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Ship organization

During a voyage, the ship is operated for 24 hours of

every day. The day at sea is divided into 4-hour
periods starting from midnight. These periods are
called watches. They are named as follows:
Midnight to 0400 hours - Middle watch
0400 hrs to 0800 hours - Morning watch
0800 hrs to Noon - Forenoon watch
Noon to 1600 hours - Afternoon watch
1600 hrs to 2000 hours - Evening watch
2000 hrs to Midnight - First watch
Ship organization
• The work of the ship is organized under
four departments: The Deck, Radio,
Engine-Room and Catering Departments.
The names of the personnel and the
departments to which they belong are
shown in the following table:
Ship organization
Deck dept Engine dept Catering dept
Officers Chief Officer Purser
Chief Officer Second Officer
Second Officer Third Officer
Third Officer Fourth Officer
Navigating Cadets Engineering Cadets
Petty Officers Pumpman Chief steward
Bosun Chief cook

Ratings Motorman Second steward

Able Seamen (ABs) Greaser Second cook
Efficient Deck Hands
Ordinary Seamen
Ship organization
• The organization of the crew of a cargo
ship is changing, but it is still customary to
find Deck, Engine, Catering and Radio
Departments in ships of a reasonable size.
Each department is made up of a varied
number of officers, petty officers and
Ship organization

• The man in charge of a ship is the Master. He

must be well qualified and an experienced
navigator. Although his correct title is the Master,
he is addressed as 'Captain'. He is responsible
for the efficient navigation of the
ship, the lives of those on board
and the safe delivery of the cargo.
Ship organization
The Chief Officer, or First Mate as he is often
called, is the Master's chief officer and head of
the Deck Department. He is assisted by a
Second Officer (Mate), a Third Officer (Mate),
and sometimes a Fourth Officer (Mate). Several
companies employ a First Officer as well as a
Chief Officer.
Ship organization
• The Deck Department also includes a Boatswain
(Bosun) and a Carpenter, both petty officers, and a
number of ratings. These are made up of Able Seamen
(AB), Ordinary Seamen (OS) and a middle grade known
as Efficient Deck Hands (EDH). There are other grades
of seamen. On some ships Navigating Cadets are
carried for training purposes. '
Ship organization
• The Chief Engineer is head of the Engine
Department. He is assisted by a Second, Third,
Fourth and sometimes Fifth Engineer. An
Electrical Officer may also be carried. The
engine room petty officers are the Storekeeper
and Donkeyman.
Ship organization
On tankers there is also a Pumpman. He is
also a petty officer. The engine room
ratings are Firemen and Greasers. There
may also be Engineer Cadets.
Ship organization
The Catering Department is under the Chief Steward. It is
divided into a saloon and galley section. The former is
headed by the Second Steward, the latter by the Ship's
Cook. They are both usually petty officers. They are
assisted by several stewards and cooks, and by a
number of junior ratings.
• A. Are the following statements true or false?
• The day at sea is divided into four periods.
• The captain has an overall command of the ship.
• The deck department is under the command of
the navigating officer.
• The afternoon watch is between noon and 1700
• The loading and discharging of cargo is one of
the responsibilities of the first mate.
• B. Re-arrange the following groups of
words to form meaningful sentences:
• bosun, the, directly, officer, works, the,
chief, under.
• responsible, board, on, all, the, steward,
is, catering, chief, the, for.
• engineer, the, second, assists, chief, the,
• C. Give brief answers to the following questions:
• How many departments are there on board a ship?
• What are the responsibilities of the master of the ship?
• What are the duties of the chief officer?
• Why is the second officer called the navigating officer?
• Who is responsible for the safety equipment on board?
• What is the main responsibility of the chief engineer?
• What is the work of the carpenter?
• D. Ask questions to which the underlined words
are the answers.
• The day at sea is divided into six periods.
• The captain has an overall command of the ship.
• The chief officer is responsible for the loading
and discharging of cargo.
• The work of the ship is organized under four
• The second officer is often called the navigating
Complete list A by choosing the right information from lists B.

Catering boys give way to power-driven vessels in narrow

Rolling ships are derricks and cranes

Sailing vessels should be regularly checked

Loading operations work in the catering department

Lifting machinery are of great importance at night

Fire-fighting equipment are uncomfortable for passengers

Steaming lights are the responsibility of the first mate