T T

There are five sets of input that make the statement

true. Therefore there are five minterms.

p q r (p q) r (p q)r

T T T T F F

T T F T T T

T F T T F F

T F F T T T

F T T T F F

F T F T T T

F F T F F T

F F F F T T

From the truth table we can set up the DNF

(p q)r (pqr) (pqr)

(pqr) (pqr) (pqr)

Can we show that just and form a set

of functionally complete operands?

It is sufficient to show that p q can be written in

terms of and . Then using DNF, we can write

every compound proposition in terms of and .

(p q)

(p q) Double negation (2)

(pq ) DeMorgan

Find an expression equivalent to p q

that uses only conjunctions and negations.

p q pq

How many minterms in

T T T the DNF?

T F F

F T T

F F T

The DNF of p q is (pq) (p q) (p q).

Then, applying DeMorgan’s Law, we get that this is

equivalent to

[(pq) (p q) (p q)].

Now can we write an equivalent statement to p q

that uses only disjunctions and negations?

pq

[(pq) (p q) (p q)] From Before

[(pq) (pq) (p q)] DeMorgan

[(pq) (pq) (pq)] Doub. Neg.

[(pq) (pq) (pq)] DeMorgan

Conjunction Normal Form

• A formula α is said to be in Conjunctive

Normal Form (CNF) if it is the conjunction

of some number of clauses.

Examples of CNF

ይሀኝስ

ነው

NO Oh ለምን?

Conversion to CNF

Soundness and Completeness

(cont’d)

• Algorithm for checking if it rains outside:

“stand right outside the door and say ‘it rains’ if and only if

you feel the rain, after a second”

• It is complete.

21

• Now let’s go back to proof systems...

22

Soundness and completeness

• To prove soundness of H, prove the soundness of its axioms

and inference rules (easy with truth-tables). For example:

23

The resolution inference system

• The resolution inference rule for CNF:

• Example:

24

Proof by resolution

• Let = (1 3) ^ (-1 2 5) ^(-1 4) ^ (-1 -4) ^ (1 -2)We’ll

try to prove → (3 5)

(1 3) (-1 2 5)

(1 3 5) (-1)

(3 5)

25

Resolution

• Resolution is a sound and complete

inference system for CNF

• If the input formula is unsatisfiable, there

exists a proof of the empty clause

26

Example

• Let = (1 3) ^(-1 2) ^ (-1 4) ^ (-1 -4) ^ (1 -2) ^ (-3)

(1 3) (-1 2)

(1 3) (-1)

(3) (-3)

()

27

• Generaly we can resolve usng the other

rules of inference and equivalence we

already covered in chapter two on CNF and

DNF for further proofing.

• What Next:-

– We will apply the CNF and DNF in the next

chapters in Predicate and prolog.

THANK YOU!!

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