# Wireless Communications (and Networks

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Outline 

Review ± Free space propagation  

Received power is a function of transmit power times gains of transmitter and receiver antennas Signal strength is proportional to distance to the power of -2 Cause the signal to decay faster. Depends on the height of transmitter and receiver antennas

± Reflection: 
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Homework Conference, moving of classes Project, TI toolboxes Diffraction Scattering Practical link budget model
EE 552/452 Spring 2007 DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, BANGALORE

Diffraction  Diffraction occurs when waves hit the edge of an obstacle ± ³Secondary´ waves propagated into the shadowed region ± Water wave example ± Diffraction is caused by the propagation of secondary wavelets into a shadowed region. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 . DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. ± Huygen¶s principle: all points on a wavefront can be considered as point sources for the production of secondary wavelets. and that these wavelets combine to produce a new wavefront in the direction of propagation. ± Excess path length results in a phase shift ± The field strength of a diffracted wave in the shadowed region is the vector sum of the electric field components of all the secondary wavelets in the space around the obstacle.

54-4.Diffraction geometry  Derive of equation 4.57 DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 .

BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 .Diffraction geometry DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.

56 DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 . 4.Diffraction geometry  Fresnel-Kirchoff distraction parameters.

DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.Fresnel Screens    Fresnel zones relate phase shifts to the positions of obstacles Equation 4.58 A rule of thumb used for line-of-sight microwave links 55% of the first Fresnel zone is kept clear. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 .

2nd zone can destructively interfere (diffraction loss) LOS 0  How much power is propagated -10 this way? -20 ± 1st FZ: 5 to 25 dB below dB -30 -40 free space prop. -50 -60 0o 90 180o Obstruction Tip of Shadow 1st DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 2nd Obstruction of Fresnel Zones   .Fresnel Zones   Bounded by elliptical loci of constant delay Alternate zones differ in phase by 180r ± Line of sight (LOS) corresponds to 1st zone ± If LOS is partially blocked.

Fresnel diffraction geometry DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 .

4.59 DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.Knife-edge diffraction  Fresnel integral. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 .

Knife-edge diffraction loss    Gain Exam.7 Exam. 4. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 . 4.8 DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.

Multiple knife-edge diffraction DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 .

 Nearby metal objects (street signs.63.64.Scattering  Rough surfaces ± Lamp posts and trees. 4. BANGALORE .incident angle).62 ± Smooth if its minimum to maximum protuberance h is less than critical height. scatter all directions ± Critical height for bumps is f(P.) ± Usually modeled statistically  Large distant objects ± Analytical model: Radar Cross Section (RCS) ± Bistatic radar equation. 4. 4.66 EE 552/452 Spring 2007 DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. 4. etc. ± Scattering loss factor modeled with Gaussian distribution.

Measured results DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 .

Measured results DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 .

Indoor models  Small scale (fading) models describe signal variability on a scale of P ± Multipath effects (phase cancellation) dominate. Outdoor models. path attenuation considered constant ± Frequency and bandwidth dependent ± Focus is on modeling ³Fading´: rapid change in signal over a short distance or length of time. roughly frequency independent ± Breaks down as distance decreases ± Useful for modeling the range of a radio system and rough capacity planning.Propagation Models  Large scale models predict behavior averaged over distances >> P ± Function of distance & significant environmental features. BANGALORE . ± Experimental rather than the theoretical for previous three models ± Path loss models. EE 552/452 Spring 2007 DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.

DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 . 0 ± Take measurements and derive F empirically.Free Space Path Loss  Path Loss is a measure of attenuation based only on the distance to the transmitter Free space model only valid in far-field. ­ d 0 ½ dB ± Measure PL(d ) or calculate Free Space Path Loss. ± Path loss models typically define a ³close-in´ point d0 and reference other points from there: ¨ d0 ¸ Pr ( d ) ! Pr ( d 0 ) © ¹ ª d º 2  PL ( d ) ! [ Pr ( d )] dB «d » ! PL (d 0 )  2 ¬ ¼ ­ d 0 ½ dB  Log-distance generalizes path loss to account for other environmental factors «d » PL(d ) ! PL(d 0 )  F ¬ ¼ ± Choose a d0 in the far field.

Typical large-scale path loss DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 .

Log-Normal Shadowing Model  Shadowing occurs when objects block LOS between transmitter and receiver A simple statistical model can account for unpredictable ³shadowing´ ± PL(d)(dB)=PL(d)+X0. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 . ± Reason for Gaussian  DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. ± Add a 0-mean Gaussian RV to Log-Distance PL ± Variance W is usually from 3 to 12.

70 Equ. 4. 4.72 Basic of Gaussian distribution DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 .Measured large-scale path loss     Determine n and W by mean and variance Equ.

4.Area versus Distance coverage model with shadowing model  Percentage for SNR larger than a threshold   Equ.9 DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING. BANGALORE EE 552/452 Spring 2007 . 4.79 Exam.

BANGALORE .Questions? DAYANANDA SAGAR COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING.