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Collocation in ship’s

By: Pham Cong Tai

Class: NA604
Supervisor: Trinh Van
Designs of the study




• Aims of the study
•Scope of the study
•Methods of the study
•Designs of the study

• Sentence be shorter and

communicated more naturally
• Make the sentences priciest
• Can not be combined at random
Ex: Do: a crossword, a damage, your
homework, translation
Make: an appointment, the bed, a cake,
dinner, a guess
• Career reason
Aims of the study

• Clarify the importance of


• My peers' awareness of
Scope of the study
• Letters concerning damage to the

• Adjective + Noun
• Verb + Noun
• Noun + Verb
• Noun + Noun
• Preposition + Noun
• Noun + Preposition
• Adverb + Verb
• Verb + Preposition
• Verb + Adjective
• Adverb + Adjective
Methods of the study

• Collecting information

• Researching letters

• Finding out Collocation

• Ranging and ratting


• Chapter 1. Theoretical background

• Chapter 2: “Collocations in Letters

concerning damage to ship”
Chapter 1. Theoretical background

A. Definition of “collocation”

• Collocation
• The importance of “Collocation”
• How many types are there in

B. Defining “Ship's correspondence”?


• ‘Weak collocation’: see a film

• ‘Medium strength’: see a doctor

• ‘Stronger collocation’:
see danger/reason/the point.
Dictionary English Vietnamese
meaning Collocation equivalent

Tough guy Chµng trai m¹nh mÏ,

dÎo dai
Tough Tough meat ThÞt dai
= Tough soldier Ng­êi lÝnh bÊt khuÊt-
Kh«ng nh­ kiªn c­êng
îng bé Tough C©u hái hãc bóa-
question khã nh»n

Tough journey Cuéc hµnh tri`nh vÊt

va gian nan
Tough enemy KÎ thï ngoan cè
Tough GØai ph¸p cøng r¾n
The importance of

• Bring language production closer to

native speaker norms
• Saves time and effort to express
• Ex:
- This is a good book and contains a
lot of interesting details.
- This is a fascinating book and
contains a wealth of historical detail.
Sub-types of “Collocations”

• Adjective + Noun:
bright/harsh/intense/strong light.
• Verb + Noun:
cast/emit/give/provide/shed light
• Noun + Verb: light gleams/glows/shines
• Noun + Noun: a light source
• Preposition + Noun: by the light of the
• Noun + Preposition: the light from the
• Adverb + Verb: choose carefully
• Verb + Preposition: choose between
ship and vessel
Defining “Ship's
• The communication of ships with each
other or with stevedoring companies, or
the ship’s owners, or the owners of the

• Sub-types of ship’s correspondence

- Letter concerning to damage to cargo
- Letter concerning to damage to the ship
- Letter of complaint
- Letter concerning other ship's affairs
- Sea protests
Chapter 2: “Collocations in Letters
concerning damage to ship”

• Collocation tables

• Main findings
1. Dates Collocation

• Table 1 - Adjective + Noun and Verb +

Adjective collocation

• Table 2 - Verb + Noun and Noun + Verb


• Table 3 - Noun + preposition and Preposition

+ noun

• Table 4 - Adverb + Verb and Noun + Noun


• Table 5 - Adjective + Preposition and Adverb

Table 5 - Adjective +
Preposition and Adverb +
Adjective collocation
Adjective Adverb
+ Preposition + Adjective
responsibl for fully responsibl
e e
responsibl For fully responsibl
e e
responsibl for
able to
2. Main findings

* Collocations concerning

* Collocations concerning

59/97 collocations concerning to damage

and solution to damage (61%)

Verb + Noun 21/43 (49%) and Noun +

Verb 38/54 (71%).
Mostly found verbs break (with hatch
board, worker, block of derrick, guy),
damage (with electric lights, electric cable,
barrel, derrick, ship, shipment, pier, tube,
wooden granting)
And nouns: foreman (with promise, inform,
help), surveyor (with carry-out , send,
Verb + noun Noun + verb

suffer damage pier damage

sustain damage derrick damage

tear off ship tanker strike

take care repairing tube damage

send surveyor shipment damage

Noun + Noun
16/47 collocations concerning to
damage and solution to damage
(34% )

9/9 (100%) in Adverb + Verb

mostly found verbs: damage (with
suddenly, slightly, seriously,
completely), and adverb kindly
(with note, ask).

7/38 (18,42%) in Noun + Noun.

stevedoring and company are most
Adverb + Verb Noun + Noun
suddenly swing dust damage
suddenly tear sea protest
slightly damage stevedores agent
seriously damage stevedorin company
kindly note stevedorin company
kindly ask stevedorin company
fully account stevedorin company
finally repair
completely damage

• Overview of the study

• Suggestions for further study