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“Op-Amp”

Operational Amplifier
Op-Amp name derives from early usage of these elements in
performing mathematical operations in analog computers.

• Non Inverting Amplifier


• Inverting Amplifier
• Adder
– (and Subtractor using an Inverter)
• Differential Amplifier
• Integrator
• Differentiator
Three Ways to Examine Op-Amp
Behavior

• Consider as an Ideal Op-Amp


Component
• Consider as a Feedback Model
and Examine Behavior
• Perform Conventional Circuit
Analysis
VE = VIN+ - VIN-
VIN-
VOUT = a * VE

VIN+
Ideal Op-Amp Model

VE = VIN+ - VIN-
VOUT = a * VE
Behavior of Feedback Model
Behavior of Feedback Model
of
Non Inverting Amplifier
Behavior of Feedback Model
Behavior of Feedback Model
Behavior of Feedback Model
Behavior of Feedback Model
Summary
Circuit Analysis Approach
Circuit Analysis Approach
“Op-Amp”
Operational Amplifier
Op-Amp name derives from early usage of these elements in
performing mathematical operations in analog computers.

• Non Inverting Amplifier


• Inverting Amplifier
• Adder
– (and Subtractor using an Inverter)
• Differential Amplifier
• Integrator
• Differentiator
Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis

a (V+ - V-)
Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis

a (V+ - V-)
Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis

a (V+ - V-)
Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis

a (V+ - V-)
Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis

a (V+ - V-)

 ZF / ZG
Common Mode Rejection
Ratio
v1
v1

vid / 2

v2

vi1 vi2 vid / 2


vicm
v2

Original Inputs Model of inputs with common-


mode and differential-mode
components
Common Mode Rejection Ratio
CMRR

A where A is the differential


CMRR  mode gain and Acm is the
Acm common mode gain

A
CMRRdB  20 log dB
Acm

Ideally: CMRR Typically: 60 dB  CMRR  120 dB


Assumes R2 = R4 and R1 = R3
Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis
with Component Imbalance
Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis
with Component Imbalance
Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis
with Component Imbalance
Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis
with Component Imbalance
Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis
with Component Imbalance
The Maximum Power Transfer Theorem simply
states, the maximum amount of power will be
dissipated by a load resistance when that load
resistance is equal to the Thevenin/Norton resistance
of the network supplying the power.
To create the Thevenin Equivalent Circuit we need:
1. Value of the Thevenin Voltage Source
2. Value of the Thevenin Resistance
Input and Output
Impedances of
Noninverting Op-amp
Configuration
-
Ro vo
Rai  ii Rd vd
+
io
vi + - Avd RL CL
 Rao

The unity gain buffer input


impedance is much higher
than the op-amp input Rai  Rd ( A  1)  Rd A
impedance Rd. The amplifier
output impedance is much Rao  Ro /( A  1)  Ro / A
smaller than the op-amp
output impedance Ro.
Instrumentation Amplifier
v1

R3 R4
R2

vout
R1

R2
vref
v2 R3 R4

R4  R  vout - vref R4  R2 
vout - vref  1  2 2 v2 - v1  G  1  2 
R3  R1  v2 - v1 R3  R1 
Instrumentation Amplifier
Example
Burr-Brown INA118

Parameters: R1  RG R2  25k R3  R4  60k


vout  Vo vref  Ref v2  VIN v1  VIN-
Gain:
Vo - Ref 50k
G  1 
VIN - VIN- RG
If RG  49.9,
50,000
G  1  1,003
49.9


Instrumentation Amp (cont.)
A feedback network may also be included with the instrumentation amplifier.

v1

R3 R4
R2

vout
vdiff = v2 - v1 2R1

R2

v2 R3 R4
R
C
Vout s  Gs

Vdiff s  s  1
RC