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Acceleration

A. Acceleration = rate at which velocity changes

1) Average Acceleration =

change in velocit y

time to change

v v v2 v1

2)

a

t Initial velocity

New velocity

d /t /t 2

time time t t

m/s

m / s / s m / s2

s

5) Instantaneous Acceleration = average acceleration over a short time,

where the acceleration is changing little

B) Direction of Acceleration

1) Deceleration is not a physics term; we call it negative acceleration

= acceleration in the direction opposite of the original velocity

a) Any change in velocity is acceleration

b) Velocity = speed and direction

II. Graphing Motion

A. Distance versus Time Graph

1) Slope at any point = instantaneous velocity

change in position y

slope velocity

change in time x

2) Example:

B. Velocity versus Time Graph

1) Relationship to the Distance Graph

a) Straight line in Distance = Flat in Velocity

b) Slope change in Distance = change in Velocity

c) Negative slope in Distance = negative Velocity (going backward)

y v

a) Acceleration = v/t slope acceleration

b) Slope of the Velocity Graph = acceleration

x t

c) Steep slope = large acceleration

d) Zero slope = no acceleration = no change in velocity

C. Acceleration versus Time Graph

1) Spikes in the graph = v = acceleration

2) The distance table doesn’t tell us how fast velocity changes, so we must

estimate the magnitude of the acceleration. We can tell the direction of

acceleration.

D. Getting Distances from Velocity Graphs

1)

d

v d vt

t

III. Uniform Acceleration

A. Uniform Acceleration = acceleration at a constant rate

1) Constant force acting on an object gives it uniform acceleration

2) Example: Gravity acts as a constant force on a falling object, so the

object accelerates at a constant rate

Uniform Acceleration

v is always increasing

No

Acceleration

v is constant

B. Velocity During Uniform Acceleration

1) Velocity graph starting from rest

a) Slope is constant

b) Average velocity

1

vavg vf

2

a) vo = original velocity

b) at = v

v v0 a t

vo -a

3) Negative acceleration t

0

v v0 (a t ) v0 a t

C. Distance during uniform acceleration

1) Distance graph starting from rest

a) 1

d v t ( vf )t

2

1 2

a) vf a t d at

2

1 2

d (v0t ) ( a t )

2

b) Graph of uniform acceleration when object already moving

c) Total area under the graph = distance traveled

d) Sample 2.3

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