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# BIOSTATISTICS 2

**Ana Corona, DNP-Student June 2009
**

(Dawson and Trapp, 2004)

Scales of Measurement

Nominal Scales are used for simplest levels of measurement when data values fit into categories. Observations are dichotomous or binary. This means that the outcome can take on only two values which may be yes or no. We do not actually measure nominal data, we count the number of observations with or without the attribute of interest.

We do not actually measure nominal data, we count the number of observations with or without the attribute This means that the outcome can take on Observations are dichotomous or binary. only measurement when data yes or fit into categories. Nominal Measurement Scales ofScales are used for simplest levels of two values which may be values no. of interest.

Nominal Scales

Data evaluated on a nominal scale are sometimes called qualitative observations because they describe a quality of the person or thing studies or categorical. Are described in terms of percentages or proportions. Contingency tables and bar charts are most often used to display this type of information.

Data evaluated on a nominal scale are sometimes called qualitative observations because they describe a Contingency tables and bar charts are or proportions. Are described in Nominal Scales terms of percentages most often used to display this type of information. quality of the person or thing studies or categorical.

Ordinal Scales

When an inherent order occurs among the categories, the observation are said to be measured in an ordinal scale. For example cancer stages or Apgar scores. A rank order scale is ranked from highest to lowest or vice versa. Contingency tables and bar charts may also be used with ordinal data.

When an inherent order occurs among the categories, the observation are said to be measured in an ordinal Contingency cancer ranked from highest to A rank Scales For example tables and bar charts may also be used vice versa. Ordinalorder scale isstages or Apgar scores.lowest orwith ordinal data. scale.

weight. number of sexual partners. There are two types: continuous and discrete scales Continuous scale has values on a continuum such as age. of Observations scale has the differences between numbers have meaning on a numerical scale are range of There are Scales Numerical two types: continuous and discrete scales pregnancies. sometimes called quantitative observations because they measure the quantity of something. number or previous operations. length of fractures. . height. number of pregnancies. And Discrete for has values on a continuum such as age. weight.Numerical Scales Observations for which the differences between numbers have meaning on a numerical scale are sometimes called quantitative observations because they measure the quantity of something. number of sexual partners. range of joint motion and many lab values. number Continuous scalewhich values equal to integers counts of things such as number of time of survival. joint motion and manyor previous operations. height. And Discrete scale has values equal to integers counts of things such as number of fractures. number lab values. length of time of survival.

formula calculated X n mean the arithmetic average observations. X represents the individual observations and n is the number of observations. The Greek letter sigma means to add. The Mean is Central Tendency Measures of is written the X-bar. X represents the individual observations and n is the number of Its symbol X called as /follow: of the observations. The formula is written X / n The Greek letter sigma means to add. . Its symbol is X called the X-bar.Measures of Central Tendency The Mean is the arithmetic average of the observations. The mean is calculated as follow: Add the observations to obtain the sum and then dived by the number of observations.

The Mean Formula X= X = n X is the observation is to add n is the number of the observations n is the observation X is to add Formula The the number of the observations Mean .

leaf plot and half areby M This median observations half the from a valuesis orsmaller mean. The median is easy to determine from a stem and leaf plot of the observations.The Median The median is the middle observation and It is sometimes symbolized by M This is the point at which half the observations are smaller and half are larger. median largest the middle value at to determine The to It is than . is the also middleobservation median follows: for used value. Arrange the is easysensitive ordinal observations. The median is the middle value for an odd number of observations. procedure less which from extreme stem are is the of the for larger. The median is less sensitive to extreme values than is the mean. Count in to find the middle value. The procedure for calculating the median is as follows: Arrange the observations from smaller to largest or vice versa. The median is also used with ordinal observations. observations. The Medianfindthe middlewithto smallerandis as sometimes symbolizedan odd number of observations. Count in topointthecalculating the observationsand vice versa.

When a setclass value interval having the largest number The Mode isof data the that occurs morecalled bimodal. modal mode the is has two modes it is frequently. When a set of data has two modes it is called bimodal. . The modal class is the interval having the largest number of observations. of observations.The Mode The mode is the value that occurs more frequently.

the distribution is skewed to the right. distribution is said to be skewed distribution. large. or negatively skewed. the distribution is said to be skewed distribution. A symmetrical distribution has the same shape on both sides of the mean If outlying observations occur in only one direction either a few small values or a few large ones. the A symmetrical distribution If the measures of Central ordinal distribution on both shape left. the or Two scale ofare important: Tendency numericalis skewed to theof the or positively skewed. . or positively skewed. the distribution is skewed to the left. If the outlying values are large. mean The factors values are small.Using measures of Central Tendency Two factors are important: The scale of measurement ordinal or numerical and the shape of the distribution of observations. If the outlying values are small. the distribution skewed to the the or negatively skewed. Usingoutlyingmeasurementhas the same shapeisand the sides of right. distribution of observations. If outlying observations occur in only one direction either a few small values or a few large ones.

not skewed distributions. is if the to the symmetrical. The mode is used primarily for bimodal distributions. used than the median. The mean is used for numerical data and for symmetric.Facts If the mean and the median are equal. scale. the distribution of observations is symmetrical. geometricsmaller numerical equal.and distribution of observations right. for observations skewedto the islogarithmic mode medianisused for is generally used thenumerical is measured on a left. The mean is islarger for ordinal data or for distributiondatanot skewed distributions. If the mean is larger than the median. the distribution is skewed to the right. The geometric mean is generally used for observations measured on a logarithmic scale. mean than for bimodal distributions.skeweddistribution is skewed. primarily are data . If the mean is smaller than the median the distribution is skewed to the left. If the Factsmean and the medianthe medianthe for symmetric. The median is used for ordinal data or for numerical data if the distribution is skewed.

Standard of deviation is the most the spread of data about of dispersion The Range isSpread symbolized SD. Standard deviation is a measure of the spread of data about their mean. with medical and health data. the largest and the smallest observation. Measuresdeviation is a measure of commonly used measure their mean. standard the difference between . The standard deviation is the most commonly used measure of dispersion with medical and health data. Standard deviation is symbolized SD.Measures of Spread The Range is the difference between the largest and the smallest observation.

Standard Deviation Formula SD = (X-X) n -1 2 Standard Deviation Formula .

. The Relative Risk of a disease is the ratio of the incidence in people with the risk factor (exposed persons) to the incidence in people without the risk factors. In studies involving 2 characteristics. the primary interest may be in whether they are significantly related or The Relative Risk of a disease is the ratio of the incidence in people with the risk factor (exposed persons) the magnitude of the relationship. such as the relationship between a risk factor and occurrence of a given to the incidence in people without the risk factors.Relative Risk or Risk Ratio In studies involving 2 characteristics. the primary interest may be in whether they are significantly related or the magnitude of the relationship. such as the relationship between a risk factor and occurrence of a given outcome. outcome.

and interpreting numerical data. and What is statistics? interpreting numerical data. Statistics is a body of mathematical techniques or processes for gathering. analyzing. organizing. organizing. evaluation. evaluation. and research. It is a basic tool of measurement.What is statistics? Statistics is a body of mathematical techniques or processes for gathering. . It is a basic tool of measurement. and research. analyzing.

It is a person. subject or observation? It is a person. In educational research. What is a Case. In educational research. it frequently What is a Case. it frequently involves students or teachers. place or thing which is the object of the research. place or thing which is the object of the research. subject or observation? involves students or teachers. .

Common variables collected in educational research are sex. test scores. Common variables collected in educational research are sex. etc. year of birth. ethnicity. etc. What is a Data Element or variable? It is an item of data which is collected for each case in the study. . ethnicity. year of birth. test scores. and which can vary or have more than one What is a Data Element or variable? value. It is an item of data which is collected for each case in the study. and which can vary or have more than one value.

Value is each individual piece of information such as answer. For example. for each variable in a study. frequent values for the variable "Sex" are "F" or "M" (also coded sometimes as 1 or 2) which represent female and male respectively. For example. response. response. frequent values for the variable "Sex" are "F" or "M" (also coded sometimes as 1 or 2) Value which represent female and male respectively. score. etc. score.Value Value is each individual piece of information such as answer. . etc. for each variable in a study.

They are used with various measures such as t-tests. Chi-square. etc. to refine the results of treatments of probability or chance in determining statistical significance. analysis of variance. analysis of variance. Degrees of Freedom is a mathematical concept which indicates the number of observations or values in a distribution that are independent of each other or are free to vary. Chi-square. . to refine the results of treatments of probability or chance in determining statistical significance. Degrees of Freedom is a mathematical concept which indicates the number of observations or values in a distribution that are independent of each other or are free to vary. They are used with various measures such as t-tests. etc.

if you selectthree numbers which number hasbut be 20. although independent one could select three separate numbers. In this example. More precisely. if you select 30 and 50. the third number has to be 20. first two numbers. . In this example. there are two independent For example:but 20 is dependent on the first reality.For example: If you have a distribution of three numbers which could vary but the sum of which has to equal 100. one only has to select two numbers because the third number would be determined by the first two numbers. one only has to select two numbers because the third values or two be determined by the number woulddegrees of freedom. the third could vary to the sum of which has to equal are If you precisely. although one could select three separate numbers. there are two independent values or two degrees of freedom. The numbers 30 and 50 are independent but 20 is dependent on the first two numbers. in reality. More have a distribution of 30 and 50. in two numbers. The numbers 30 and 50100.

Fortunately. Calculating the degrees of freedom for many statistical measures can be time consuming and complex. most statistical computer software packages calculate degrees of freedom automatically. most statistical computer software packages calculate degrees of freedom automatically. The abbreviation for degrees of freedom is "DF" and appears routinely on many statistical reports. Fortunately. Calculating the degrees of freedom for many statistical measures can be time consuming and complex. . The abbreviation for degrees of freedom is "DF" and appears routinely on many statistical reports.

and interpret them. can be measurement scales numbercompared by ratios such as test scores. Interval Scale are similar to ordinal scale and. in addition. has an absolute zero so that numbers Ordinal Scale are numbers represent categories or classifications such as sex grade ethnicity codes. in addition. numbers represent equal them. in addition. organize. point average.Scales of Measurement They are assignment of numbers to data to help categorize. Nominal Measurement Scales ofScaleare numbers represent rank order such as a ranking of a class bycodes. numbers represent equal intervals between each number such as most standardized test scores. There are four types of measurement scales Nominal Scale are numbers represent categories or classifications such as sex codes. Ratio Scale are similar to ordinal and interval scales. There are four They are assignment ofto to ordinal scale to help categorize. and. and. has an absolute zero so that numbers can be compared by ratios such as one number being two times or three times larger than another number. etc. and interpret intervals between each Interval Scale are similarnumbers and interval scales. ethnicity codes. organize. . Ordinal Scale are numbers represent rank order such as a ranking of a class by grade point average. types of such as most standardized one number being two times or three times larger than another number. Ratio Scale are similar ordinal to data and. in addition. etc.

regression. Researchers have adopted a general standard of statistical significance. t-tests. referred to as the . that is. the finding would have to occur at least 95% of the time. Analysis of variance. Researchers have adopted a general standard of statistical significance.05 level of Is an indication of the probability of a finding having occurred by chance. referred to as the .05 level of significance. t-tests. Chi-square make extensive use of statistical significance. Analysis of variance. importance but is simply an indication of probability. regression. that is. Chi-square make extensive use of statistical significance. . It has nothing to do with importance but is simply an indication of probability. It has nothing to do with significance.Statistical Significance Is an indication of the probability of a finding having occurred by chance. the Statistical Significance finding would have to occur at least 95% of the time.

difference of means lies within a stipulated range from slightly above to slightly below the actual value calculated for the measure. correlation. correlation.Standard Error Is a statistical inference that assumes that the true measure such are the mean. Is a statistical inference that assumes that the true measure such are the mean. . difference of means lies within Standard Error a stipulated range from slightly above to slightly below the actual value calculated for the measure.

as yes/no. and which is generally counted or ranked.R. etc. tests. ethnicity.T. G..Q. Examples include demographic data such as sex or ethnicity. Non-Parametric Data is data which is distribution-free. responses such as yes/no. Examples Parametric Data is data which is measured and which is assumed to be normally or near normally include demographic data such as sex or two types of categorized data such In the of Data Types application of statistical treatments..E. anddata are recognized: as pass/fail.Q. Non-Parametric Data is data which is distribution-free. G.E.A. Examples include most standardized tests such as I.A. Examples include most standardized tests such as I.R. etc.T. tests. and categorized data such as pass/fail. two types of data are recognized: Parametric Data is data which is measured and which is assumed to be normally or near normally distributed. . and which is generally counted or ranked... S. S.Types of Data In the application of statistical treatments. responses such distributed.

No attempt is made to extend these generalizations or conclusions inferential analysis is establishing the representativeness of the smaller sample population which is usually beyond the the observed group. An important aspect of inferential analysis is establishing the representativeness of the smaller sample population which is usually based on a random distribution. An important aspect of group of Analysis In the of individuals statistical treatments. Inferential Analysis draws conclusions about a larger population based on a smaller sample which is Descriptive Analysis limits generalizations or conclusions. based on statistical analysis. . Inferential Analysis draws conclusions about a larger population based on a smaller sample which is assumed to be representative of the larger population from which it is drawn. based on a random distribution. two types of analysis are recognized: Types application of or cases observed. to the particular group of individuals or cases observed. to the particular assumed to be representative of the larger population from which it is drawn. based on statistical analysis.Types of Analysis In the application of statistical treatments. two types of analysis are recognized: Descriptive Analysis limits generalizations or conclusions. No attempt is made to extend these generalizations or conclusions beyond the the observed group.

deviation. etc. Measures of Central Tendency are are statisticalwhat is typical for show contrasts or such as scores. The three major measures of central tendency are the mean.Statistical Measures Measures of Central Tendency are averages or what is typical for a group of values such as scores. Measures of Spread or Dispersion are statistical measures which show contrasts or differences in a group of values. median and mode. The three major measures of central tendency are the mean. median and mode. . group Spread or Dispersion averages or measures which a group of values differences in a grades. Statistical Measures of values. grades. deviation. and standard deviation. variance. The major measures of spread are the range. etc. variance. The major measures of spread are the range. and standard deviation.

College Board scores. Measures of Relationship are statistical measures which show a relationship between two or more paired variables or two or more sets of data. The major statistical measurelevel. percentiles. .Statistical Measures Measures of Relative Position are conversions of values. and standard scores are examples of converted test scores. The major statistical measure of relationship is the correlation coefficient. College Board given value stands in relation to other values of the same grouping. grade of relationship is the correlation Statisticalor two or more sets of data. usually standardized test scores. grade level. Sigma scores. percentiles. scores. to show where a variables Measures student stands in relation to other students of the same age. to show where a given value stands in relation to other values of the same grouping. etc. Measures of Relationship are the conversion of scores show a relationship to show where a given The most common example isstatistical measures whichon standardized testsbetween two or more paired Measures of Relative Position are conversions of values. stanines. Sigma scores. and standard scores are examples of converted test scores. stanines. usually standardized test scores. The most common example is the conversion of scores on standardized tests to show where a given student stands in relation to other students of the same age. etc. coefficient.

.Variables Independent variables are those that are manipulated whereas dependent variables are only measured or registered. Independent variables are those that are manipulated whereas dependent variables are only measured or Variables registered.

The statistical significance of a result is the probability that the reliability of a result. difference between means in a observed relation between variables that sample is a reliable indicator of What is "statistical significance" sample occurred by pure chance andin thein the population from which the the relation drawn. .What is "statistical significance" (p-value). no such relationship or differences exist. The statistical significance of a result is the probability that the observed relationship between variables or a difference between means in a sample occurred by pure chance and that in the population from which the sample was drawn. The higher the p-value. the less we can believe that the observed relation between variables in the sample is a reliable indicator of the relation between the respective variables in the population. sample wasbetweenno such relationship or differences exist. the respective variables in the population. The value of the p-value represents a decreasing index of the reliability of a result. a value of the p-value represents a decreasing index of the observed relationship between variables or the less we can believe that the (p-value). The higher the p-value.

. For example: of research. the p-value of . level. and we were repeating experiments like ours one after another. .05 is customarily treated as a "border-line acceptable" errorwe between those could expect that approximately in every 20 replications of the experiment there would be one in which the relation between the variables in question would be equal or stronger than in ours. we could expect that approximately in every 20 replications of the experiment there would be one in which the relation between the variables in question would be equal or stronger than in ours. In many areas of research.1/20) indicates that there is a 5% probability that the relation between the variables found in our sample is a "fluke.05 (i." In other words..For example: A p-value of .05 is customarily treated as a "border-line acceptable" error level. and we were repeating experiments like ours one after another.e." In other words.e.1/20) indicates that there is a 5% probability that the relation between the variables found in our sample is a "fluke. assuming that in the population there was no relation In many areas variables whatsoever. the p-value of .05 (i. A p-value of . assuming that in the population there was no relation between those variables whatsoever.

Examples We are 90 percent confident that the mean price of all watermenlons is between 6. There is no difference between groups if confidence interval crosses 1 We are 95 percent confident that between 19 and 81 percent of all adults will see a movie in the next 10 There is90 interval Examplescertain percent confident that the price variable of all population is between certain calculations.37 dollars.38 and 7. . We are ano difference between groups if for? What level percent confident you looking confidence interval crosses is Confidenceof confidence are that the mean meanof all watermenlons 1 between 6.Confidence interval What level of confidence are you looking for? We are a certain percent confident that the mean variable of all population is between certain calculations.38 and 7.37 dollars. days. We are 95 percent confident that between 19 and 81 percent of all adults will see a movie in the next 10 days.

Christians Chevy. Chevy. Catholics.examples: Multiple fail Red Pass or ford.Nominal scale Binary examples Male or female Pass or fail Red or blue Multiple examples: Baptists. Maleor blue dodge Binary examples Christians Nominalfemale Asian Indian. Asian Hispanic. Indian.Catholics. dodge Hispanic. scale Baptists. . ford.

such Ratingweekly. Daily. weekly. third. fair. sometimes. fourth First. as fourth Ordinalsuch as fair. never Daily. monthly. poor never such . Excellent. Scale third.second. good. second. yearly. never Rating such as Excellent. Rankingusually. Frequencygood. poor Ranking such us First. never Always.Ordinal Scale Frequency such as Always. ussometimes. usually. yearly. monthly.

Ratio Interval Continuous Time Temperature Output Scores 62 years 72 degrees 15 units 82 points Scores Output Temperature Time Continuous Ratio Interval 72 degrees 82 points 15 units 62 years .

0 equal period.0 Ratio Significance risk rates.It'sthe outcome rateover group.0 is increased risk rate in hormone group HR <1. or the outcome rate with hormone. the the same time Hazard rate is is the Ratio number rates for group 1the group 2 . overdivided by Ratio the ratio of hazard of events within to group to total number within with hormone. and with the same risks except for hormone Hazard Ratio Significance Hazard Ratio = 1. over a given time period hazard ratio is the ratio of hazard rates for group 1 to group 2 . differences are likely due to chance) HR >1.0 is equal risk rates.[ (YELLOW) ] (ie. and time period with the same risks outcome rate without hormone except for hormone .0 is decreased risk rate in hormone group hazard ratio is the ratio of of the Hazard Rates for each group. or a pure number. differences are likely due to chance) Hazard is increasedisriskrate in hormone group decreasedrisk rate in hormone group = 1. Hazard Ratio is the Ratio of the Hazard Rates for each group.[ (YELLOW) ] (ie. divided by outcome rate without hormone hazard rate is the ratio of number of events within the group to total number within the group. over the same time period. a given HR 1.It's a pure number.

CI interval contains 1. rather than have a 95% chance that the HR for a given patient has the stated value.0 is increased risk rate in hormone group CI interval less and excluding 1. CI interval contains 1. rather than have a 95% chance that the HR for a given patient has the stated value.0decreased risk rate likely hormone group less and (CI ) is the range of Hazard Ratio's in hormone group. Confidence Interval (CI ) is the range of Hazard Ratio's likely to contain the mean HR it is more representative to say the mean Hazard Ratio has a 95% chance of being somewhere in the CI interval. differences arethe CI due CI interval greater and excluding is is increased risk rate in to contain the mean HR Confidence Interval excluding 1.0 is decreased risk rate in hormone group.01.0.0 if equal risk rates Hazard Ratio has a is different of being somewhere in likely it is more representative to say the mean even if Hazard Ratio95% chancefrom 1.0 if equal risk rates even if Hazard Ratio is different from 1. differences are likely due to chance CI interval greater and excluding 1. to chance . interval.0.

of dropouts and crossovers reduces the accuracy adjusted (corrected) risk ratios ( for The large number2003) reported both unadjusted (uncorrected) and of outcome results. and mixes some (E) arm (2004) reported only unadjusted (uncorrected) Adjustment for multiple testing and multiple outcomes risk ratios multiple statistical into the no multiple outcomes) exposure patients testing and exposure group (and the reverse) after randomization was completed. The large number of dropouts and crossovers reduces the accuracy of outcome results. and mixes some exposure patients into the no exposure group (and the reverse) after randomization was completed. . Adjustment for multiple testing and multiple outcomes (E+P) arm (2002. 2003) reported both unadjusted (uncorrected) and adjusted (corrected) risk ratios ( for multiple statistical testing and multiple outcomes) (E) arm (2004) reported only unadjusted (uncorrected) risk ratios (E+P) arm (2002.

It is more accurate to say that the mean for each hazard ratio has 95% chance of being anywhere within the confidence interval. rather than a 95% chance that the mean has the stated value . rather than a 95% chance that the mean has the stated value It is more accurate to say that the mean for each hazard ratio has 95% chance of being anywhere within the confidence interval.

this is not statistically significant because Confidence Interval = 0. For instance. no confidence intervals include 1. although a possible reduction in breast cancer risk with estrogen is reported in the estrogenEven though the WHI Subgroup Hazard Ratios differ from 1.77.1. they are not statistically significant when the only arm HR= 0. adjusted confidence intervals for estrogen-only were published. Even though the WHI Subgroup Hazard Ratios differ from 1. For instance. although a possible reduction in breast cancer risk with estrogen is reported in the estrogen-only arm HR= 0.0.77.59 .01. Also.59 . .0. this is not statistically significant because Confidence Interval = 0.1.0. they are not statistically significant when the confidence intervals include 1.01.0. no adjusted confidence intervals for estrogen-only were published. Also.

11.03 to 3.11.0.03 to 3.0. DVT is the exception in these outcomes but note how when account for the disagreement in diagnosis of 0. DVT is the exception in these outcomes but note how when account for the disagreement in diagnosis of 0. this moves the Confidence Interval = 1. .63 which is not far from 1.63 which is not far from 1. this moves the Confidence Interval = 1.

and the ability to draw meaningful conclusions. Interpretation is problematic by the analysis because of many shortcomings in these studies. Numerous problems have already been discussed in publications which severely hamper the interpretation of the data. Other aspects of the Women¶s Health Initiative study remain to be clarified. . Interpretation is problematic by the analysis because of many shortcomings in these studies. Other aspects of the Women¶s Health Initiative study remain to be clarified. and the ability to draw meaningful conclusions. Numerous problems have already been discussed in publications which severely hamper the interpretation of the data.

the more evidence we have against H0. against 0. A p-value is awillp-value.no treatment. represents the hypothesis of no change or no effect.05. Researchers will set up a null hypothesis. Researchers will collect data and measure the consistency of this data with the null hypothesis. Research involves makinghowhypothesis.p-value collecting data data with the null change or The null hypothesis. a hypothesis that presumes no change or no effect of a treatment. represented measureathe consistency presumes no change or no effect of a effect. The smaller the p-value. represented by the symbol H0. Research involves making a hypothesis and then collecting data to test that hypothesis.A p-value is a measure of how much evidence we have against the null hypothesis The null hypothesis. researchers will reject a hypothesis if the p-value is less than 0. collect a much the then have than this .05.athe morebyif evidence weis lessthat ofH0. smaller measure hypothesis the andwe H0. researchers the set up data hypothesis symbol haverepresents the null hypothesis Researcherswill reject aof nulland evidence hypothesis against the test that hypothesis. to hypothesis of nohypothesis.

You should not interpret the p-value as the probability that the null hypothesis is true The general rule is that a small p-value is evidence against the null hypothesis while a large p-value means You should not interpret the p-value as the probability that the null hypothesis is true little or no evidence against the null hypothesis. . The general rule is that a small p-value is evidence against the null hypothesis while a large p-value means little or no evidence against the null hypothesis.

and the difference you observed is a coincidence of random sampling. sure are you that the population means are different as well? There are two possibilities: .The P value is a probability with a value ranging from zero to one Consider an experiment where you've measured values in two samples. and the means of different. The populations have the same mean. How sure are you that the population means are different as well? There are two possibilities: The populations have different means or The populations have the same mean. and the means are different. Consider an experiment where you've measured values inyou observed is a coincidence arerandom How The P value is a have different means orranging from zero to one populations probability with a value sampling. and the difference two samples.

03 means that random sampling from identical populations would lead to a difference smaller than you observed in 97% of experiments and larger than you observed in 3% of experiments. .03 means that random sampling from identical populations would lead to a difference smaller than you observed in 97% of experiments and larger than you observed in 3% of experiments. If the P value is 0. If the P value is 0.

and/or a confidence interval that lies entirely within the range of clinical indifference. you should also look for one of two things: a power calculation that confirms that the sample size in that study was adequate for detecting a clinically relevant difference. and/or relevantthan a clinically relevant difference. no matter what the p-value tells you. Ask yourself how much of a difference would be large enough to cause you to change your practice. If both limits of the for detecting a clinically a confidence interval that lies in a research study. Then compare this to the confidence interval in the research paper. of two things: smaller difference. Then a power calculation confidence interval in the researchin that study was adequateconfidence interval are compare this to the that confirms that the sample size paper. If both limits of the confidence interval are smaller than a clinically relevant difference. then you should not change your practice. no matter what the pvalue tells you. Ask yourself how much of a difference would be large enough to cause you to change your practice. then you should not change your practice. When you see a large p-value in a research study. you should also look for one When you see a large p-valueentirely within the range of clinical indifference. .