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Sri dharmastala manjunatheshera

college , ujire

 Seminar on : pre independence education


period ( Vedic, Buddhist, Muslim ,British
Macaulay's Minute ,wood’s dispatch).
By

Ranjitha
Pre independence period
Introduction
 The history of education in the Indian subcontinent
began with teaching of traditional elements such
as Indian religions, Indian mathematics, Indian
logic at early Hindu and Muslims centres of
learning as Taxila and Nalanda before the Islamic
era.
Vedic period
Introduction
 In India history of education began with the Vedic
period.
 Vedic education is linked more with ancient period i.e,
from 2000 B.C to 200 B.C.
 Ancient period is said to have came to a close with the
Fall of great king Harsha in 647 AD.
 Medieval period is considered as the closing period of
Vedic education.
 Vedic studies during 747 AD to 1200 AD declined.
 The observation of taneja point out that systematic
system of education in India must have began with
Vedic period when aryan had enter into India soil.
Silent features
1. Aim of education
2. Rived.
3. Upanishads.
4. Vedantic view.
5. Religious imitation.
6. Upanayaa or ceremony related to taking the child or
guru.
7. Age for education
8. Duration of education
9. Duration of the session
10.Time of education
11.Educational buildings
12. Gurukula system of education
13. students life
14. Student life
1. Food
2. Dress for students
3. General code of conduct for students
4. Punishment

15. Free education


Aims of education
1. Spiritual aim
a. Divinity of nature
b. Control over materialistic
outlook
c. Individual character building and
personality development.
2. Social aim
3. Vocational aim
a. Preservation and transmission of cultural
values.
b. Performance of ritual.
curriculum
1. Vedic literature and grammar
2. Purina's
3. Spiritual aspect
4. Arithmetic and Geometry
5. Philosophy
6. Logic
7. Ethics
8. Conduct
1. Military Science
2. Agriculture
3. Arts and crafts
4. Construction
5. Yoga
6. Administration
7. Diplomacy
merits
 The vedic education helped to instill in the minds of
parents desire for the education of children.
 Vedic education paid attention to the formation of
character and development of personality of children.
 Efforts were made for the preservation and
propagation of the culture.
DEMERITS
 The secular and material aspects of life were not given
adequate importance.
 This was because goal of life was self realization and
education was not considered as the birth right of a
person.
BUDDHIST EDUCATION SYSYTEM
 INTRODUCTION
As compared to brahmanic education ,Buddhist
education system was not rigid in rituals.
People got attracted towards this system.
The common man women ,castes like preferred this
system.
The educational centers of higher learning developed.
Teaching
 All things are conditional. There is nothing that exits
by itself.
 Subject to change owing to the change of the
conditions on which they depend, nothing is
permanent.
 There is ,therefore, neither any soul nar god or any
other permanent substance
Four nobel truths
Buddha mentioned the following 4 noble truths.
Suffering or misery.
Case of misery.
Cessation of misery.
Path leading to the cessation of misery.
Education
1) Generally one could begin education at the age of
eight.
2) The student used to remain in a state of “sharamana”
till the age of 12.
3) At 20 ,the student was used to be qualified to become
monk.
4) Medium of instruction – pali.
Duties
a) Service to teachers and to developed parental
relations with teachers.
b) To beg for alms.
c) To eat food thrice a day.
d) To wear three items of cloth.
e) To take bath in pure water.
f) To maintain discipline.
Women education
 Women are allowed to join sanghas/monasteries .
 Separate women monasteries were also opend.
 Women also sent to other countries to spread
buddhism.one of the famous name was sanghmitra.
 Who was sent to ceylon.
Methods of teaching
 Discussion method.
 Question method.
 Oral method.
 Memorisation method.
 Debate.
 Logic.
 Analytic method.
 Narrations and clarifications.
 Simple explanation of the text.
 Practical method.
Contribution
 General education of children got significant position
in the society.
 Practical subjects got priorities in teaching and
learning.
 Universities established during this period are still
serving as a guiding forces.
EDUCATION SYSTEM IN INDIA DURING
ISLAMIC PERIOD
INTRODUCTION
 During medieval period Muslim rulers started a new
system of education which is popularly known as
maktab madarsha system muslim system of
education.
the main aim of muslim education was
deveopment of knowledge , spread of Islamic
culture, and islamic religion, development of
charecter and morality, education of arts skilss and
vocations.
Aims of education
 Spread of knowledge
 Propagation of Islam
 Islamic school morals
 Material progress
 Political support
Method of teaching
• Oral method
• Reading and Writing
• scientific method of teaching
curriculum
 Curriculum at primary stage knowledge of 3rs reading
writing and arithmetic.
 Urdu formed one of the chief subjects of study.
 Religious instructions were also given at primary stage.
 Secondary level grammar history astronomy military
services given for the students.
Merits
 Education was compulsory specially for boys.
 Great stress vas laid on character building.
 Scholarship for intelligent students.
Demerits
 Education of Hindus were neglected.
 There vas no provision for universal education.
Macaulay’s Minute - 1835
INTRODUCTION
 Thomas Babington Macaulay, who is generally
regarded as the architect of the system of education
in India.
 During the British rule was great essayist,
historian, politician, and thinker.
 He came to India in 1838 and joined as the law
member of the executive council of the Governor –
General.
MAIN AIM OF INTRODUCING ENGLISH SYSTEM
OF EDUCATION IN INDIA
 Macaulay wrote in his minute “we must at
present do our best to from a class of persons
Indian in blood and colour and English in taste,
opinion in morals @ in intellect”.
 It is the key to modern knowledge and is therefore
more useful than Arabic or Sanskrit.
 It would bring about renaissance in India, just as
Greek or Latin’s did in England or just as the
languages of Western Europe in civilized Russia .
 The native are desirous of being taught English and
are not eager to learn Sanskrit or Arabic.
Merits
 A clear cut picture of the national system of
education in India emerged .
 The system proved very helpful in promoting the
objectives for which it was planned.
 English school began to be established .
 English became the medium of instruction .
 Western arts and science became popular.
Demerits
 Indian culture and philosophy receded to the back
ground.
 Mass education was neglected .
 Western culture made rapid strives.
 Arabic and Sanskrit languages found very few
fakers.
WOOD’S DISPATCH - 1854
INTRODUCTION
 The East India Company had to renew its charter after
every 20 year.
 Before renewing the charter in 1853, the British
parliament constitutes a selection committee to
enquiry into the progress of education in India and
suggest reform.
 The suggestion of the committee were issued as a
charter of education on JULY 19, 1854.
 Challenges Wood was the president of the Board of
control.
 So this is known as Wood's Despatch of 1854
Recommendations of the wood's Despatch:
1) Aim and objectives of educational policy:
 The dispatch first throws light on the aim and
objectives of educational policy of the company in
India.
:
Objectives
 To impact western knowledge information about the
western culture to the Indians.
 To educate the natives of India so that a class of public
servants could be created.
 Department of education.
 Expansion of mass education.
 Establishment of universities.
 Grant in aid system.
 Teaching of language.
 Training of teachers.
 Professional education.
 Introduction of granted schools is all over Indian.

Merits
 The dispatch has clearly laid down the aim of education
in India.
 Wood arranged to get books written in Indian.
 Educational responsibility.
 Importance of Indian literature and culture.
 Indian languages as medium as instruction.
 Department of public instruction.
 Solution of unemployment.
 The dispatch setup the defective system of education.
 The dispatch gave priority to English.
 The purpose of the dispatch was to spread western
knowledge.
Demerits
 The dispatch setup the defective system of education.
 The dispatch gave priority to English.
 The purpose of the dispatch was to spread western
knowledge.
Conclusion
 The Indian education system has to pass many
ups and downs since the early ages.
 The vast changes and development have
mainly occurred during the pre independence or
British era.
 some of which contributions are till now
continuing in the present education system.
THANK YOU