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Collocation in ship’s
correspondence

By: Pham Cong Tai


Class: NA604
Supervisor: Trinh Van
Sach.MA
Acknowledgements
Designs of the study

•Introduction

•Development

•Conclusion
Introduction

•Rationale
• Aims of the study
•Scope of the study
•Methods of the study
•Designs of the study
Rationale

• Sentence be shorter and


communicated more naturally
• Make the sentences priciest
• Can not be combined at random
Ex: Do: a crossword, a damage, your
homework, translation
Make: an appointment, the bed, a cake,
dinner, a guess
• Career reason
Aims of the study

• Clarify the importance of


Collocation

• My peers' awareness of
Collocation
Scope of the study
• Letters concerning damage to the
ship

• Adjective + Noun
• Verb + Noun
• Noun + Verb
• Noun + Noun
• Preposition + Noun
• Noun + Preposition
• Adverb + Verb
• Verb + Preposition
• Verb + Adjective
• Adverb + Adjective
Methods of the study

• Collecting information

• Researching letters

• Finding out Collocation

• Ranging and ratting


development

• Chapter 1. Theoretical background

• Chapter 2: “Collocations in Letters


concerning damage to ship”
Chapter 1. Theoretical background

A. Definition of “collocation”

• Collocation
• The importance of “Collocation”
• How many types are there in
“Collocations”?

B. Defining “Ship's correspondence”?


Collocation

• ‘Weak collocation’: see a film

• ‘Medium strength’: see a doctor

• ‘Stronger collocation’:
see danger/reason/the point.
Dictionary English Vietnamese
meaning Collocation equivalent

Tough guy Chµng trai m¹nh mÏ,


dÎo dai
Tough Tough meat ThÞt dai
= Tough soldier Ng­êi lÝnh bÊt khuÊt-
Kh«ng nh­ kiªn c­êng
îng bé Tough C©u hái hãc bóa-
question khã nh»n

Tough journey Cuéc hµnh tri`nh vÊt


va gian nan
Tough enemy KÎ thï ngoan cè
Tough GØai ph¸p cøng r¾n
The importance of
“Collocation”

• Bring language production closer to


native speaker norms
• Saves time and effort to express
ourselves
• Ex:
- This is a good book and contains a
lot of interesting details.
- This is a fascinating book and
contains a wealth of historical detail.
Sub-types of “Collocations”

• Adjective + Noun:
bright/harsh/intense/strong light.
• Verb + Noun:
cast/emit/give/provide/shed light
• Noun + Verb: light gleams/glows/shines
• Noun + Noun: a light source
• Preposition + Noun: by the light of the
moon
• Noun + Preposition: the light from the
window
• Adverb + Verb: choose carefully
• Verb + Preposition: choose between
ship and vessel
Defining “Ship's
correspondence”
• The communication of ships with each
other or with stevedoring companies, or
the ship’s owners, or the owners of the
cargoes.

• Sub-types of ship’s correspondence


- Letter concerning to damage to cargo
- Letter concerning to damage to the ship
- Letter of complaint
- Letter concerning other ship's affairs
- Sea protests
Chapter 2: “Collocations in Letters
concerning damage to ship”

• Collocation tables

• Main findings
1. Dates Collocation

• Table 1 - Adjective + Noun and Verb +


Adjective collocation

• Table 2 - Verb + Noun and Noun + Verb


collocation

• Table 3 - Noun + preposition and Preposition


+ noun
collocation

• Table 4 - Adverb + Verb and Noun + Noun


collocation

• Table 5 - Adjective + Preposition and Adverb


Table 5 - Adjective +
Preposition and Adverb +
Adjective collocation
Adjective Adverb
+ Preposition + Adjective
responsibl for fully responsibl
e e
responsibl For fully responsibl
e e
responsibl for
e
able to
2. Main findings

* Collocations concerning
damage

* Collocations concerning
solution
Verb

59/97 collocations concerning to damage


and solution to damage (61%)

Verb + Noun 21/43 (49%) and Noun +


Verb 38/54 (71%).
Mostly found verbs break (with hatch
board, worker, block of derrick, guy),
damage (with electric lights, electric cable,
barrel, derrick, ship, shipment, pier, tube,
wooden granting)
And nouns: foreman (with promise, inform,
help), surveyor (with carry-out , send,
Verb + noun Noun + verb

suffer damage pier damage

sustain damage derrick damage

tear off ship tanker strike

take care repairing tube damage

send surveyor shipment damage


Noun + Noun
16/47 collocations concerning to
damage and solution to damage
(34% )

9/9 (100%) in Adverb + Verb


mostly found verbs: damage (with
suddenly, slightly, seriously,
completely), and adverb kindly
(with note, ask).

7/38 (18,42%) in Noun + Noun.


stevedoring and company are most
Adverb + Verb Noun + Noun
suddenly swing dust damage
suddenly tear sea protest
slightly damage stevedores agent
seriously damage stevedorin company
g
kindly note stevedorin company
g
kindly ask stevedorin company
g
fully account stevedorin company
g
finally repair
completely damage
conclusion

• Overview of the study

• Suggestions for further study