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EE123 - Electrical Equipment Operation and Maintenance

Cesar G. Manalo, Jr.


LEARNING OBJECTIVES
 Distinguish the operation of manual and magnetic motor
starters.
 Distinguish power circuit, control circuit, primary control
devices, and pilot control devices.
 Identify manually operated and mechanically operated
switches commonly found in motor control circuit and
explain their operation.
 Identify different types of sensors and how they detect and
measure presence of objects or changes in their
environment.
 Describe the operating characteristics of a relay, solenoid,
solenoid valve, stepper motor, and brushless DC motor.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES
 Explain the difference between a contactor and a motor
starter.
 Explain the function and operation of motor overload relays.
 Identify different types of relay applications.
 Describe the operation of on-delay and off-delay timer
relays.
 Explain the use of relays as control elements in motor
circuits.
F1 F2
RADJ RF LF
FL

M RSTART M
+Ea -
OL

F3 1TD 2TD 3TD F4


Start Stop
M
FL OL

M
1TD
M

2TD
1TD

3TD
2TD

DC Motor Starter circuit based on relay time delays


MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS

 Full-voltage starting of IMs.


 Reduced-voltage starting of IMs.
 Primary-resistance starting
 Autotransformer starting
 Wye-delta starting
 Part-winding starting
 DC motor Starting
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
FULL-VOLTAGE STARTING
 Also called across-the-line, direct-on-line.
 Designed to apply full line voltage to the motor upon
staring.
 Acceptable only if the high starting current does not affect
the power supply system and the machinery will stand the
high starting torque.
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
FULL-VOLTAGE STARTING
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
REDUCED-VOLTAGE STARTING
 Two primary reasons: (1) To limit line disturbance; (2) To
reduce excessive torque to the driven equipment.
 Primary-resistance starting
 Autotransformer starting
 Wye-delta starting
 Part-winding starting
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
REDUCED-VOLTAGE STARTING – Primary-Resistance Starting
 Reduced voltage is obtained by means of resistance that
are connected in series with each motor stator lead during
the starting period.
 The voltage drop in the resistors produces a reduced
voltage at the motor terminals.
 At a definite time after the motor is connected to the line
through the resistors timer contacts close; this short-
circuits starting resistors and applies full voltage to the
motor.
 Typical applications: conveyors, belt-driven equipment,
and gear-driven equipment.
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
REDUCED-VOLTAGE STARTING – Primary-Resistance Starting
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
REDUCED-VOLTAGE STARTING – Autotransformer Starting
 Instead of resistors, autotransformer starting uses a step
down transformer (single-winding transformer) to reduce
the line voltage.
 Typical applications: crushers, fans, conveyors, and
mixers.
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
REDUCED-VOLTAGE STARTING – Autotransformer Starting
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
REDUCED-VOLTAGE STARTING – Wye-delta starting
 Also referred to as start-delta starting
 Involves connecting the motor windings first in wye during
the starting period and then in delta after the motor has
begun to accelerate.
 When connected in wye, motor starts with significantly
lower inrush current.
 Typical applications: central air conditioning equipment,
compressors, and conveyors.
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
REDUCED-VOLTAGE STARTING – Wye-delta starting
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
REDUCED-VOLTAGE STARTING – Part-winding starting
 Power is applied to part of the motor windings on start-up
and then is connected to the remaining coils for normal
speed.
 May not be suited for heavy-load applications because of
the reduction of starting torque.
 Typical applications: low-inertia fans and blowers, pumps,
refrigeration and compressors.
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
REDUCED-VOLTAGE STARTING – Part-winding starting
 These motors have two sets of windings connected in
parallel for low-voltage operation and connected in series
for high voltage operation.
 When used on low voltage, they can be started by first
energizing only one winding, limiting starting current and
torque in approximately one-half of the full-voltage
values.
 The second winding is then connected in parallel, once the
motor nears operating speed. Since one set of winding has
higher impedance than the two connected in parallel, less
inrush current flows to the motor on start up.
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
REDUCED-VOLTAGE STARTING – Part-winding starting
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
DC MOTOR STARTING
 For across-the-line starting of smaller DC motors,
fractional horsepower manual starters or magnetic
contactors and starters can be used.
 Major difference between AC and DC starters: electrical
and mechanical requirements necessary for suppressing
arcs.
 Starter is equipped with three power contacts connected
in series.
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
DC MOTOR STARTING – Across the line starting
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
DC MOTOR STARTING
 Types of Reduced-voltage DC starters
 Definite-time acceleration
 Current acceleration
 Counter-emf acceleration
 Variable-voltage acceleration
MOTOR STARTING CIRCUITS
DC MOTOR STARTING – Reduced-voltage DC Starting-
Definite-time acceleration
REFERENCES
END OF SESSION